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The Daggett System for Effective Instruction - ICLE

The Daggett System for Effective Instruction Where Research and Best Practices Meet Willard R. Daggett, Ed.D. Founder and Chairman, International Center for ...




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The Daggett System for Effective Instruction Where Research and Best Practices MeetWillard R. Daggett, and Chairman, International Center for Leadership in Education The Daggett System for Effective Instruction Where Research and Best Practices Meet Converging Challenges As Western nations struggle to recover their economic equilibriums after the financial crisis of 2008, China and India are leveraging their size and human capital to become global economic powerhouses. Emerging economies such as Vietnam, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, and Panama are increasingly capable of winning greater shares of international business. The ability to compete in the interconnected global economy is primarily leveraged by technical innovation and a highly-skilled workforce. A more rigorous and more applied education curriculum is needed to drive both levers. While our schools are working hard at improving, the reality is that the rest of the world is changing faster, leaving a growing gap. In an effort to close the gap, state-supported initiatives for raising standards and measuring student achievement will require schools to change what and how they teach. The fewer, clearer, higher Common Core State Standards (CCSS), anchored by the Next Generation Assessments (NGA), will raise the bar for most states to help ensure that every student is challenged to achieve and succeed. Proficiency levels will be set higher. Assessment will measure not just what students know, but also what they can do with that knowledge. Most schools involved with Race to the Top (RttT) initiatives will need awareness building, planning, time, and support to realize the mandatory 2014-2015 implementation dates of the new learning expectations represented by the CCSS and NGA. These challenges are driving a greater focus on accountability and a growing demand for proof of effectiveness and efficiency in public education. If No Child Left Behind s Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) provision laid accountability for results on the backs of principals, today s education policy, including measures such as growth models and teacher effectiveness evaluations, is shifting the burden of accountability to teachers. What Works Analysis of the Research Recognizing the challenges facing schools today is easy. Identifying the most effective ways to address them is not. Education research is plentiful and comprehensive, so much so that studies are available to prove or disprove almost any decision made by education leadership. However, most of the respected research is consistent on one key school improvement issue: effective instruction really matters. No single variable has more impact than teaching. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Hattie s Visible Learning Several significant research studies have particularly informed the Daggett System for Effective Instruction (DSEI). One is John Hattie s Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. Hattie analyzed 200,000 effect sizes (the relative impact of one factor compared to other factors) from 52,637 studies involving more than 50 million students and covering an exhaustive number of factors. Hattie s approach was that effect sizes are the best way to identify what has the greatest influence on student learning. The calculations behind his work are complex, but to simplify an effect-size of (defined as an increase of one standard deviation) is typically associated with the equivalent of approximately two years of growth in one year Hattie s analysis shows that most variables in schools have an effect size of around + or + , what Hattie calls his hinge point. Any factor below + is of lower value. Factors below have negative effects. Some factors can be directly affected by an education organization; others cannot. Some noteworthy effect sizes from his research include: Formative Evaluation: + (~ years of growth) Providing feedback: + (~ years of growth) Student Teacher Relationships: + (~ years of growth) Prior Achievement: + (~ years of growth) Professional Development: + (~ years of growth) Socioeconomic Status: +0 .57 (~ years of growth) Peer Tutoring: + (~ years of growth) Teaching Test-taking: + Reducing class size: + On the other hand, certain factors have negative impact. Mobility: = years loss InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards Another publication that greatly influenced the Daggett System for Effective Instruction is InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards: A Resource for State Dialogue. Developed by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), it outlines the common principles and foundations of teaching practice that cut across all subject areas and grade levels and that are necessary to improve student achievement. Sutton Trust Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning The goal of this United Kingdom study, published in May 2011, was to help schools determine which research-proven instructional practices were most effective in supporting students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds and at what levels of relative costs, even though there is no direct link between spending on schools and outcomes for pupils. The findings closely parallel Hattie s meta-analysis of instructional effectiveness and also reflect the intent of the International Center s Efficiency and Effectiveness Framework, correlating effectiveness and cost, as described later. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Work of Robert Marzano Robert Marzano s extensive work focuses mainly on instruction, including 41 Key Strategies Identified by Research for Effective Teaching and What Works in Schools Translating Research into Action. As he states in The Art and Science of Teaching, No amount of further research will provide an airtight model of The best research can do is tell us which strategies have a good chance ( , high probability) of working well with students. Charlotte Danielson s The Framework for Teaching The Framework for Teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction that divides the complex activity of teaching into 22 components. Focused on Student Success: A Five-Year Research Study of Models, Networks, and Policies to Support and Sustain Rigor and Relevance for ALL Students The study revealed five key themes, all of which were used in the development of the Daggett System. 