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4 how, why & where to use self-clinching fasteners roadly defined, a self-clinching fastener is any device, usually threaded, that when pressed into ductile metal ...




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THESELF-CLINCHINGFASTENERHANDBOOK2Brief fastener history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3How, why and where self-clinching works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Reliability in service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Anatomy of self-clinching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Types of self-clinching fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Importance of quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Installation procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Installation problems and solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11Common Design Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Questions and Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Identification Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16contents3the ideathat revolutionizedproduction fasteninghen Swanstrom founded Penn Engineering & Manufacturing Corp. in 1942, he did so with a revolutionary new product: an easy-to-install, self-clinching fastener that provides load-carrying threads in metal sheets too thin to be first, Mr. Swanstrom produced his innovative design with four machines in a Doylestown, Pennsylvania garage. This simple operation soon gave way to a modern facility in Danboro, Pennsylvania as manufacturers and engineers alike recognized the benefits of self-clinching fasteners. They not only reduced time, labor, weight and inventory on many assembly jobs, but they also opened up a whole new world for engineers and designers, making a wide assortment of thin-metal designs possible for the first acceptance led to earnest production of self-clinching fasteners shortly after World War II. As industry s need to hold together ultra-thin and ultra-light metals grew, so did the product line. Over the years the original self-clinching fastener design evolved to meet hundreds of new design , nuts, studs, spacers, standoffs, access hardware, and other components are used worldwide by a variety of manufacturers, including producers of telecommunication, computer, medical, automotive, and aerospace equipment and of self-clinching fasteners: Provide strong threads in metal as thin as .012 / Installs into a plain, round hole. Installed using any parallel acting squeezing force. Provide high pushout and torque-out resistance. Do not require special hole preparation, such as chamfering and deburring. Reverse side of metal sheet remains flush. No retapping necessary after application. Low installed , why & whereto use self-clinching fastenersroadly defined, a self-clinching fastener is any device, usually threaded, that when pressed into ductile metal, displaces the host material around the mounting hole, causing it to cold flow into a specially designed annular recess in the shank or pilot of the fastener. A serrated clinching ring, knurl, ribs, or hex head prevents the fastener from rotating in the host material once it has been properly inserted (see page 6). Thus, self-clinching fasteners become a permanent part of the panel, chassis, bracket, or other item into which they are also have greater reliability and more holding power than extruded/tapped or stamped threads. They are used chiefly where good pullout and torque loads are required in sheet metal that is too thin to provide secure fastening by any other method. Even if the sheet is thick enough to sustain tapping, it may actually be more economical to use self-clinching fasteners with gaugeable threads. They can be installed during fabrication to eliminate loose hardware during final assembly. In fact, the use of self-clinching fasteners often will allow the use of a thinner sheet. Because of their compact design and low profile, they provide for a neat appearance, a rule, a self-clinching fastener should be specified whenever a component must be readily replaced and where loose nuts and hardware won t be accessible. If it appears that the attaching nuts and screws can t be reached after a chassis or cabinet is assembled, self-clinching fasteners can be installed during metal fabrication and can simplify and expedite component mounting and assembly operations, including those performed in the FOR MANUFACTURE AND ASSEMBLY Self-clinching fasteners help designers meet DFMA parameters which include: Fewer parts to handle. Hardware such as washers, lock washers, and loose nuts are no longer required in final assembly. Fewer assembly steps. Since the task of hardware installation is done during fabrication, the number of steps required for final assembly is reduced. Less total assembly time. Fewer parts and less steps mean shorter assembly of which lead to shorter time to market, improved quality through assembly simplification, and reduced NOTE FOR INSTALLING INTO STAINLESS STEEL SHEETSOne of the very