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The Determination of Uncertainties in Tensile Testing

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S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Manual of Codes of Practice for the Determination of Uncertainties in Mechanical Tests on Metallic Materials Code of Practice No. 07 The Determination of Uncertainties in Tensile Testing W. GABAUER VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH Voest-Alpine Stra e 3 4031 Linz AUSTRIA Issue 1 September 2000S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 CONTENTS 1. SCOPE 2. SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS 3. INTRODUCTION 4. A PROCEDURE FOR THE ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN TENSILE TESTING Step 1- Identifying the parameters for which uncertainty is to be estimated Step 2- Identifying all sources of uncertainty in the test Step 3- Classifying the uncertainty according to Type A or B Step 4- Estimating the standard uncertainty for each source of uncertainty Step 5- Computing the combined uncertainty uc Step 6- Computing the expanded uncertainty U Step 7- Reporting of results 5. REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS APPENDIX A Mathematical formulae for calculating uncertainties in tensile testing APPENDIX B A worked example for calculating uncertainties in tensile testing S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 1 of 33 1. SCOPE This procedure covers the evaluation of uncertainty in tensile test results obtained from tests at ambient or elevated temperature, carried out according to any of the following Standards: EN 10002-Part 1-1990: Tensile testing - Method of testing at ambient temperature EN 10002-Part 5-1990: Tensile testing - Method of testing at elevated temperature ASTM E8-1998: Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic ASTM E111-1997: Standard Test Method for Young s Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus The Code of Practice is restricted to tests performed at ambient and elevated temperatures with a digital acquisition of load and displacement. The tests are assumed to run continuously without interruptions on specimens that have uniform gauge lengths, and the procedure is restricted to tests performed under axial loading conditions. 2. SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS For a complete list of symbols and definitions of terms on uncertainties, see Reference 1, Section 2. The following are the symbols and definitions used in this procedure. a0 original thickness of a sheet type specimen, (mm) au minimum thickness after fracture, (mm) b0 width of the parallel length of a sheet type specimen, (mm) bu minimum width after fracture, (mm) ci sensitivity coefficient associated with uncertainty on measurement xi, [see Appendix A] d0 diameter of the parallel length of a circular test specimen, (mm) du minimum diameter after fracture, (mm) E Young s modulus, (GPa) F force, (N) FeH force at ReH, (N) FeL force at ReL, (N) Fm maximum force, (N) L0 extensometer gauge length = Le, (mm) Lu final gauge length, (mm) n evaluated data pairs in the linear regression S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 2 of 33 ReH upper yield strength, (MPa) ReL lower yield strength, (MPa) Rm ultimate tensile strength, (MPa) Rp stress at a permanent strain, (MPa) S0 original cross-sectional area, (mm2) Su minimum cross-sectional area after fracture, (mm2) u(xi) standard uncertainty uC(y) combined uncertainty on the mean result of a measurement Z percentage reduction in area strain (extension) stress e ( L) displacement increment, (mm) 3. INTRODUCTION It is good practice in any measurement to evaluate and report the uncertainty associated with the test results. A statement of uncertainty may be required by a customer who wishes to know the limits within which the reported result may be assumed to lie, or the test laboratory itself may wish to develop a better understanding of which particular aspects of the test procedure have the greatest effect on results so that this may be controlled more closely. This Code of Practice (CoP) has been prepared within UNCERT, a project funded by the European Commission s Standards, Measurement and Testing programme under reference SMT4-CT97-2165 to simplify the way in which uncertainties are evaluated. The aim is to avoid ambiguity and provide a common format which is easily understood and accessible to customers, test laboratories and accreditation authorities. This CoP is one of seventeen produced by the UNCERT consortium for the estimation of uncertainties associated with mechanical tests on metallic materials. The Codes of Practice have been collated in a single Manual [1] that has the following sections. 