Example: dental hygienist

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN POLICY-MAKING AND …

public participation in the making and implementation of policy in mauritius with reference to port louis’ local government . by . sanjiv kumar babooa

Information

Domain:

Source:

Link to this page:

Please notify us if you found a problem with this document:

Other abuse

Text of PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN POLICY-MAKING AND …

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY IN MAURITIUS WITH REFERENCE TO PORT LOUIS LOCAL GOVERNMENT by SANJIV KUMAR BABOOA Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF ADMINISTRATION in the subject PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA PROMOTER: PROF M J MAFUNISA JOINT PROMOTER: DR M V HEERDEN NOVEMBER 2008 **************************************** **************************************** ************ ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to extend my gratitude to all the people and institutions, who have contributed significantly to the completion of this thesis: Professor M. J. Mafunisa, my promoter for his continuous interest, patience, insight, guidance, enthusiasm, creative input, constructive criticism, motivation, very competent academic guidance and above all his positive attitude throughout the course of this research. Dr. M. Van Heerden, my joint promoter for his very supportive, insight, very competent academic guidance, patience, interest, constructive criticism and above all his positive attitude throughout the course of this thesis. iii DECLARATION Student Number: 3110-958 - 6 I declare that "PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY IN MAURITIUS WITH REFERENCE TO PORT LOUIS LOCAL GOVERNMENT" is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - SIGNATURE Date (S. K. Babooa) iv SUMMARY The central issue of this study revolves around public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government. Public participation is regarded as one of the milestones of democracy and local governance. Local government provides an ideal forum for allowing participatory democracy to flourish as it is closest to the inhabitants. The question of what are the levels of public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with reference to the Port Louis local government formed the core element of the problem statement of the thesis. Following this, the hypothesis is stated. Attention is devoted on the four objectives of the research questions: What are the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level; what impact does the Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) have on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government and what modes of public participation are used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government; and what are the main factors that influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? Within the thesis, the research findings obtained from the questionnaire; and the interviews are analysed and interpreted. Ultimately, in view of the arguments presented in this thesis an attempt was made to provide some recommendations on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government. v KEY TERMS Participation Public participation Citizen participation Community participation Public Administration Public policy Policy-making Policy implementation Democracy Local government Modes of public participation Constitutional and legislative framework on public participation in Mauritius Public participation at the Port Louis local government vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PAGE NUMBER Introduction ........................................ ......... General overview and background to the study .. 1 1 Motivation for the research ............................. 5 Problem statement ........................................ . 6 Research questions and purpose of this study 8 Hypothesis ........................................ .......... 9 Clarification of key concepts ........................... 10 Public Administration ..................................... 10 Participation ........................................ .......... 11 Citizen participation ....................................... 12 Community participation ................................. 13 Public participation ........................................ . 14 Public policy ........................................ .......... 15 Local government ........................................ ... 18 Scope of the research and the time dimension of the period of study ........................................ .. 20 Method of data collection ................................. 21 Survey questionnaire ....................................... 22 Interviews ........................................ ............. 23 Reference technique ........................................ 25 Framework of the thesis and exposition of chapters ........................................ ................ 25 Conclusion ........................................ ........... 28 vii CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW PAGE NUMBER Introduction ........................................ ............. Concept ........................................ ............. 29 30 Some of the forms of public participation ............ 30 Elections ........................................ .................. 31 Consultation ........................................ ........... 31 Interest groups ........................................ ........ 31 Political parties ........................................ ..... 32 Professional groups ........................................ .. 32 The business sector ........................................ .. 33 Sports institutions, cultural and religious bodies .. 33 Referendum ........................................ ............. 33 Nonviolent protest ........................................ .... 34 Survey questionnaires ...................................... 34 Public hearings ........................................ ........ 35 Municipal workshop ........................................ .. 35 Conference ........................................ .............. 36 Mass media ........................................ .............. 