basics of self-clinching is that the fastener must be harder than the host sheet. Only then will the fastener perform as intended. This is particularly challenging when installing fasteners into stainless steel sheet your application requires that the fastener clinches into stainless steel, be sure you use the fasteners specifically designed for this purpose. Consult PEM Bulletin SS for information on these types of REQUIRE: Ductile panel material softer than the fastener. (Generally a 20 point difference on the Rockwell B scale is required). See tables on page 6. Adequate sheet thickness. Pre-punched holes. Access to both sides of the sheet for installation. An insertion press with adequate throat depth to reach the installation these conditions can be met, then self-clinching fasteners are the best solution for strong, clean, permanent threads in thin sheet metal. If material is not ductile enough, see Fasteners for Non-ductile Materials on page serviceof a self-clinching fastenerhe reliability of a self-clinching fastener in service depends on many factors, beginning with a properly sized hole, the thickness and hardness of the host panel, proper installation and design of the fastener, and the application where the fastener is are three tests applicable to a self-clinching fastener to determine its reliability in service. The first, called torque-out, determines the fastener s ability to resist rotation within the panel. This test often is made at the head of the fastener often with values exceeding the ultimate torsional strength of the mating screw or second reliability measure is pushout. Pushout values indicate the axial resistance of a fastener to remove it from the sheet opposite to the direction from which it was installed, and should be roughly 5 to 10% of the force used to install the final test is pull-through.(1) Pull-through is the resistance of a fastener to pulling through the metal sheet when a clamping torque is : properly sized hole sheet thickness sheet hardness proper installation quality of fastener(1) Pull-through generally applies only to self-clinching studs and standoffs and is not shown in this chart.(2) See special note about installing into stainless steel on page 4. Thread Test Sheet Material Size Type S Nut Installed Into Type S Nut Installed Into Type SP Nut Installed Into 5052-H34 Aluminum Cold-rolled Steel 300 Series Stainless Steel(2) Installation Pushout Torque-out Installation Pushout Torque-out Installation Pushout Torque-out (lbs.) (kN) (lbs.) (N) ( ) (N m) (lbs.) (kN) (lbs.) (N) ( ) (N m) (lbs.) (kN) (lbs.) (N) ( ) (N m) 2-56 M2 1500-2000 90 400 10 2500-3500 125 550 15 8000-10000 165 725 17 4-40 M3 1500-2000 90 400 10 2500-3500 125 550 15 8000-10000 165 725 17 6-32 2500-3000 95 400 17 3000-6000 130 570 20 8500-10500 170 755 24 8-32 M4 2500-3000 105 470 23 4000-6000 18-27 145 645 35 4 9000-11000 40-49 180 800 37 10-32 M5 2500-3500 110 480 32 4000-9000 18-38 180 800 40 9500-11500 230 1025 45 1/4 M6 4000-7000 18-32 360 1580 90 6000-8000 27-36 400 1760 150 17 13500 60 450 2000 150 17 5/16 M8 4000-7000 18-32 380 1570 120 6000-8000 27-36 420 1870 165 14800 66-80 470 2100 170 19General pushout and torque-out values for PEM self-clinching nuts.(1)(unified and metric data)6the anatomyof self-clinchingHost MetalFlows into UndercutRibs ProvideTorque ResistanceFlush MountedDirection of Installation ForceComponenttypical self-clinching studComponentor PanelHost Metal Flowsinto UndercutFlush MountedHex Head ProvidesTorque ResistanceDirection ofInstallation Forcetypical self-clinching standoffScrewFastener Material Sheet HardnessAluminum <HRB 50 / HB 89Unhardened Steel <HRB 60 / HB 107300 Series Stainless Steel <HRB 70 / HB 125Hardened Steel <HRB 80 / HB 150Hardened Stainless Steel <HRB 88 (92) / HB 183 (202)Maximum Sheet Hardness for Fastener MaterialsSheet Material Sheet Hardness5052-H32/34 Aluminum HRB 15-30 / HB Cold-rolled Steel HRB 40-75 / HB6061-T6 Aluminum HRB 50-55 / HB 89-96304 Stainless Steel (Annealed) HRB 80+ / HB 150+HSLA Steel (does not follow typical rules) HRB 80-85 / HB 150-169Typical Hardness of Sheet MaterialsHeadComponentHost MetalFlush MountedHost MetalCold Flows into UndercutDirection ofInstallation ForceSerrated ClinchingRing ProvidesTorque Resistancetypical self-clinching nutBack TaperedShank7basic types ofself-clinching fastenersnuts: Nuts with thread strengths greater than mild steel screws are commonly used wherever strong internal threads are needed for component attachment or fabrication and pins: Threaded and unthreaded fasteners which are used where the attachment must be positioned before being & standoffs:Used where it is necessary to stack or space components away from the panel. Thru-threaded or blind types are generally fasteners: When installed, these fasteners are completely flush within the sheet. floating nuts: This fastener compensates for mating hole misalignment by having a floating threaded accesshardware: Generally used on enclosures where the screw must remain with the door or fasteners: Provide a prevailing torque locking feature to restrict the rotation on the