1. Introduction to the evaluation of uncertainty 2. Glossary of definitions and symbols 3. Typical sources of uncertainty in materials testing 4. Guidelines for the estimation of uncertainty for a test series 5. Guidelines for reporting uncertainty 6. Individual Codes of Practice (of which this is one) for the estimation of uncertainties in mechanical tests on metallic materials. This CoP can be used as a stand-alone document. For further background information on measurement uncertainty and values of standard uncertainties of the equipment and instrumentation used commonly in material testing, the user may need to refer to Section 3 of the Manual [1]. The individual CoPs are kept as simple as possible by following the same structure; viz: S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 3 of 33 The main procedure. Details of the uncertainty calculations for the particular test type (Appendix A) A worked example This CoP guides the user through the various steps to be carried out in order to estimate the uncertainty in tensile testing. 4. A PROCEDURE FOR THE ESTIMATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN TENSILE TESTING Step 1. Identifying the Parameters for which Uncertainty is to be Estimated The first step is to list the quantities (measurands) for which the uncertainties must be calculated. Table 1 shows the parameters that are usually reported in tensile testing. None of the measurands are measured directly, but are determined for other quantities (measurands). Table 1 Measurands, measurements, their units and symbols Measurands Units Symbol Original cross-sectional area mm2 S0 Modulus of Elasticity GPa E Proof strength, non proportional elongation MPa Upper yield strength MPa ReH Lower yield strength MPa ReL Ultimate tensile strength MPa Rm Percentage elongation after fracture % A Percentage reduction of area % Z Measurements Units Symbol Specimen original thickness (rectangular specimen) mm a0 Specimen original width (rectangular specimen) mm b0 Specimen original diameter (circular specimen) mm d0 Original gauge length mm L0 Load applied during test N F Axial displacement during the test mm e( L) Final gauge length mm Lu Mean diameter of a cicular specimen after fracture mm du None of the measurands are measured directly, instead they are calculated from the following formulae: S0 = a0 b0 (rectangular test piece) (1a) S0 = d02 /4 (round test piece) (1b) E = ( F L0) / ( L S0) (2) Rp = FRp / S0 (3) ReH = FeH / S0 (4) ReL = FeL / S0 (5) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 4 of 33 Rm = Fm / S0 (6) A = (Lu - L0) 100/L0 (7) Z = (S0 - Su) 100/S0 (8) Step 2. Identifying all Sources of Uncertainty in the Test In Step 2, the user must identify all possible sources of uncertainty which may have an effect (either directly or indirectly) on the test. The list cannot be identified comprehensively beforehand as it is associated uniquely with the individual test procedure and apparatus used. This means that a new list should be prepared each time a particular test parameter changes ( when a plotter is replaced by a computer). To help the user list all sources, four categories have been defined. The following table (Table 2) lists the four categories and gives some examples of sources of uncertainty in each category. It is important to note that Table 2 is NOT exhaustive and is for GUIDANCE only - relative contributions may vary according to the material tested and the test conditions. Individual laboratories are encouraged to prepare their own list to correspond to their own test facility and assess the associated significance of the contributions. Table 2 Typical sources of uncertainty and their likely contribution to uncertainties in tensile testing measurands for a cold rolled steel (sheet type specimen) at ambient temperature performed by a screw driven tensile testing machine [1 = major contribution, 2 = minor contribution, 0 = no contribution (zero effect), ? = unknown] Source of uncertainty Type E ReH ReL Rm A Z 1. Test specimen Dimensional compliance B 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Surface finish B 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Residual stresses B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Shape and size of specimen B 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 Shape of fracture B 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Location of failure B 0 0 0 0 0 1 1-2 2. Test system Cross-sectional area measuring unit B 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Original gauge length B 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 Extensometer angular positioning B 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 Alignment B 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 Test machine stiffness B 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Uncertainty in force measurement B 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Uncertainty in displacement measurement B 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 3. Environment Ambient temperature and humidity B 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4. Test Procedure Zeroing B 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 Stress rate B 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Strain rate B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Digitizing B 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 5 of 33 Sampling frequency B 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 Uncertainty in fracture area measurement B 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Software B 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 To simplify the uncertainty calculations it is advisable to regroup the significant sources affecting the tensile testing results in Table 2 in the