37 Committee meetings ........................................ . 37 Public meetings ........................................ ........ 38 The internet ........................................ ............. 38 Levels of public participation .............................. 39 Extractionist public participation ......................... 39 Vertical public participation ................................ 40 Handout-induced public participation ................... 40 Some of the obstacles to public participation practice ........................................ .................... 41 Lack of desire to improve .................................... 41 viii CHAPTER 2 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Lack of awareness of the need ............................ 41 Unacceptable climate ........................................ .. 42 Lack of feedback ........................................ ........ 42 Resistance to change ........................................ . 42 Conflict in public participation ........................... 43 Legislation and policies on public participation with specific reference to Port Louis local government ... 43 The concept of decentralization on public participation at local government level ................. 46 The concept of political decentralization in public participation ........................................ .............. 47 The concept of administrative decentralization in public participation ........................................ .... 48 The concept of integrated decentralization in public participation ........................................ ............ 49 The concept of sectoral decentralization in public participation ........................................ .............. 49 The concept of economic decentralization in public participation ........................................ ............. 50 The concept of financial decentralization in public participation ........................................ .............. 50 The concept of development on public participation 52 The concept of democracy on public participation 54 The concept of participatory democracy at local government level ........................................ ..... 55 The concept of representative democracy at local government level ........................................ .... 55 The concept of direct democracy at local government level ........................................ .... 56 ix CHAPTER 2 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER The concept of indirect democracy at local government level ........................................ ....... 57 Relationship between local government, democracy, decentralization and community development ...... 58 Principles of democracy at local government level 60 Political equality ........................................ ........ 61 Majority rule ........................................ .............. 61 Popular consultation ........................................ .. 61 Popular sovereignty ........................................ ... 62 The concept of democracy on public participation at local government level ....................................... 62 Democratic consolidation and the nature of democracy on public participation ..................... 64 The different layers of democracy on public participation at local government level ................ 66 The concept of policy-making in public participation at local government level .................................... 72 The importance of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............... 73 Deficiencies in the policy-making .......................... 74 Policy-making as goal setting in public participation 77 Policy-making as the identification of alternatives in public participation ........................................ .... 78 Policy-making as a choice between alternatives in public participation ........................................ ... 79 Concepts that influence the selection of criteria and alternatives in the policy-making process ............. 80 x CHAPTER 2 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER The concept of value in policy-making ................. 80 The concept of interest in policy-making .............. 81 Conflict situation ........................................ ...... 82 Available information ....................................... 82 Available resources ........................................ .. 83 Legal and statutory requirements ........................ 83 Hierarchy of decision ........................................ 83 Stage of policy-making in public participation ...... 84 Models for public policy analysis in public participation at local government level ................ 84 Functional process model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............. 85 Elite/mass model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............ 86 Classic model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............ 86 Group model of policy-making in public participation 87 Systems model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............. 88 Incremental model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............. 88 Rational model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............ 89 Economically rational model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ .... 90 Satisfying policy-making model in public participation ........................................ ............ 90 xi CHAPTER 2 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Optimum policy-making model in public participation ........................................ ............. 91 Mixed scanning model of policy-making in public participation ........................................ ............. 92 The concept of policy implementation in public participation at local government level ................ 93 Valid assumptions in policy implementation ......... 93 Support by individuals and groups in policy implementation ........................................ ........ 94 Good relations with other authorities in policy implementation ........................................ ........ 94 Sustained support of policy implementation ......... 95 Administrative and political skills in policy implementation ........................................ ........ 95 Conditions for legislation and policy decisions in policy implementation ....................................... 95 Conclusion ........................................ .............. 96 CHAPTER 3 IMPACT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ON PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN POLICY-MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION Introduction ........................................ ............. 98 The 2003 Constitution and the 2005 Local Government Act: Public Participation .................. 99 xii CHAPTER 3 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Participatory governance in the Mauritian local government ........................................ ............. 103 Port Louis local government structure .................. 108 Public participation in information provision to policy-makers and implementers ......................... 112 Public participation through access to local government information .................................... 113 Public participation through responsiveness to public needs ........................................ ............. 116 Public participation through accountability to public needs ........................................ ..................... 117 Public participation in developmental local government ........................................ ............. 119 Public participation through transparency to public needs ........................................ ...................... 122 Public participation through elite ......................... 122 Public participation through local administration .... 124 Public participation in municipal finance ............... 127 Public participation in local politics ..................... 128 Public participation in socio-economic issues ........ 130 Public participation through control instrument for the making and implementation of policy .............. 132 Conclusion ........................................ ............... 133 xiii CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY PAGE NUMBER Introduction ........................................ ............... 135 Research philosophy ........................................ 135 Quantitative and qualitative research .................... 136 Qualitative research ........................................ ... 137 Research design ........................................ ........ 139 Design choices ........................................ ........ 139 Validity ........................................ ................... 140 Reliability ........................................ ................ 141 Relationship between validity and reliability ......... 141 Research methodology ................................ 142 Questionnaire development ................................. 142 Research process ........................................ ....... 143 Selection of sample and research areas ................ 143 Piloting the questionnaire .................................. 145 Administration of the questionnaire ..................... 147 Data presentation ........................................ ...... 149 Rethinking subjectivity-using reflexivity ............... 149 Ethical issues in this research .............................. 150 Limitations of research ........................................ 152 Data analysis ........................................ ............. 152 Conclusion ........................................ ................. 154 CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS Introduction ........................................ ............... 156 xiv CHAPTER 5 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Responses ........................................ ................ 157 Respondents' profile ........................................ ... 157 Participant's ability to understand of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council ............. 162 Participant's views on communication of policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government ........................................ ............... 165 Participant's views on information provision regarding political decision at the Port Louis local government ........................................ .............. 166 Participation at public hearing ............................ 167 Public participation in radio talk that deals with activities or by-laws of the Port Louis local government ........................................ ............... 169 Participant's views on enquiries to councillors or officials of the Port Louis local government ........... 170 Participant's views on protest against officials and/or councillors of the Port Louis local government ........................................ .............. 170 Participant's views on difficulties faced when interacting with councillors and/or officials of the Port Louis local government ................................ 171 Participant's views on the importance of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government .............. 172 Participant's views on the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government ............... 173 xv CHAPTER 5 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Participant's views on the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government ............. 176 Participant's views on the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government ........................................ ............. 179 Participant's views on the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government .............. 182 Participant's views on the use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government ........................................ .............. 184 Views of participant on the present public participation ........................................ .............. 194 Participant's views on the impact of public participation in the life of the citizen .................... 195 Participant's views on the visit of councillors to the locality of inhabitants ....................................... 196 Participant's views on the impact of main factors on public participation ........................................ .... 197 Participant's views on the impact of principal factors on the improvement of public participation ........... 