screw under adverse conditions of vibration. Locking features may include metal or plastic fasteners: Allow for quick assembly or removal of components without the need for screws or additional fastening : Installed into milled, blind holes so that one side of the panel remains unmarred. Studs and standoffs are generally available in the concealed-head : Have closed ends that limit screw penetration and are useful for protecting internal components from damage by inadvertent insertion of extra long screws. Threads are also protected from damage and foreign angle: Provide you with strong right angle attachment points in sheets as thin as .040 /1mm. These fasteners are a cost-effective replacement for: bent edge tabs; bent center tabs; bent flanges; angle brackets; tack welds; and loose tie-mount: Self-clinching tie-mounts are designed to provide secure attachment points for mounting wire to electrical chassis or enclosures without the problems associated with traditional mounting joining fastener: a self-clinching fastener that joins two sheets of metal or metal to PCB/plastic. The fastener installs smooth with the top sheet, and flush or sub-flush with the bottom DESIGNSSince there are a great many types of standard self-clinchingfasteners available, it is usually possible to choose one to meet your design requirement. There are times however that a custom designed and manufactured fastener is necessary. If this is the case, PennEngineering can assist you with your requirement to provide you with the best solution to your self-clinching feature can be applied to many types of fasteners as shown below to combine the benefits of self-clinching with a broad range of fastener functionality. All of these self-clinching features are a variation of one on the three basic styles shown on page 6. Some unthreaded fasteners use plain round displacers because they are not subject to torsional loading and do not require an anti-rotation self-clinching fastenersn order request comes to the desk of the buyer or procurement individual with the words PEM or equivalent written next to a specification for self-clinching fasteners. Although a review of the manufacturer s basic specifications will undoubtedly turn up a shopping list of equivalents, a purchase made on the basis of lower price alone may prove more costly in the long are significant variations in the materials used, manufacturing processes, quality controls and component dimensions that make the same product, made by different manufacturers, very different from one stock is used for the manufacture of many self-clinching fasteners. Basic blanks are formed on cold headers or cold formers; subsequent operations such as piercing, drilling, tapping, thread rolling, and slotting may be fasteners are also made from free-machining, cold-drawn, low-carbon bar stock, a variety of free-machining and cold-drawn stainless steels, aluminum and phosphor bronze. They are formed on automatic bar machines and generally have secondary operations such as slotting, tapping or lock operations such as heat-treating and plating are equally sophisticated, and quality control measures must be monitored throughout the manufacturing so many manufacturing variables to control, there are several quality areas which must be examined before choosing the supplier of self-clinching fasteners for your include:installed cost ...the bottom lineWhen a designer investigates the desirability of using self-clinching fasteners, his calculations must offer a true picture of cost. If integral fasteners are now being welded, the cost of materials, labor and overhead must be factored into the final cost per fastener to grant an accurate comparison with the final calculated cost per self-clinching fastener. Rejects and spoilage due to failure of poorly designed fasteners will contribute to high production costs, so be certain that the fasteners actually purchased meet your engineering TOLERANCES: A self-clinching fastener requires very tight tolerances to maximize it s performance. In a part that is specified with a dimension .010 / a variation of only .002 / can make a 20% FIT: A part may be specified because it meets one or more government specifications for thread tolerances. If equivalents are considered, be sure that they meet the same TORQUE: If applicable, be sure that parts meet the prevailing locking torque specifications TREATMENT: This is a very critical quality area. Improper heat treatment can cause a fastener to fail during or after installation. Improper tempering can cause fastener brittleness causing the fastener to crack; inadequate treatment can cause fasteners to be so soft that they are literally crushed during : Plating standards set limits for preparation of the metal, plating thickness, adhesion, rust corrosion protection, hours of salt spray testing, and other operations. A poorly plated part will diminish the appearance and performance of your final : The fasteners should be tested to meet the manufacturer s published performance data. In addition to basic performance testing, be sure the fastener also meets