following categories: Uncertainty due to errors in the measurement of cross-sectional area Uncertainty due to errors in the force measurement Uncertainty due to errors in the displacement measurement Uncertainty due to evaluated quantities ( Young s modulus) The worked examples in Appendix B use the above categorisation when assessing uncertainties. Step 3. Classifying the Uncertainty According to Type A or B In this third step, which is in accordance with the GUM [2], the sources of uncertainty are classified as Type A or B, depending on the way their influence is quantified. If the uncertainty is evaluated by statistical means (from a number of repeated observations), it is classified as Type A. If it is evaluated by any other means it should be classified as Type B. The values associated with Type B uncertainties can be obtained from a number of sources including a calibration certificate, manufacturer's information, or an expert's estimation. For Type B uncertainties, it is necessary for the user to estimate for each source the most appropriate probability distribution (further details are given in Section 2 of Reference 1). It should be noted that, in some cases, an uncertainty can be classified as either Type A or Type B depending on how it is estimated. Step 4. Estimating the Standard Uncertainty for each Source of Uncertainty In this step the standard uncertainty, u, for each major input source identified in Table 2 is estimated (see Appendix A). The standard uncertainty is defined as one standard deviation and is derived from the uncertainty of the input quantity divided by the parameter, dv, associated with the assumed probability distribution. The divisors for the typical distributions most likely to be encountered are given in Section 2 of Reference 1. The standard uncertainty requires the determination of the associated sensitivity coefficient, c, which is usually estimated from the partial derivatives of the functional relationship between the output quantity (the measurand) and the input quantities. The calculations required to obtain the sensitivity coefficients by partial differentiation can be a lengthy process, particularly when there are many individual contributions and uncertainty estimates are needed for a range of values. If the functional relationship for a particular measurement is not known, the sensitivity coefficients may be obtained experimentally. In many cases the input quantity to the S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 6 of 33 measurement may not be in the same units as the output quantity. For example, one contribution to is the test temperature. In this case the input quantity is temperature, but the output quantity is the stress which is MPa. In such a case, a sensitivity coefficient, cT (corresponding to the partial derivative of the proof strength / test temperature relationship), is used to convert from temperature to MPa (for more information see Appendix A). Step 5. Computing the Combined Uncertainty uc Assuming that individual uncertainty sources are uncorrelated, the measurand's combined uncertainty, uc(y), can be computed using the root sum squares: 21)]([)(iiNicxucyu == (9) where ci is the sensitivity coefficient associated with xi. This uncertainty corresponds to plus or minus one standard deviation on the normal distribution law representing the studied quantity. The combined uncertainty has an associated confidence level of Step 6. Computing the Expanded Uncertainty U The expanded uncertainty, U, is defined in Reference 2 as the interval about the result of a measurement that may be expected to encompass a large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand . It is obtained by multiplying the combined uncertainty, uc, by a coverage factor, k, which is selected on the basis of the level of confidence required. For a normal probability distribution, the most generally used coverage factor is 2 which corresponds to a confidence interval of (effectively 95% for most practical purposes). The expanded uncertainty, U, is, therefore, broader than the combined uncertainty, Where a higher confidence level is demanded by the customer (such as for Aerospace and electronics industries), a coverage factor of 3 is often used so that the corresponding confidence level increases to In cases where the probability distribution of uc is not normal (or where the number of data points used in Type A analysis is small), the value of k should be calculated from the degrees of freedom given by the Welsh-Satterthwaite method (see Reference 1, Section 4 for more details). Tables B1 to B4 in Appendix B shows the recommended format of the calculation worksheets for estimating the uncertainty in Young s modulus and proof stress for a rectangular test piece. Appendix A presents the mathematical formulae for calculating uncertainty contributions. Step 7. Reporting of Results Once the expanded uncertainty has been estimated, the results should be reported in the following way: S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 7 of 33 V= y U (10) where V is the estimated value of the measurand, y is the test (or measurement) mean result, U is the expanded uncertainty associated with y. An explanatory note, such as that given in the following example should be added (change when appropriate): The reported expanded uncertainty is based on a standard uncertainty multiplied by a coverage factor, k = 2, which for a normal distribution corresponds to a coverage probability, p, of approximately 95%. The uncertainty evaluation was carried out in accordance with UNCERT COP 07:2000. 