198 Participant's views on the features of the Port Louis local governments' overall approach to public participation ........................................ ............. 199 Conclusion ........................................ .............. 200 xvi CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY, CONCLUDING REMARKS AND PAGE RECOMMENDATIONS NUMBER Introduction ........................................ .......... 202 Summary of this research ................................. 203 Summary of the main objectives of Chapter 1 ....... 204 Summary of the main objectives of Chapter 2 ....... 207 Summary of the main objectives of Chapter 3 ....... 211 Summary of the main objectives of Chapter 4 ....... 214 Summary of the main objectives of Chapter 5 ........ 215 Concluding remarks ........................................ ... 221 Recommendations ........................................ .. 222 Issues regarding comprehension of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council .............. 223 Issues regarding communication ........................ 223 Issues regarding information provision about political decision ........................................ ....... 223 Issues regarding public hearing ......................... 224 Issues regarding radio talk .................................. 224 Issues regarding enquiries and protest to councillors or officials ........................................ 225 Issues regarding interaction with councillors and/or officials ........................................ ................... 225 Issues regarding main problems of public participation ........................................ ............. 225 Issues regarding the overall impact of public participation ........................................ ............. 226 Issues regarding present public participation ...... 226 Issues regarding visit of councillors .................... 226 Issues regarding main impact of factors on public participation ........................................ ............ 227 xvii CHAPTER 6 CONTINUED PAGE NUMBER Issues regarding features of the Port Louis local governments' overall approach to public participation ........................................ ............ 227 Conclusions ........................................ .............. 227 LIST OF LIST OF ANNEXURES Annexure 1 Application to conduct a 238 Annexure 2 Letter of introduction to 239 Annexure 3 Letter to the officials of the Port Louis local 240 Annexure 4 Consent 241 Annexure 5 Survey questionnaire (to be distributed to the officials of Port Louis local government).................. 242 Annexure 6 Survey questionnaire (to be distributed to the respondents of Port Louis local government)............................. ...................................... 251 FIGURE Figure 3 Organisational structure of the Port Louis 107 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NUMBER xviii Table 5 Respondent's 158 Table Views of participant's ability to understand of what goes on in the Port Louis local government 162 Table Views of participants on the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local 174 Table Views of participants on the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local 177 Table Views of participants on the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local 180 Table Views of participants on the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local 182 Table Views of participants on the use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local 185 1 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Introduction This thesis focuses on the issue of public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with specific reference to the Port Louis local government. In this section of the research there is an overview and commentary on the issue of public participation in the making and implementation of policy as well as a motivation for the study in order to put the problem in context. This part of the thesis serves as a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Emphasis is placed on the problem statement, the research problems, hypothesis and the approach applied in this study. The method of research is explained and the time dimension of the research is indicated. Additionally, the reasons for selecting the problem for research, explanation of terminology and reference technique used in this thesis are given. This chapter also contains an explanation of specific key concepts related to the problem statement. The research approach employed in this thesis is analytical, qualitative, quantitative, descriptive and interpretive. Ultimately, this section of the study concludes with an exposition of chapters treated in the thesis. General overview and background to the study There is a myth regarding public participation. The myth is that central government can decide and manage on their own public policy and local people are a threat rather that an asset in policy-making (Maveneke 1995:81). 2 Believing this myth, governments put in place centralist legislation and policies (Marks 1994:23). This vision perpetuates the command and control process where governments decide what the needs of the public are and then plan on their own policy actions (Holmes 2000:25). According to Norris (2000:21) the top-down aspect of democracy is to provide information to citizens. However, this author s work was inconclusive regarding the equally important bottom-up aspect of providing a greater voice for the public in policy-making and implementation. This research challenges these viewpoints. Public participation in the making and implementation of policy is indispensable for sustaining democracy and promoting good local governance and administration (Cloete 1995:4). Good local governance in this thesis is defined as a process of public service delivery in such a manner that accountability, equity, transparency, responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness are upheld in the local government sphere. Public participation is an active process in which participants take initiative and action that is stimulated by their own thinking and deliberation and over which they can exert effective control. Public participation encourages