your requirements for vibration resistance, thread locking, heat, and electrical CONTROL: Ensure the fastener manufacturer is ISO 9001 / QS 9000 (or other industry appropriate) compliant. This will help assure that all the above criteria is being , simple installation saves time and money on the assembly just three easy steps, self-clinching fasteners can be installed with any parallel acting press that can be adjusted to optimum installation notes . . .1. Mounting holes may be punched or drilled; they should not be chamfered or have broken edges in excess of .005 / .127mm. Hole tolerances of +.003, / + must generally be held. The fastener should be installed on the punch side if the sheet is .09 / or thicker because of the piercing break-to-die diameter. In all cases, the manufacturer s recommended minimum centerline of hole to edge of sheet (see page 12) distance should be observed. No deburring or countersinking is Installation typically results in a flush surface on one side of the panel. Conversely, staked or crimped fasteners require special counterboring to obtain a one-sided flush When installing, the most important criterion is that the fastener must be squeezed into place with any parallel acting Because the installation equipment generates no excess noise or pollution, the fasteners can be installed anywhere in the production process. No special facilities, ventilation equipment, or safety procedures are , insert the shank or pilot of the fastener squarely into a previously punched or drilled , apply force until the head of the nut contacts sheet. Some types of fasteners will be fully installed when the head is flush within the , install the mating piece from the side opposite the head of the installation DOs ...DO provide mounting hole of specified size for each make certain that shank (or pilot) is within hole before applying installation apply squeezing force between parallel install fastener into punch side of apply sufficient force to totally embed clinching ring around entire circumference and to bring shoulder squarely in contact with sheet. For some fasteners installation will be complete when the head is flush with the installation DON Ts ...DON T install steel or stainless steel fasteners in aluminum panels before anodizing or T deburr mounting holes on either side of sheet before installing fasteners deburring will remove metal required for clinching fastener into T install fastener closer to edge of sheet than minimum edge distance indicated in dimension tables unless a special fixture is used to restrict bulging of sheet edge. (See page 12)DON T over-squeeze. It will crush the head, distort threads, and buckle the sheet. Be certain to determine optimum installation force by test prior to production T install screw in the head side of the fastener. Install from opposite side so that the fastener load is toward the sheet. The clinching force is designed only to hold the fastener during handling and to resist torque during T install fastener on pre-painted side of When installed using the recommended squeezing force (depending on the size of the fastener and hardness of the sheet metal), there is little or no distortion of the sheet or damage to the finished surface. Fasteners generally should be installed after plating, finishing or Sheet material must be softer than the fastener. If the fastener is not hard enough, it will deform (crush) instead of cold flowing the sheet material. Some operations will locally harden a sheet, , punching 300 series stainless or laser cutting a mounting hole (see note on page 4).10 problem possible cause solutionPoor holding power - fastener not seated holding power fasteners fall out of holding power of fastener near holding power of standoffs or studs in holding power nut off center of hole. Punch and anvil faces are not parallel. Panel cocked during installation. Inadequate installation force. Panel too hard for fastener material. Countersunk hole in panel. Oversized mounting hole. Some operations may locally harden a sheet, , punching 300 Series Stainless or laser cutting a mounting hole. Die side of panel thicker than .093 may have hole too large for fastener due to necessary punch and die clearance. Sheet was bent after fastener was installed. This may have caused distortion of mounting hole. Hole is punched prior to bend and hole has become elongated. Hole in anvil too large or chamfered. Oversize mounting hole. Nut is cocked in hole and shears side of hole when installed. Ensure that punch and anvil are flat and parallel and hard. Ensure that large panels are held perpendicular to punch and anvil. Seat fastener against shoulder by applying more force or changing shut height of press. Specify appropriate fastener material for sheet hardness, , stainless steel (see note on bottom of page 4). Do not countersink or deburr hole. Prepare properly sized mounting hole. Punch hole under size and ream to catalog dimensions or change tooling to punch from opposite side of panel. Bending should be done prior to installation. Punch hole after bending the sheet Use anvil with hole per