1. Leadership: A clear sense of purpose that empowers staff toward a common vision. 2. High expectations: For academic performance as well as college/career readiness. 3. Relationships: Valuing relationships as part of a successful learning environment. 4. Student opportunities: Both academic stretch and personal skill development opportunities. 5. Professional culture: Teachers, administration, and staff collaborate toward goals. It Takes a System, Not Just a Teacher Research supports what most of us see as common sense: what goes on between the teacher and the each student is central to high-level learning. Effective teaching is not the end goal, however; it is the means to an end: student achievement. Nevertheless, all teaching is more effective when effectively supported. Achieving the goal of improving instruction requires a supportive and aligned system. Stated another way, although effective teaching is essential, it is not sufficient to maximize achievement for all students. This understanding of the need for an organization-wide commitment is at the heart of the Daggett System. Daggett System for Effective Instruction For decades, the International Center has been an active observer of and participant in education reform. The International Center s on the ground work with schools has reinforced that it takes an entire system to develop, maintain, and enhance effective instruction. Teachers must be supported by instructional leadership and organizational leadership. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights The Daggett System has been significantly informed by: 1. Observing and disseminating best practices. For more than 20 years, the International Center has been assisting leadership and teachers, as well as identifying, studying, and showcasing America s most successful schools including its CCSSO-co-sponsored Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-funded research on thousands of America s most effective and most rapidly improving exemplar schools and school districts at the annual Model Schools Conference and other events. 2. Current and past research conducted by some of the most respected thought-leaders in K-12 education, as described previously. At the same time, the Daggett System departs from some of the existing models and frameworks for teaching in several significant ways. Traditional Teaching Frameworks Daggett System for Effective Instruction What teachers should do What the entire system should do Teacher-focused Student-focused Teachers deliver instruction Teachers facilitate learning Vision is set by top leaders Vision is built more inclusively Define vision primarily in terms of academic measures Define vision as strong academics and personal skills and the ability to apply them Rigid structures support adult needs Flexible structures support student needs Focus on teaching Focus on learning Other models are excellent guides and tools for what they choose to focus upon, primarily teachers professional development, mastery of content, and use of instructional strategies. By comparison, the Daggett System s most distinguishing attributes include: focus on coherence and alignment at the system/organization level focus on instructional leadership grounded in a broad base of analysis and meta-analysis research on instructional effectiveness balancing effectiveness with considerations of efficiency ( , affordability) best practices drawn from partnering with model schools The Daggett System leverages more than the teacher in the classroom. It emphasizes vertical alignment with organizational systems and structures and with instructional leadership and horizontal alignment with teaching colleagues and classroom resources as k eys to success. Because teachers are the most powerful influence on instruction, the entire system needs to be focused on making teachers effective. Therefore, the Daggett System provides a coherent focus across an entire education system: Organizational Leadership, Instructional Leadership, and Teaching. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Organizational Leadership Organizational leadership is a function, not just a person. It involves a mentality, structure, focus, and commitment to create the environment in which learning is optimized. Six primary elements of Organizational Leadership are listed below. Create a culture of high academic expectations and positive relationships. That culture must communicate and encompass: Why: the challenges of changing demographics, a wired and tech-savvy generation of students growing up in a digital world; as well as a global economy in which America must innovate and compete. To Whom: students, staff, and community stakeholders How: through active and ongoing communications and messaging at staff development events, community forums, business roundtables, and so on. Establish a shared vision and communicate to all constituent groups. Culture needs to be embedded in goals and action plans focused on instructional effectiveness that all stakeholders can understand, contribute to, and commit to. This plan must focus on and reflect instructional effectiveness and positive relationships that lead to a culture of high expectations. The International Center s Learning Criteria is a broad, holistic framework of variables that help establish a common definition of student success, not just as scholars, but as future workers, citizens, consumers, and parents. Build leadership capacity through an empowerment model. Organizational leadership needs to enhance existing leaders and identify and cultivate the development of emerging, future leaders. Doing so broadens the leadership capacity of the organization immediately and paves the way for continuous development and growth of new leaders who can assist in transforming a school or district. Empowering others to lead around action items not only builds the capacity to complete goals, but also builds the capacity of others to lead and adapt to every changing need. Creating an empowered environment demands clear communication and collaboration at all levels, creating trust among the members of the organization. The Daggett System for Effective Instruction Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Align organizational structures and systems to the vision. Once culture, mission, and distributed and empowered leadership are established, Organizational Leaders must demonstrate and communicate that there is a cohesive structure/system in place that supports the established vision, goals, and action