a bottom-up approach to public policy-making and policy implementation (Fox & Meyer 1995:29). A bottom-up approach to public participation in policy-making also encourages capacity building (Kotz & Kellerman 1997:40). Capacity building in this thesis is defined as a continuous process of enhancing the public s knowledge, skills, perspective and strength so that local government services can be efficiently and effectively delivered. Pooling of human resources together at the grassroots level leads to capacity building. Collective decisions taken on a particular local issue by a group of citizens have more strength rather than those taken by an individual. Participation is considered as one of the milestones of democratic government. This is because participatory democracy provides a mechanism for involving people to participate in governing processes of government. Local government is the closest to the people for allowing participatory democracy to flourish. Democracy is often referred to as government by the people or by the people 3 elected representatives (Bekker [ ]:58). Public participation further promotes democratic principles such as political equality, majority rule, popular sovereignty and popular consultation (Cloete 1995:21). In democratizing the governing process, public participation conveys valuable information about public needs and demands from the public to policy-makers and implementers, and vice versa. At the same time, it promotes a responsiveness to public needs and facilitates the processes of policy implementation and community development (Bekker [ ]:55). Public participation in public policy-making and policy implementation also keeps public functionaries in check (Cloete 1997:28). Participation is closely linked with empowerment. Empowering participants represents an advancement in democratic governance. Empowerment in simple terms means to enable, to allow or to permit and can be conceived as both self-initiated and initiated by others (Murrell 1990:8). Empowerment is also an act of building, developing and increasing power thorough cooperation, sharing and working together (Murrell 1990:10). Empowerment also refers to the development of an effective support system (Solomon 1976:23). Citizens demand accountability from public functionaries at all spheres of government. Accountability is not merely a matter of exercising control; it is also a matter of rendering account and provides surveillance by the citizens who act as watchdogs over the actions of public functionaries (Richards 1995:23). Every member of the public has a role to play in exacting accountability. The citizen plays an invaluable role in ensuring that public functionaries act and pursue goals for the public interests. The Mauritian public administration in the colonial era under British rule was characterised by secrecy and restrictive measures to limit or prevent the public from gaining access to policy-making and policy implementation institutions. The local authorities in Mauritius inherited its authoritarian-paternalism type of administration from colonial times. This resulted in the application of the 4 concept of top-down approach to local authorities in Mauritius (Dukhira 2000:68). On 12 March 1968 Mauritius became independent. In terms of section 22 of the new amendment to the Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) emphasis is placed on public participation in the affairs of government. The new amendment to the constitutional dispensation of Mauritius also makes provision for, interalia, rights to freedom of information. One of the most exciting challenges facing the government in Mauritius is to enhance public participation in the governance process. The public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights. Naturally, for the functioning of public institutions there must be power. Power is the ability to influence the policy maker regarding policy issues affecting a local area. The Port Louis local government receives its power from the voters during general elections held at intervals every five years in a democracy. By so doing, the electorate mandates the political representatives the authority to make laws for the government of the country. The concept authority is not synonymous with the concept power . Authority is vested in an office or position. The political representatives are accountable for the way the country is governed, which includes accomplishing the demands of the electorate. The electorate ultimately gets the opportunity to show at the ballot box how much the voters agree with decisions of the political representatives. The final source of authority rests in the hand of voters. The new Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) as well as the new political dispensation is expected to influence the policy-making and policy-implementation institutions. This is the stimulus which has roused the curiosity of the author to embark on this research on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government. In terms of the recent legislation, local government is required to involve local communities in their development undertakings (Local Government Act 23 of 2005). To this end, the Port Louis local authority needs to develop strategies 5 and mechanisms to continuously encourage public participation in the making and implementation of policy. Motivation for the research Being a hospital administrator in the public service and after having served the Ministry of Local Government as Assistant Town Clerk for one year, the author has always been interested in studying this topic, but never had sufficient time to study it in depth. Local governance is an interesting and essential field of study in Public Administration which encourages the principle of democratic participation and representation. By promoting grassroots democracy local people get the opportunity to participate in the making and implementation of policy thereby upholding the value of welfare of the whole community. The researcher s interests in this thesis particularly at the Port Louis local government is due to the fact that the author works within the region of Port Louis. This study also has an academic value as scanty documented research is available on public participation