5. REFERENCES 1. Manual of Codes of Practice for the determination of uncertainties in mechanical tests on metallic materials. Project UNCERT, EU Contract SMT4-CT97-2165, Standards Measurement & Testing Programme, ISBN 0-946754-41-1, Issue 1, September 2000. 2. BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ISO, IUPAC, OIML, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement . International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 92-67-10188-9, First Edition, 1993. [This Guide is often referred to as the GUM or the ISO TAG4 document after the ISO Technical Advisory Group that drafted it.] BSI (identical), Vocabulary of metrology, Part 3. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement , PD 6461: Part 3 : 1995, British Standards Institution. 3. ISO 5725 ; Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results Part 1: 1994(E) General principles and definitions Part 2: 1994(E) Basic method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of standard measurement method Part 3: 1994(E) Intermediate measures of the precision of a standard measurement method Part 4: 1994(E) Basic methods for the determination of the trueness of a standard measurement method Part 5: 1998(E) Alternative methods for the determination of the precision of a standard measurement method Part 6: 1994(E) Use in practice of accuracy values 4. ISO 3534 Part 3: 1999(E/F) Statistics - Vocabulary and symbols - design of experiments 5. ISO Guide 33: 1989(E) Uses of certified reference materials S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 8 of 33 6. ISO Guide 35: 1989(E) Certification of reference materials - General and statistical principles 7. Malcolm S. Loveday, Room Temperature Tensile Testing: A Method for Estimating Uncertainty of Measurement, Measurement Note CMMT (MN) 048, July 1999; Centre for Materials Measurement and Technology, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW 8. Thomas G. F. Gray and James Sharp, Influence of Machine Type and Strain Rate Interaction in Tension Testing, Factors That Affect the Precision of Mechanical Tests, ASTM STP 1025, R. Papirno and H. C. Weiss, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-205. 9. Bruce W. Christ, - Fracture and Deformation Division, Center for Materials Science, National Bureau of Standards, Effect of Specimen Preparation, Setup, and Test Procedures on Test Results . 10. G nter Robiller, Problems of the computer-controlled tensile test, Materialpr fung 31 (1989) 11-12, Carl Hanser Verlag, M nchen 11. Bodo Hesse, Hans-Martin Sonne, and G nter Robiller, Reliable proof stress determination with computerized tensile test, Materialpr fung 33 (1991) 7-8, Carl Hanser Verlag, M nchen 12. Hans-Martin Sonne and Alois Wehrstedt, Computer-aided Tension Test - Problems of Performance on the Basis of the Standard, Materialpr fung 37 (1995) 4, Carl Hanser Verlag, M nchen 13. Thomas H. Courtney, Mechanical Behavior of Materials McGraw-Hill series in materials science and engineering (ISBN 0-07-013265-8). 14. Wilfried J. Bartz, Herausgeber, Mechanische Werkstoffpr fung - Grundlagen, Pr fmethoden, Anwendungen expert verlag (ISBN 3-8169-1035-1) 15. Horst Blumenauer, Herausgeber, Werkstoffpr fung Dt. Vlg. f r Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig , Stuttgart (ISBN 3-342-00547-5) 16. Friedhelm Richter, Physikalische Eigenschaften von St hlen und ihre Temperaturabh ngigkeit - Polynome und graphische Darstellungen, STAHLEISEN - SONDERBERICHTE HEFT 10, Verlag STAHLEISEN ; D sseldorf 1983 (ISBN 3-514-00294-0) 17. Franz Adunka, Me unsicherheiten - Theorie und Praxis Vulkan Vlg Essen (ISBN 3-8027-2186-1) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 9 of 33 18. John Mandel, The Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data Dover Publications (ISBN 0-486-64666-1) 19. Eberhard Scheffler, Statistische Versuchsplanung und -auswertung: eine Einf hrung f r den Praktiker Dt. Vlg. f r Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, Stuttgart (ISBN 3-342-00366-9) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This document was written as part of project Code of Practice for the Determination of Uncertainties in Mechanical Tests on Metallic Materials . The project was partly funded by the Commission of European Communities through the Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme, Contract No. SMT4-CT97-2165. The author gratefully acknowledges the helpful comments made by many colleagues from UNCERT. S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 10 of 33 APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING UNCERTAINTIES IN TENSILE TESTING To simplify matters sections A0 to A10 are limited to uncertainty affected by calibration, determination of cross-sectional area, and evaluation procedure. With the exception of A11 and A12 it was not necessary to study the mechanical behavior of metallic materials under different conditions or to consult published