items. Organizational leaders must effectively and efficiently bridge the system, from central office administration down through teacher ranks, connecting the development, alignment, adoption, and integration of the curriculum into instruction. They must also align the vision and structures to ensure literacy and math integration across all grade levels and disciplines. Using the International Center s Effectiveness and Efficiency Framework, the Daggett System extends the data and research on effectiveness provided by Hattie and others to do just that. It allows decision-makers to consider the broader perspective of how to prioritize initiatives related to enhancing instructional effectiveness according to what can reasonably be impacted, then examining both effectiveness and efficiency. For example, by analyzing a few of Hattie s factors using the Effectiveness and Efficiency Framework, it can be further determined that they not only are effective, but also make efficient use of resources, , provide the highest return-on-investment. Effect (Standard Deviation) 1 Standard Deviation = ~2 years growth Relative Cost Student Teacher Relationships .72 (11) Low Application of Knowledge .65 (17) Low Professional Development .62 (19) Low Align teacher/leader selection, support, and evaluation. Organizational leaders must focus on building the capacity of teachers and leaders through the selection, support, and supervision process, which is essential to the growth of individuals in an organization. A formative approach provides the best opportunity for teachers and leaders to successfully reach their personal and professional goals that, in turn, help the organization reach its goals. Focusing on the formative process provides opportunity for feedback and constructive professional learning that leads to successfully meeting the evaluation criteria. Support decision making with relevant data systems. Organizational leaders must ensure that easy-to-use, relative data systems are built, and that training is provided for all levels. Meaningful data systems are the key to monitoring student improvement and progress toward goals, and informing instruction. It is the responsibility of organizational leaders to monitor and ensure the system is used effectively at all levels, and that the data provides opportunities for deep conversations about student achievement, teacher growth, and goal attainment. Instructional Leadership Instructional Leadership is directly focused on instructional effectiveness and ultimately student achievement. Instructional Leadership can be provided by a variety of people, functions, and means in support of teachers, such as: district and regional instructional leadership principals, assistant principals Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights department chairs expert teachers, counselors, social workers mentor teachers, teacher coaches, teaching peers /team leaders. The Instructional Leadership segment of the Daggett System concentrates on five overarching elements: Use research and establish the urgent need for change to promote higher academic expectations and positive relationships. The first job of Instructional Leadership is to reinforce the vision set forth by Organizational Leadership. To do so, Instructional Leadership must clearly communicate to all constituents the process that will be used for change needed in academic, social, and emotional areas. As part of this communication, Instructional Leaders must offer proof statements to staff, students, and stakeholders: research and authoritative testimony that corroborate the urgent need for improvement in student achievement. The International Center s National Essential Skills Study and its research on reading and math proficiency levels involving the Lexile Framework for Reading and Quantile Framework for Mathematics are examples of such indicators. Instructional leaders also need to see themselves as the key change-agents in raising standards and expectations. Develop, implement, and monitor standards-aligned curriculum and assessments. Instructional leaders are charged with implementing a curriculum and instruction process that engages teachers and key leaders and assures a tight connection between aligned standards and instruction and assessment. Instructional leaders need to prepare teachers for the new types of instruction and formative assessment that are at the center of the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Assessments. They are also responsible for monitoring the process to ensure that standards are aligned and that instruction and assessment reflect the adopted curriculum. To bridge the gap between the current state tests and the new assessments, the International Center s Nextpert supports instructional leaders and teachers in planning instruction that prepares students for these requirements. Nextpert: aligns state standards with essential skills and Common Core State Standards identifies gaps in the current curriculum and grade level progressions between state standards and the expectations of the Common Core provides exemplary lessons and assessments that will help prepare students for the rigor and application needed to succeed in college and careers Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Integrate literacy and math across all disciplines. Literacy and math are essential for success in college and careers and are therefore consistent with the Common Core State Standards, with special emphasis in the English language arts standards placed on text complexity and non-fiction transactional reading and writing. The Common Core also emphasizes the practical applications of literacy. All teachers at all grades and across all subjects need to assume responsibility for this heightened emphasis on broad-based literacy development. Similarly, the Common Core focuses on what it calls Standards of Mathematical Practice, which consist of process standards (such as problem solving, reasoning and proof) and strands of mathematical proficiency (including adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency and productive disposition). Therefore Instructional Leadership must ensure that that the integration and application of math and literacy standards across all disciplines is supported, implemented, and monitored. Facilitate data-driven decision making to inform instruction. To meet the needs of diverse learners, instructional leaders must ensure that relevant data is provided to educators. Educators, in turn, will access the information and use it to analyze trends toward district and school goals, monitor learner progress (growth