in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government in the subject of Public Administration. Books and articles written within this field emphasise social and developmental perspectives and emphasis is seldom placed on strengthening, empowering and consolidating public participation in the making and implementation of policy. By approaching this research from a different perspective, this study is expected to make an original contribution to enrich the sparse existing body of knowledge regarding public participation in the field of public administration, hence local government. Clapper (1993:10) has indicated that there is lack of scientific research and most research have been conducted in the field of citizen participation with emphasis on social aspects. Finally, the local government transformation and the contemporary new Mauritian government add another dimension to motivation. The author believes to be one of those children of Prometheus 6 posited by Barney (2000:265), who maintains a hope - not a blind hope, but one tempered with reality - that the level of public s knowledge and interaction concerning public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government may be deepened, strengthened and consolidated in the future. Public participation in the making and implementation of policy should be promoted and encouraged as a subject discipline in Public Administration. Public participation in the making and implementation of policy is an important ingredient for effective, efficient and good governance in the Mauritian public service particularly at the Port Louis local government. It is against the above background that this thesis will focus on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with reference to the Port Louis local government. Problem statement Mauritian public administration in the colonial era was characterized by secrecy, restrictive measures and lack of access to information held by policy-making and policy-implementation government institutions. During the colonial regime the majority of the Mauritians, notably women, did not have the right to vote and the opportunity to participate in Mauritian s governance and administration (Dukhira 2000:211). This state of affairs led to human rights violations, abuse of power, an unresponsive culture and lack of access to any information regarding the making and implementation of policy held by the government institutions. The Mauritian governmental system had emerged from a unilateral and top-down approach to policy-making. The impact of the colonial regime is still being felt particularly at the Port Louis local government. If a pervasive public apathy and public neglect to participative democracy persists, this could lead to the demise of Mauritian s fledgling democracy. 7 The public acts as guardians to challenge the actions or inaction of policy-makers and policy implementers. When public participation is neglected, one may see the abuse or misuse of administrative and political power. This was a common feature in local authorities in Mauritius during the colonial top-down administration which was characterized by secrecy and restrictive measures to limit the public from gaining access to and disseminating information held by local government in Mauritius (Dukhira 2000:80). Even today citizens are prevented from getting access to information held by government institutions through the Official Secret Act, 1972 (Act 30 of 1972). The Port Louis local government faces the challenge of allowing access to public information concerning the making and implementation of policy. Additionally, Port Louis local government needs to develop efficient mechanisms for allowing public participation in the making and implementation of policy. Local government is a critical dimension of a reformed system of governance and hence its development in the field of public participation is urgent. Dukhira (2000:82) has noted a series of democratic deficits and warning signs in the Mauritian government. These have been identified in relation to the functioning of the Westminster model of liberal democracy in Mauritius. Dukhira (2000:91) articulated a perspective on the challenges which exist threatening the survival of liberal democratic form. Admittedly, it is argued that the problems faced by Port Louis local government are further compounded by the existence of various types of rigid and complicated systems of rules, regulations, by-laws and administrative systems (Dukhira 2000:112). All these endow the public officials at Port Louis local government with wide discretionary powers which adversely affect the citizens democratic right. A secretive and unresponsive culture is also a direct threat to community development. However, if public participation is widespread at the Port Louis local government, it will help keep the rulers accountable to the people and will prevent policy-makers from making policies which are detrimental to the general welfare of the community. 8 It is essential to note that the ballot box is not enough to express the opinion of the citizens at the Port Louis local government, but it is also dependent on the regular and continuous interaction of the public with the making and implementation of policy. The main objective of navigating the background to the phenomenon of public participation was to formulate a clear problem statement for this study. The research, therefore, focuses on the principal research problem to be explored and answered by this thesis, namely: What are the levels of public participation and what factors have an impact on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government? The core component of the points of focus in this research will feature around the above mentioned problem statement. Accordingly, a reason for selecting this problem statement is to test the extent to which public participation is promoted in the process of the making and implementation of policy in post-colonial Mauritius. A further reason for choosing this problem statement is to show the need for a bottom-up approach to public administration triggered by participatory governance styles in the post-colonial era of the Port Louis local government. This problem statement has also been selected in order to indicate that public participation is essential for promoting good governance in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government. Research questions and purpose of this study Taking cognizance of the above, a critical study of the subject and the application of primary and secondary source research methods demand that there should be answers provided to the following questions: What are the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level? 