analyses. Basic concepts should be used. The methods of DOE (Design of Experiments) should be used for further studies to consider many parameters that affect the results. A0. Uncertainty of Measurements (see Table 2) General The GUM [2] says In other cases it may only be possible to estimate bounds (upper and lower limits) for Xi, in particular, to state that - the probability that the value of Xi lies within the range LL to UL for all practical purposes is equal to 1 and the probability that Xi lies outside this range is essential 0. If there is no specific knowledge about the possible values of Xi within the range, it can only be assumed that it is equally probable for Xi to lie anywhere within it [a uniform or rectangular distribution of possible values]. Then xi, the expectation or expected value of Xi is the midpoint of the range: xLLULi=+()/2, with variance ()12)(22LLULuix = (11a) If the difference between two bounds, UL-LL, is denoted by 2a, then ()322auix= (11b) In this CoP a is replaced by . ()322 =ixu (11c) Example: Specimen original thickness (rectangular specimen) a0: 32200aau = If the thickness has been measured n times (and at least 5 times,) The recommended procedure for estimating the bounds is as follows: S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 11 of 33 a) Determine the mean value of a0 and the standard deviation s b) Determine the confidence region of the mean value nfPtsua),(0= (12) t ... factor of Students distribution confidence level f ... (n-1) degrees of freedom n ... number of measurements For P = and n = 5 the factor t = A1. Uncertainty due to Errors in the Measurement of Cross-Sectional Area For a Rectangular Test piece: 000baS=, Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 000baS= (13) Sba000= (14) Uncertainty in S0 : ()()220220000baSuaubu+= (15) For a Circular Test piece: 4200dS = Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 2000ddS = (16) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 12 of 33 Uncertainty in S0 : 422200doSudu = (17) A2. Uncertainty in Stress 0SF= (18) Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 01SF= (19) 200SFS = (20) Uncertainty in : 222022001SFuSFuSu + = (21) A3. Uncertainty in Strain Le = (displacement) 0Le= (22) Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 01Le= (23) 200LeL = (24) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 13 of 33 Uncertainty in u : 222022001LeuLeuLu + = (25) A4. Uncertainty in Young s Modulus The determination of Young s modulus is standardized in ASTM E 111-97. This test method only applies to the range of materials, temperatures and stresses where elastic behavior occurs and creep is negligible compared to the strain produced immediately on loading. ASTM E 111 says: For most loading systems and test specimens, effects of backlash, specimen curvature, initial grip alignment, etc., introduce significant errors in the extensometer output when applying a small load to the test specimen. Measurements should therefore be made from a preload, known to be high enough to minimize these effects, to some higher load, still within the proportional limit of the material. The procedure includes two steps: 1. Determination of the upper limit (end of proportional region) by linear regression. The upper limit is reached if the variance of the slope is a minimum (see Eqn. 35). The starting point of the calculation by linear regression depends on the preload, and is adjustable by the operator of the tensile test machine. 2. After step 1 the linear regression starts again at the upper limit but in the opposite direction to determine the lower limit of the proportional region. If the variance of the slope is a minimum we get the lower limit and the associated slope for further calculation of Young s modulus. Formulae for Linear Regression: bmxy+= (26) Slope: ===== =niniiinininiiiiixxnyxyxnm1122111)( (27) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 14 of 33 Intercept equation: nxmybniniii == =11 (28) Empirical covariance (Sxy): = ===nininiiiiixynyxyxnS11111 (29) Standard deviation of x-values: = ==niniiixnxxnS121211 (30) Standard deviation of y-values: = ==niniiiynyynS121211 (31) Correlation coefficient (r): yxxySSSr= (32) Standard deviation of the slope (Sm): S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 15 of 33 ()()22221xymSnSrS = (33) Standard deviation of the intercept (Sb): nnxSnSSniixmb2122)1( + = = (34) Bound regarding the upper and the lower proportional limit for the determination of Young s modulus: () =mSSmrelm minimum (35) The data pair for the minimum of ()Smrel represents the upper and the lower proportional limit. Combined Uncertainty of E : The linear regression is used to determine the linear relationship between force and displacement. 0000SLmeSFLEE== (36) EEbemF+= (37) Therefore: 26.;EqnseeyF= 26.;Eqnseexe= 27.;EqnseemmE= 28.;EqnseebbE= 29.;,EqnseeSSxyFe= 30.;EqnseeSSxe= 31.;EqnseeSSyF= 32.;EqnseerrE= S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 16 of 33 33.;EqnseeSSmmE= 34.;EqnseeSSbbE= ()()35.;EqnseeSSrelmmrelE= Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 00SLmEE= (38) 00SmLEE= (39) 2000SLmSEE = (40) 22200220220000SELEmEuSLmuSmSSLuE + + = (41) A5. Uncertainty in the Determination of Proof Stress elzIPpeeee += (permanent displacement) (42) Input data n displacement; ( recorded in ASCII-file) EEzzmbeFpoZerocalculatede = = 0int;... see Eqn. (37) (43) EIPelmFe= (elastic displacement) (44) ; ( recorded in ASCII-file) EIPEIPpzEmFbeeeb += 00 (45) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 17 of 33 Figure 1 00LmFbLeEIPEIPp += (permanent strain ) (46) ppFeRgepp ,)..