catalog dimensions. Punch or drill hole to specified dimensions. Check that shank of nut is squarely in hole before and solutions11installationproblems and solutionsQuestions? Consult our Applications Engineering department at problem possible cause solutionThreads tight sheet threads, does not fit into deforms or shears during metal may extrude into installation tooling causing tool to stick or buckles badly with stud in .040 to .059 (1mm to ) of flush-head stud or standoff of panel bulges. Fastener over-squeezed. Shank length extends through sheet. Undersized mounting hole. Lack of countersink in anvil. Punch diameter too small or not hard and flat. Mounting hole violates specified minimum edge distance. Nut is over-squeezed. Reduce installation force. Choose fastener with proper shank length for sheet thickness. Prepare properly sized mounting hole. Provide countersink in anvil to specified dimensions. Punch must be larger than head of stud or standoff and preferable equal to anvil diameter. Restrain panel or bracket in fixture during installation or move mounting hole away from edge. (See page 12) Reduce installation force if designchallengesCENTERLINE-TO-EDGEWhen installing too close to an edge, the sheet may bulge or blow out. Supporting the edge with special anvils can be used to reinforce the edges and get closer than published values indicate. Use with CLOSE-TO-EDGEAPPLICATIONSAll minimum centerline to edge distances given in catalog bulletins apply to one edge only. If this distance is applied on multiple sides as shown here and the edges are not supported during installation there will be significant panel distortion as shown by the dotted lines. This distortion will reduce the amount of panel material in the undercut and may significantly reduce the holding power of the clinch TO A BENDWhen installing near a bend, use the Centerline-to-Edge value to find the minimum distance to the outside of the bend radius. Failures that occur are different from Centerline-to-Edge OF MULTIPLE FASTENERSMultiple fasteners installed must be spaced far enough apart to avoid distorting each other s holes. Failures seen can include sheet distortion and oil canning . When determining the distance between two or more fasteners, you can calculate the distance by the formula, C/L to edge + 1/2 the diameter of the second mounting AND FINISH CONSIDERATIONS Do not install self-clinching fasteners after paint or powder coating. This will diminish fastener performance. When using steel panels, install plated fasteners after panel is plated. Otherwise install unplated fasteners into panel if entire assembly is going to then be plated. Do use proper alloy (A286 / 400 Series) stainless fasteners in stainless steel sheets. 300 Series fasteners do not provide adequate differential hardness for best performance. Anodizing complete aluminum assemblies after installing aluminum fasteners may cause slight color differences between fasteners and panel. Beware of processes such as hard coat anodizing and nitriding that might increase panel hardness. This might make it more difficult to install self-clinching ASSEMBLYSince all self-clinching fasteners must be squeezed into place, any press or vise that provides the necessary parallel force may be used to install PEMSERTER automated press should be considered for high volume installations. PEMSERTER presses are specifically designed to feed self-clinching fasteners automatically into punched or drilled holes in sheet metal, seating them correctly with a parallel squeezing force. Feeding rates are five to six times faster than manual insertions, and installation force is adjustable to compensate for variations in thickness and hardness of the sheet and the height of the equipment capabilities now incorporate smart tooling and software, automation, robotics integration, and in-die installation with the PEMSERTER in-die fastener feeding system which brings new dimensions to stamping capabilities and incorporates the latest technologies to deliver the performance that is needed to compete in the highly competitive stamping industry. It eliminates the secondary operations typically required for fastener insertion, thus reducing overall labor costs, improving part quality and dramatically improving production the arrival of boards, plastics and other fabricated materials, a need emerged for a fastener which would offer the same benefits as self-clinching fasteners but work effectively in these non-ductile materials. To address this requirement, PennEngineering offers PEM broaching and flare-mount fasteners as well as ReelFast SMT surface mount style blind threaded inserts provide strong threads in applications where only one side of the assembly is accessible for installation. These fasteners can also be used in most non-ductile material broaching fastener is any knurled shank fastening device that is pressed into a punched or drilled hole to provide a strong threaded attachment point in a non-ductile fasteners offer a combined broach/flare feature for even greater pullout performance in board SMT fasteners mount to