9 What impact does the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) have on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government? What modes of public participation are used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? What are the main factors that influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to explore the above research questions and to provide possible solutions to the problem statement. It is hoped that the results from this research survey on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government, will provide a valuable contribution to the scarce body of knowledge on the subject of public participation in Mauritius. Furthermore, the results of this survey based on a restricted sample of population at the Port Louis local government may not be absolutely conclusive, but should serve as an eye-opener on the issues of public participation in the making and implementation of policy. Hypothesis A hypothesis can be regarded as a suggested, preliminary, yet specific answer to a problem which has to be tested empirically (Bless & Higson-smith, in Brynard & Hanekom 1997:19). The hypothesis is derived from the research 10 problem and may be stated negatively or positively (Auriacombe 1999:4). Hypotheses are tentative answers to research questions. A hypothesis represents informed suppositions relating to the topic which are still to be verified or proved wrong or right by means of logical testing as well as analysis of data and information (Auriacombe 1999:7). For the purpose of this thesis the following hypothesis has been formulated, namely: The level of public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government is low and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) is less likely to adequately deal with and resolve this problem. Clarification of key concepts Fundamental to a good conceptual analysis of public participation in policy-making and policy implementation is a thorough understanding of key concepts. In the following sections a conceptual analysis of key concepts which are central to this thesis is made. Apart from these concepts, other terms which are not part of the title of the thesis will be explained where these are used for the first time. Public Administration The definition of the concept of public administration as a field of activity can very well be influenced by one's interests. These could be in the form of ideological, moral or political opinions. Nevertheless, Pauw and Wessels (1999:23) have defined public administration as "the organized, non-political, executive functions of the State". The functions are viewed widely to encompass public services, activities as well as public institutions as machinery of governance. Moreover, from the analysis of administration it can be inferred that public administration is the totality of the generic administrative functions 11 performed in the public sector. Likewise, Hanekom and Thornhill (1990:9) have viewed public administration as a concept that "consists of the functions of policy-making, organization, financing, staffing and the development of work procedure and control measures, which are performed in public institutions". It is important to clarify at this stage that there is a difference between Public Administration, written with capital letters and public administration, written with small letters. Public Administration refers to the subject or field of study and should be seen as the academic part. Public administration, written without capital letters refers to the phenomenon which is studied by the subject Public Administration and includes anything that can be observed in the public sector (Harris 1990:74). Therefore, Public Administration refers to a science whereas public administration refers to a practical phenomenon. Participation Policy-making and policy implementation institutions in government are increasingly embracing the concept of participation. Public participation is regarded as a catalyst for democracy. The theories of participation are numerous and like most conceptual constructions, participation consolidation also elicits divergent scholarly views and definitions. The concept participation is subject to ambiguous and diverse interpretations (Vroom & Jago 1988:30). These diverse interpretations include: Participation refers to the act of taking part with others in a particular activity (Boaden, Goldsmith, Hampton & Stringer 1982:12). Participation means taking part and one participates when one contributes to something (Vroom & Jago 1988:15). 12 Participation can be defined as an activity undertaken by one or more individuals previously excluded from the decision-making process in conjunction with one or more other individuals who were previously the sole protagonists in that process (Bekker ( ):41). Participation refers to the act of taking part in a particular activity (Webster 1995:733). Participation is the term used to designate the process by which people contribute ideas toward the solution of problems affecting the organization and their jobs (Beach 1985:357). Specific interpretations can be made regarding the concept participation within the context of local government public administration. Participation is a means to an end and is not an end in itself. It is an activity undertaken by local government institutions to realize particular objectives (Lammers 1988:117). Participation is a deliberate and goal-oriented activity of government institutions. This is because activities in which people participate with various institutions are goal-oriented. Various concepts are attached in order to identify forms of participation such as citizen, works, communities and the public. All these are identified on the basis of specific characteristics of the Port Louis local government. Citizen participation Citizen