( =is the associated data pair for the proof stress Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi 101cLepp== (47) 220200)(cLmFbLeLEEppp= = (48) 301cLmbEEp== (49) 401cLmFEpp= = = (50) 502)(cLmFbmEEEpp= = (51) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 18 of 33 Uncertainty in permanent strain p: 2252242232222210EpEppmFbLeucucucucucu+++ += (52) Eqn. 52 leads to the uncertainty in the force at p. From the recorded force-displacement diagram we obtain a polynomial to determine uFp . 0122 ++=pppF (example) (53) 122 +=pppF (54) 2212)2(ppuupF += (55) Combined Uncertainty in force at p: ()uuuFFFCpp =+22 (56) Combined Uncertainty in proof stress: = (57) () + = (58) A6. Uncertainty in Determination of Ultimate Tensile Strength 0SFRmm= and the sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement of ultimate tensile strength are : 01SFRmm= (59) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 19 of 33 200SFSRmm = (60) Uncertainty of Rm : 222022001SmFRuSFuSumm + = (61) A7. Uncertainty in Determination of Upper Yield Strength The calculation of the uncertainty of ReH follows the same procedure as Rm . 0SFReHeH= Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 01SFReHeH= (62) 200SFSReHeH = (63) Uncertainty of ReH : 222022001SeHFRuSFuSueHeH + = (64) A8. Uncertainty in Determination of Lower Yield Strength Similarly for the lower yield strength Rm . 0SFReLeL= Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement are : 01SFReLeL= (65) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 20 of 33 200SFSReLeL = (66) Uncertainty of ReL : 222022001SeLFRuSFuSueLeL + = (67) A9. Uncertainty in the Determination of Percentage Elongation After Fracture Automatic extensometer 100)()()( + =mARUPTRUPTCEaA (68) The value of A(a) depends on the location of the fracture within the parallel length of the specimen. CA(m) is the correction in comparison with the percentage elongation value measured by hand. Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 1)()(= RUPTaA (69) EaARUPT1)()( = (70) 2)()(EEaARUPT = (71) 1)()(= mACaA (72) Uncertainty of A(a): 22)(42)(222)()()()(1mARUPTRUPTCEcRUPTaAS uEuEuu+++= (73) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 21 of 33 Determination by hand ( Vernier calliper) 100)(00 =LLLmAu Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement are: 01)(LLmAu= (74) 20001)(LLLLLmAuu = (75) Uncertainty of A(m): 222000220)(011LuLmAuLLLLuLuu += (76) A10. Uncertainty in the Determination of the Percentage Reduction of the Area Determination of the reduced area - rectangular uuubaS= Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : uuubaS= (77) uuuabS= (78) Uncertainty in Su : ()()2222uuubuauSuaubu+= (79) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 22 of 33 Determination of the reduced area - circular 42uudS = Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 2uuuddS = (80) Uncertainty of Su : 4222uduuSudu = (81) Determination of the percentage reduction area 10000 =SSSZu Sensitivity coefficients ci associated with the uncertainty on the measurement xi : 200SSSZu= (82) 01SSZu = (83) Uncertainty of Z: 220240210uSSuZuSuSSu+= (84) A11. Strain-rate Sensitivity (Short introduction - it is a typical scope of Design of Experiments) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 23 of 33 Reference [13] says: ... An increase in strain rate generally increases the flow stress of a material, although the degree to which it does so is a strong function of the temperature and is specific to the material. There are a number of reasons for the strain-rate sensitivity of flow stress, and they are all related to the atomistic and/or microscopic mechanisms of permanent strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stress is often adequately represented by the empirical equation: mTTK)(' &= (85) Where & T is the true strain rate, m is the strain rate sensitivity, and K a constant that signifies that it is the material flow stress at a true strain rate of T=+ln()1 (86) T=+()1 (87) A12. Temperature Uncertainty Consideration ANNEX A12 has been prepared by: V. Bicego, Generation Area, ENEL Research Background Explicit formulae are given here for yield stress ( strain), indicated as Re, but identical relationships are intended to be applicable to other measurands, namely Young s modulus E and ultimate tensile strength Rm. It is assumed that for any type of metal and alloy, the following universal relationship to account for temperature (T) dependence is valid: + =273exp11TTTCRyoe (88) CCddtddton= max (89) S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 24 of 33 ddt max is the max. strain rate allowed by the test standard code; 10-3s-1 ( ASTM) T is the test temperature, in C yo is a coefficient that needs not to be determined (as relative uncertainties are dicussed below, not absolute uncertainties) nT,1 and Co are numerical coefficients, whose values are reported below. Uncertainty Evaluation Procedure This method provides