toward proficiency), and differentiate instruction based on student needs. Instructional leaders must have systems in place to provide teachers with a clearer understanding of student data and how to apply that understanding to actionable instruction and interventions. They must also have a system in to monitor the effective use of data. Provide opportunities for professional learning, collaboration, and growth focused on high quality instruction and increased student learning. The research conducted by Hattie and others clearly shows the importance of teacher selection and development, and a continuous cycle of evaluation and support. Race to the Top (RttT) and pending federal education legislation mandate the availability of quality and sustained professional development, in part as an underpinning of the new emphasis on teacher performance evaluation systems. Professional development is one of the cornerstone Four Assurances in RttT: Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective teachers and principals, especially where they are most needed. And rightly so. With an effect factor of .62 (the equivalent of approximately years of growth) on Hattie s scale, professional development also clearly is a high impact and cost effective - approach to improving instructional effectiveness for student achievement. Instructional Leaders must use the most relevant data and research to determine the professional learning needs of the district or the school. They must find ways to implement professional learning that maximizes growth of individuals and then track increased learner achievement. Professional learning should target and support both the foundations of effective instruction and the foundations of effective leadership that support that effective instruction. Teaching If Organizational Leadership does its job to establish an overarching vision and mission, deal with obstacles, align systems, and build leadership capacity; and if Instructional Leadership ensures that tools, data, and support are made available and accessible to teachers; then the vanguard of instructional effectiveness teaching will be well supported in addressing the daunting challenges of the classroom. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Drawing on the research on teacher effectiveness and observations of best practices for two decades, the Daggett System includes the following six broad elements under Teaching. Build effective instruction based on rigorous and relevant expectations. Teachers must embrace the organizational vision that all students can and will learn and must strive to help every student reach his or her fullest potential. This is the attitude that effective teachers bring to class every day. Embracing high expectations is an offshoot of commitment and caring for individual students. The equivalent success criteria factors in Hattie s analysis, Mastery Learning and Feedback , indicate effectiveness factors of + and + , respectively. Teachers must also be able to translate content knowledge into effective instructional strategies that are relevant to the learner. Create and implement an effective learner environment that is engaging and aligned to learner needs. Teachers must create a learning environment that addresses students personal, social, and emotional needs. The environment must engage ALL learners; therefore, the environment plays a key role in student success. Teachers must also develop positive relationships with students that allow them to know each student on an individual level. The presence of strong relationships between students and teachers builds a trust that positively impacts learning and the learning environment one of the findings of the International Center/ CCSSO research on characteristics of successful schools funded by the Gates Foundation. Hattie places Student Teacher Relationships at + , or approximately the impact of nearly a year and a half growth every school year. Possess and continue to develop content area knowledge and make it relevant to the learner. Teachers, with the support of the system, must stay current with the most effective pedagogy, the most contemporary content, and the most relevant experiences that connect back to the content. While teachers must have strong content expertise in the subjects they teach, effective instruction is more than just a transmittal of knowledge. It is equally the ability to make connections, show relevance, nurture engagement, and embed understanding. The Common Core State Standards require this same rigorous-but-relevant approach to teaching and Next Generation Assessments require students to show their ability to apply higher order thinking, not just recall knowledge. Plan and provide learning experiences using effective research-based strategies that are embedded with best practices, including the use of technology. Every teacher needs a thorough understanding of pedagogy as well as a versatile and comprehensive repertoire of instructional strategies classic and innovative to draw from in planning and providing instruction so they can match teaching approaches with learning objectives, subject matter, and targeted learners. Teachers must plan and provide learning experiences at high levels of rigor and relevance. Lessons must be tightly aligned to appropriate standards. Effective strategies and the use of technology must be embedded in all learning experiences that give all students access to the material. Teachers also need a clear understanding of today s students who are wired differently ; who want to see a reason for learning something; who fascinate their elders with their technology skills in fact, they take connectivity and instant access to information and to one another for granted; who multi-task; and, perhaps most significantly, who would rather do to learn instead of learn to do. They collaborate naturally and seamlessly. Not surprisingly, they simply learn differently. The abundance of recent discoveries in neuropsychology and brain research can and should inform teachers understanding of 21st century learners. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights Use assessment and data to guide and differentiate instruction. Good teachers always ask themselves: Did they ALL get it? How do I know they got it? How do I measure mastery? How do I help those students who didn t? How do I know at any given point in the year if students are on track to achieve? Teachers must use effective assessments, both formative and summative, to collect relevant data to make decisions on teaching and learning. Teachers must also be able to differentiate and adapt instruction based on the needs of the class and individual students and use data to track student growth toward proficiency of the standards that were assessed. Hattie s meta-analysis rates the use of formative assessment data to inform instruction as the number one factor in instructional effectiveness a rating of + , or almost two full years of growth in a single year. Further content and instructional knowledge through continuous professional learning that is both enriching and collaborative. The professional development opportunities needed to support teachers in today s learning environments are huge and will not be met with traditional workshops or unfocused staff development days. Teachers will need time and a safe environment to practice and develop the skills of effective instruction. Many will need coaches working with them in the classroom to model best practices. They will need time for reflection with their peers in order to make the best practices part of their repertoire of skills. Fortunately, most teachers value, expect, and welcome meaningful professional development that is directly related to their work, is based on current research and best practices, and meets their individual needs. Teachers must be supported in continuous growth toward accessing and using the best instructional strategies and integrating technology into lessons. Through a systemic approach, they must also have access to a highly collaborative environment that empowers them to be leaders in the development of and sharing of effective practices. Only through a system that supports teacher development, collaboration, and professional practices will teachers be able to deliver learning environments that result in improved student achievement. Summary The Daggett System for Effective Instruction is more than an approach to enhancing instruction and instructional capacity. It is a way of thinking about what we believe about children, schools, and learning which has coalesced at a critical time in American education when standards, assessments, accountability, teacher evaluation systems are intersecting with budgets, the global economy, technological innovation, wired kids, and public policy debates. The Daggett System builds upon the ideas, inspirations, practices, and research of others, including the best research and meta-analysis on effective instruction and the years of collective experience that International Center staff, consultants, and thought-leaders have accumulated and harvested from thousands of American schools. The Daggett System recognizes the primacy and immeasurable value of great teachers and great teaching and strives to align education systems and functions with what teachers need to be the best support to learners. It does so by looking not only at teachers, but also beyond the classroom to inspire leadership at all levels in support of instruction. The Daggett System challenges all educators to consider the possible with a sense of practical urgency and a buoyant sense of the possible. Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights The Daggett System for Effective Instruction is a way to transform a traditional system into one that better supports all teachers and more fully prepares every student for college, careers and citizenship. TEACHERS TRADITIONAL WHAT IS NEEDED Deliver instruction Facilitate learning Student Learner Test scores (easy to measure) Holistic assessment of learner (difficult to measure) Proficiency Growth Standardized approach Personalized, differentiated for each learner Content-focused and narrow (Quadrants A / C) Application focused (Quadrants B / D) Probing questions, scaffolding Instruction in classroom only, bell schedule- limited Learning anyplace/anytime, 24x7, technology Teacher-centered Learner-centered Passive learning Active learning Learn to do Do to learn Assessment has single purpose (proficiency) Smarter, balanced assessments with multiple purposes (assess for proficiency, growth, formative, predictive) Teacher as sage on the stage Teacher as facilitator of learning Define learning in terms of required content to teach Define learning in terms of skills and knowledge as results Define learning from specific skills up to total student Define learning from whole student down to specific skills Cover as many topics as possible Help students learn priority skills deeply Break apart curriculum Integrate curriculum Entire curriculum mandatory Curriculum includes some student choice Teach skills in isolation Teach skills in context Focus on deficiencies Focus on proficiencies Look for evidence of good teaching Look for evidence of good learning Standardized procedures Shared best practices Give separate assessments Give embedded assessments Isolate instruction from community Connect instruction to community INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERS TRADITIONAL WHAT IS NEEDED Manage in the current system Change the system Use past experience to solve problems Learn new ways to adapt and change Promote standard procedures Adapt to unique situations Replicate practices with fidelity Create new practices to meet student needs Look to supervisors for answers Look to staff to take actions Rely on individual expertise Share each other s expertise Authority Collaboration ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP TRADITIONAL WHAT IS NEEDED Set vision by top leadership Set vision with wide contributions Define vision in few academic measures Define vision in term of whole student needs (LC) Place priority on short term results Place priority on long-term improvement Limit goals to best students Expand goals to all students See vision as top leaders initiative Embrace vision universally Instill fear with goals Inspire passion with goals Rigid structures to support adult needs Flexible structure to support student needs Top down change for ease of administration / compliance teachers as objects of change Top down support for bottom-up reform teachers as agents of change Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights References Hattie's paper Influences on Student Learning is available at: The Sutton Trust Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning, Durham University. Marzano InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards: A Resource for State Dialogue Charlotte Danielson s The Framework for Teaching The Danielson Group at Sutton Trust Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Department of Education Copyright June 2011, January 2014 by International Center for Leadership in Education. All rights

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