boards in the same manner as other surface mount components prior to the automated reflow solder FOR NON-DUCTILE MATERIALS14answers to the ten mostfrequently asked questionsabout self-clinching fastenersQ Does the shape of the self-clinching fastener change during installation?A No, the fastener does not deform in any way. There is no flaring, crimping, swaging, peening or riveting _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q What holds the fastener in the sheet?A The squeezing force on the fastener causes the sheet material beneath the head to cold flow into the back-tapered shank or undercut of the fastener securely locking it in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q Do I need special equipment to install self-clinching fasteners?A No. Self-clinching fasteners are installed using any type of parallel acting press which will squeeze the fastener in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q Won t these fasteners fall out, twist out, or spin in their mounting holes if I tighten down too hard?A No. Typical torque-out values are generally quite high compared to the rotational force that will be put on them. In fact, for most quality self-clinching nuts, the screw will fail before the nut rotates in the __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q I would like to replace some of the welded fasteners I now use in my stainless steel fabrications. Is there a self-clinching fastener that will go into a stainless steel sheet?A Yes. Self-clinching fasteners for stainless steel applications are available. These fasteners are generally made from specially hardened stainless steel and will install into sheets up to HRB 88 in When using self-clinching fasteners, what are my panel requirements?A Generally, there are two basic requirements. First, the panel must be a ductile material softer than the fastener which is going into it. Second, the panel must meet the minimum sheet thickness required by the particular fastener. Some self-clinching fasteners can be installed into sheets as thin as .020 , but generally .030 or .040 /1mm is the minimum sheet thickness _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q Is there a maximum sheet thickness I should be concerned with before specifying self-clinching fasteners?A Generally, there is no specified maximum thickness for sheets. However, because of their special design and function, a few fastener types do specify a thickness range which includes a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q I notice some of the fasteners have a hexagonal shaped head. Do I have to punch a hexagonal mounting hole to install these?A No. All self-clinching fasteners are installed into a round punched or drilled hole. A hexagonal head will cause the sheet material to cold flow around the head to provide high torque-out resistance. The hex head will be flush in the sheet when _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Q Can I install these blind, from one side, if I don t have access to both sides of the sheet?A Generally, you must have access to both sides of the sheet to properly install self-clinching fasteners. However, there are some 1/4 /M6 or larger nuts which can be drawn in from one side using an impact-torque wrench. For information on blind threaded inserts for one sided access installation go to - An insert, either solid or hollow, which is used on the underside of a panel to resist the installation - A hole, usually threaded, which is open from only one - The act of cutting a shape in any object by using a mandrel of a similar shape. As applied to fasteners, the way a knurled shank broaches its way into the mounting - The ability of a fastener to remain securely attached to a screw - See: panel - A beveled edge or flow - The movement of a ductile material under - A type of fastener which, when installed, is completely hidden when viewed from the reverse - That portion of the axial length of which is drilled to a larger diameter than the remaining portion of the - Metal which is not brittle and can be easily formed or - The ability of a fastener to move in a direction parallel to the mounting panel and allow for mating hole - The ability of a fastener to be contained completely within the thickness of a panel. Also refers to the absence of a protrusion above the surface of the - The portion of a fastener which forms its largest diameter. installation force - A term expressed in pounds, tons, or newtons applied axially to a self-clinching fastener to achieve proper fit - The insertion of one member into another whose diameter is slightly smaller than the part being clinching ring - The displacer portion of a fastener which has corrugations and is used to develop torque resistance when installed in sheet element - A device employed to restrict rotation of a threaded member while operating in adverse environments, such as vibration and temperature. The nut-locking element provides prevailing locking torque to the mating distance - The minimum distance from the center of a fastener mounting hole to the nearest edge of a panel which will