values of uncertainties in tensile data due to temperature uncertainties, and is applicable to tests at room temperature and above for 4 classes of metals and alloys. The explicit coefficients contained in the uncertainty equations given here below have not been derived yet for other materials. No evaluation of uncertainties due to temperature uncertainties are necessary provided that the temperature and the strain rate limits indicated in the test standard procedure ( ASTM) are followed, and provided the test temperature is lower than 300 C for iron and ferritic steels, 300 C for austenitic steels, 600 C for Ni and Ni base superalloys, 100 C for Aluminium and its alloys. At higher temperatures, or when slower strain rates or larger temperature errors than those in standards are involved in a test, the uncertainty in tensile results due to temperature uncertainties shall be evaluated as follows: The following uncertainty formula apply: (capital U = absolute uncertainty, small u = relative uncertainty, x 100%) ()TyUTTTTTCuUyy1273exp273273121 + ++ == (90) The sign - (minus) is from the partial derivative, it can be dropped. The above eq. provides the relative uncertainty ( x100, in %) due to the uncertainty of T, UT= 3 or 5 ... C. S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 25 of 33 Explicit Values for the Coefficients Explicit values of the material dependent coefficients T1and Co are given in the table below. They were evaluated from an analysis of actual tensile test results at several temperatures reported in the book Harmonisation of Testing ..., Elsevier, eds. Loveday and Gibbons, Proceedings of NPL Conference 1992, already referred to in other UNCERT reports, with some additional ENEL tensile data on 1CrMoV steels, particularly for strain rate dependence. In essence, eqn 1 was forced to fit the actual temperature trends. The upper temperature limits of validity of this method are also indicated in the table. Table of coefficients values Values of the coefficients n, T1 and Co that have to be taken for evaluating the uncertainties of measurands y, UTS and E for y for UTS and E material n T1 Co n T1 Co Ferritic steels, 25 - 600 C 870 930 Stainless steels, 25 - 600 C 870 930 Ni and its alloys, 25 - 900 C 950 1000 Al and its alloys, 25 - 400 C not available not available not available not available It is judged that the uncertainties evaluated according to such coefficients in the uncertainty formula above have an uncertainty (uncertainty of the estimated uncertainty, maximum expected errors in uncertainty predictions) not larger than 15% (15% of the uncertainty value which is calculated). S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 26 of 33 APPENDIX B A WORKED EXAMPLE FOR CALCULATING UNCERTAINTIES IN TENSILE TESTING AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURE FOR YOUNG S MODULUS AND PROOF STRESS B1. Introduction The subject of this worked example is a sheet type specimen of a cold rolled steel. It is an example of an uncertainty study of a single test in comparison to the uncertainty of the mean value of a test series consisting of 7 specimens at a confidence level of 95%. The specimen for the study lies near the mean value of the test series. B2. Testing conditions Testing Means Load Cell (F) Class 1 Cell; 100kN nom. capacity Extensometer (e) Class Extensometer; System 1: 5 mm nom. capacity System 2: 60 mm nom. capacity Cross-sectional area Robot measuring unit in the testing system. The thickness and the width are measured with an accuracy of 5 m Original gauge length Lo 80 mm Tooling alignment (angular) VASL-Equipment guarantees compliance to standard Tooling alignment (coaxiality) VASL-Equipment guarantees compliance to standard Test machine stiffness It is also depend on clamping system. Parallel (hydraulic) clamping device S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 27 of 33 Test Method Zero Check Frequency automatic zeroing Calibration it is calibrated at the same time once a year (according to EN 10002) Formula (decimals) could be of interest for intensive calculations Digitizing 15 Bit Sampling Frequency 50 Hz according the draft of annex to EN 10002-1 Stress Rate 10 MPa/sec. Strain Rate 5% /min above Rp1, 25%/min otherwise Software Roell & Korthaus Test Environment Temperature air conditioned lab. (23 C 2 ) Operator Choice of limits on graph, Elasticity modulus normally automatic calculation is used Extensometer angular positioning precision positioning is given by automatic alignment Specimen Section (So; mm2) So = mm2 Tolerance of shape ; compliant to standard Parallelism ; compliant to standard Cylindricity not relevant Surface aspect Rz is less m; compliant to standard B3. Example of Uncertainty Calculations and Reporting of Results All calculations are based on the formulae in Appendix A. Every table is produced for a certain measurand or evaluated quantity. The worked example shows the procedure for Young s Modulus and Proof Stress. S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 28 of 33 The test series have been prepared in two steps and the material is a Bake-Hardening Steel (ZSTE 220 BH). 1. Punching of the shape according EN 10002 ANNEX B - Type 2 2. Finishing by milling under cooling medium Test results: No. a0 [mm] b0 [mm] S0 [mm2] E [GPa] [MPa] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean Valuex Standard deviation sx Uncertainty of x, see Eqn. 12 t = ; P = 95% Calculated Uncertainty - of ANNEX B - based on specimen No. 4 Expanded Uncertainty Uncertainty study on specimen No. 4 Result of the linear regression: At the minimum ()relmS = ( ) the software detected the upper and for the lower proportional limit. The preload for this material is defined at the VASL-laboratory with 20MPa. n = 56 (number of data pairs) mE = 61744 N/mm SmE = N/mm bE = N SbE = N S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 29 of 33 TABLE B1: Uncertainty Budget Calculations for Cross-Sectional Area - Rectangular (sensitivity coefficient is not dimensionless - see Appendix A) Symbol Measurands or evaluated quantities Symbol of uncertainty Value Type Probability Distribution Divisor dv Sensitivity coefficient ci u(Xi) vi of veff a0 Thickness ua0 B rectan. 3 b0 Width ub0 B rectan. 3 mm2 S0 Cross-sectional area uS0 Combined uncertainty B triangular Steps: a0= Eqn. 11c leads to ua0= 10-3mm b0= Eqn. 11c leads to ub0= 10-3mm Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 1a and 13 leads to Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 1a and 14 leads to 1st term (not squared) of Eqn. 15 10-3 = 10-2mm2 2nd term (not squared) of Eqn. 15 10-3 = 10-3mm2 Eqn. 15 square root of 1st term2 + 2nd term2 = 10-2mm2 S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 30 of 33 TABLE B2: Uncertainty Budget Calculations for Young s Modulus (sensitivity coefficient is not dimensionless - see appendix A) Symbol Measurands or evaluated quantities Symbol of uncertainty Value Type Probability Distribution Divisor dv Sensitivity coefficient ci u(Xi) vi of veff L0 Original gauge length uL0 B rectan. 3 +3 599MPa S0 Original cross sectional area uS0 B rectan. 1 +3 507MPa mE Slope SmE A normal 1 334MPa E Young s Modulus ()ucE Combined uncertainty A+B normal ()ueE Expanded uncertainty A+B normal k = 2 Steps: L0= (Class ) Eqn. 11c leads to uL0= 10-1mm Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 36 and 39 leads to 2593 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 36 and 40 leads to 8713 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 36 and 38 leads to 2nd term (not squared) of Eqn. 41 2593 10-1 = 599 MPa 3rd term (not squared) of Eqn. 41 8713 10-2 = 507 MPa 1st term (not squared) of Eqn. 41 = 334 MPa S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 31 of 33 Eqn. 41 square root of 1st term2 + 2nd term2 + 3rd term2 = 853 MPa TABLE B3: Uncertainty Budget Calculations for the Permanent Strain (sensitivity coefficient is not dimensionless - see appendix A) Source of uncertainty Symbol Measurands or evaluated quantities Symbol of uncertainty Value Type Probability Distribution Divisor dv Sensitivity coefficient ci u(Xi) vi of veff ep Associated displacement at P = uep B rectan. 3 L0 Original gauge length uL0 B rectan. 3 bE Intercept value SbE A normal 1 Fp Associated force at P = uFp B rectan. 3 mE Slope SmE A normal 1 P Permanent strain Pu Combined uncertainty A+B normal Steps: ep= 10-3 mm (Class ) Eqn. 11c leads to ueRp= 10-4mm ep and Fp obtained from the recorded ASCII-file Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 46 and 47 leads to 10-2 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 46 and 48 leads to 10-5 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 46 and 49 leads to 10-7 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 46 and 50 leads to 10-7 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 46 and 51 leads to 10-8 1st term (not squared) of Eqn. 52 10-4 10-2 = 10-5 2nd term (not squared) of Eqn. 52 10-1 10-5 = 10-6 3rd term (not squared) of Eqn. 52 10-7 = 10-8 S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 32 of 33 4th term (not squared) of Eqn. 52 10-7 = 10-6 5th term (not squared) of Eqn. 52 10-8 = 10-6 Eqn. 52 square root of 1st term2 + 2nd term2 + ... +5th term2= 10-5 TABLE B4: Uncertainty Budget Calculations for the Proof Stress (sensitivity coefficient is not dimensionless - see appendix A) Source of uncertainty Symbol Measurands or evaluated quantities Symbol of uncertainty Value Type Probability Distribution Divisor dv Sensitivity coefficient ci u(Xi) vi of veff Fp Force at P = ()uFCp A+B normal 1 0S Original cross-sectional area 0Su B rectan. 1 Proof stress ()ucRp Combined uncertainty A+B normal ()ueRp Expanded uncertainty A+B normal k = 2 Steps: + + =pppF (Eqn. 53) obtained from the recorded ASCII-file ) () ) (2(25257= + = ( and ) () += ; ) (322= == (class 1) () += Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 3 and 19 leads to 10-2 Sensitivity coefficient Eqn. 3 and 20 leads to S M & T Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165 UNCERT COP 07: 2000 Page 33 of 33 1st term (not squared) of Eqn. 58 10-2 = 2nd term (not squared) of Eqn. 58 10-2 = Eqn. 58 square root of 1st term2 + 2nd term2 = B4. Reported Results E = GPa GPa ( %) = MPa MPa ( %) The above reported expanded uncertainties are based on standard uncertainties multiplied by a coverage factor k=2, providing a level of confidence of approximately 95%. The uncertainty evaluation was carried out in accordance with UNCERT recommendations.

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