keep the edge from deforming. This distance may be reduced by suitable fixturing or increasing thickness of panel sheet thickness - The thinnest section of a panel, usually measured in thousandths of an inch or millimeters, into which a fastener may properly be installed. The same fastener may be installed in panels having any thickness greater than hole - A properly-sized round opening in a panel to receive the shank of a self-clinching fastener - A threaded screw which is held captive to a panel and which, when disengaged from its main nut, remains fixed to that - A captive post that extends from a assembly - A spring-loaded device used for latching or indexing stop - A visual indication that the proper depth of penetration of the knurled ring has occurred or when the head is in contact with the top surface of the panel. Synonym: - The resistance of a fastener to a force applied in the same direction to which it was - A movable insert, either solid of hollow, which applies an installation force to the top of the - The force required to remove a fastener from a panel in a direction opposite to the way from which it was installed. Note: Pushout is expressed in pounds or hardness - A relative measure of hardness. Rockwell C Scale is used for hard materials, Rockwell B for softer materials, such as sheet - The method by which a fastener is securely attached to a sheet of ductile material by causing the material to cold flow under pressure into an annular recess of the fastener thereby securely locking it in - A locking element, formed as an integral part of a fastener, which provides force to restrict the rotational movement of a threaded - The portion of a fastener, which is slightly smaller than the fastener s mounting hole and provides a positive location for the fastener in the hole. A shank also incorporates an annular groove which becomes filled with panel material as the fastener is installed, and the retention of this material provides pushout length - The actual length of that portion of a fastener which is embedded in the panel - The surface area of a fastener which contacts the top surface of the sheet material. See: positive - A device having a separate moveable component that is biased in one direction by a - A tubular device, usually threaded, for spacing or stacking - A male threaded captive post that extends from a - An operation whereby a reduced diameter of a fastener is deformed to secure it to a panel. Note: the antonym of swaging is self-clinching where the panel material is caused to class - A measure of clearance or fit between the screw and the nut taken at the pitch insert - A threaded device which is installed in a panel hole - A hole, threaded or unthreaded, which transverses the entire length of a part and is usable from either - The absolute amount of maximum or minimum dimensional deviation allowed that will not affect the performance of a mechanical - The amount of torque necessary to spin the fastener out of the sheet. This is torque applied to the fastener. No axial load is - The amount of torque necessary to fail the fastener in axial - The reduced diameter of a fastener which receives sheet material when a fastener is installed. Depending on the type of fastener, may be rectangular or back tapered in termsExpanded list of terms can be found on our web site support e-mail: subject to change without notice. See our website for the most current version of this compliance information is available in Technical Support section of our website. 2013 fasteneridentification trademarksTo help you identify genuine PEM brand fasteners, most are marked by one of our registered trademarks. Genuine PEM brand fasteners can only be purchased from one of our authorized worldwide distributors. For a complete list of these distributors, check our web site: or call us at our main Skirted Shoulder(Registered Trademark)Types PF11, PF11M, PF11MF, PF11MW, PF11PM, PF12, PF12M, PF12MF,PF12MW, PF7M, PF7MFPEM Dot Pattern(Registered Trademark)Types PF11PMPEM Dimple (Registered Trademark)Types CFHA, CFHC, CHA, CHC, FH, FH4, FHA, FHL, FHLS, FHP, FHS, HF109, HFG8, HFE, HFH, HFHB, HFHS, HSCB, KFH, KSSB, MPP, PF10, PF30, PF31, PF32, PF50, PF51, PF52, PF60, PF61, PF62, Types PF11, PF11M, PF11MF, PF11MW, PF11PM, PF12, PF12M, PF12MF, PF12MW, PF7M, PF7MF, PFC2, PFC2P, PFC4, PFHV, PFK, PFS2, PSHP, SCB, SCBJ, SCBR, SF, SFK, SFP, SFW, SGPC, SKC, SKC-F, SSA, SSC, SSS, T, TFH, TFHS, TP4, TPS, TPXSPEM Single Groove (Registered Trademark)Types A4, BSO4, LA4, MSO4, PFC4, SO4, SP (Select sizes)PEM Two Groove (Registered Trademark)Types B, BS, BSO, BSON, BSOS, CSOS, CSS, DSO, DSOS, HSR, KF2, KFB3, KFE, KFS2, KFSE, PF7M, PF7MF, SMTSO, SO, SOA, SOAG, SON, SOS, SOSG, TSO, TSOA, TSOSPEM Double Squares (Registered Trademark)Types A4, AC, AS, LA4, LAC, LASPEM Blue Nylon Locking Element(Registered Trademark)Types PL, PLCPEM Circle on Pedestal(Registered Trademark)Type RASPEM Stamp (Registered Trademark)Types CLS, CLSS, PSHP, S, SL, SMPS, SP, SS, WNPEM Double Notch(Registered Trademark)microPEM Type SMTSO

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