participation is described as the involvement of citizens in a wide range of activities that relate to the making and implementation of policy including the determination of levels of service, budget priorities, and the acceptability of physical construction projects in order to orient government programmes 13 towards community needs, build support and encourage a sense of cohesiveness within society (Fox & Meyer 1995:20). In this thesis a citizen is referred to as a member of a municipal area. Citizen participation, according to Langton (1978:17), involves purposeful activities in which citizens take part in government related activities. Officials of local government rely on citizen inputs to stay informed about public concerns as well as to gain insight into citizen preferences. In local government citizen participation in the making and implementation of policy can have benefits such as a diverse viewpoints on particular issues, generation of a sense of ownership of projects and feeling of civic pride. Citizen participation also prevents the abuse or misuse of administrative authority and political power. However, certain shortcomings are also associated with citizen participation, for instance, it is time-consuming, costly, slow and it can evoke a negative reaction if citizen inputs are not taken into account. Despite the above, citizen participation is essential for promoting good governance in public institutions (Fox & Meyer 1995:31). Community participation The term community participation is defined as the actual act of taking part on the involvement of community members in specific community activities (Bayat & Meyer 1994:156). In community participation the participants should be members of the same community. A community is a group of people who have a strong communal interest that binds each other. A community belongs to a particular cultural group. In this study, the difference between citizen participation and community participation is that citizen participation involves participation by a member or individual of a municipal area whereas community participation involves participation by a group of people belonging to same culture or background within a municipal area. 14 Public participation Public participation is defined as the sum total of all citizens and communities deliberately taking part in a goal-oriented activity. Public participation involves the participation of members of the public who are interested in solving issues in question. Craythorne (1997:99) states that the secret of public participation is to ensure that the relevant publics are approached on any particular issue. From this statement it can be deduced that for public participation to become a success on any particular issue, the exact and interested members of the public should be involved. According to Thomas (1995:55) public participation is a process of involving all organized and unorganized groups of citizens or citizen representatives on a particular issue. It can be concluded from this sentence that in public participation the public include active members be it organized or not organized on specific issues. Svensson (1998:324) has described public participation as a process of involving private citizens to affect the decision-making with different spheres of life. From the statement of Svensson it can be deduced that public participation involves private individuals who affect decision-making processes. According to Brezovsek (1995:202), public participation is a process that combines four basic criteria: (1) individuals are included (2) it is voluntary (3) it refers to a specific activity and (4) it is directed towards influencing government institutions. This indicates that there are four links in public participation namely individuals, voluntary, activity and goal oriented. Public participation is a communication process in which individual citizens communicate their wishes to the representatives of political authorities (Barber 1997:23). According to Barber (1997:35) public participation involves communication between the public and political office bearers. In order to clarify the meaning of the term public participation, the author prefers to consider the viewpoints of writers, Brezovsek and Thomas. The following definition is used for public participation in this thesis: Public participation is a process of involving citizens, workers, individuals, group members, group representatives, interest groups, community groups, voluntary 15 members, religious members, business, trade unions and charity bodies intentionally in goal-directed activity of making and implementing policy in government institutions. Public policy A mass of material is available on public policy-making in general. Dye (1995:3) cautions against an over-refined conceptualization of public policy, stating that such an exercise detracts from the contents of policy, comes down to intellectual prevarication and deduces that most conceptual analyses have the same outcome. The analyst is, therefore, faced with having to balance such cautious relativism with the imperative of applying suitable linguistic tools. Dye is correct in that there are many definitions of public policy. Below the definitions of various authors are quoted: Easton (1953:129) defines policy as the authoritative allocation through the political process, of values to groups or individuals in the society . Dye (1978:5) himself defines policy as a comprehensive framework of and/or interaction Starling (1979:4) defines policy as a kind of guide that delimits action . Ranney (1968:7) defines policy as a declaration and implementation of intent . Hedo (1972:85) states that a policy may usefully be considered as a course of action or inaction rather than specific decisions or actions . Parsons (1997:14) defines it as a course of action or plan, a set of political purposes . 16 Baker (1975:15) define policy as a mechanism employed to realize societal goals and to allocate resources . Clearly, some theories are better at explaining specific sections of the policy-making process than others. For instance, the systems theory and theory on statism both focus on the process of policy-making, whereas the Marxist theory does well at emphasizing the economic context of the policy environment (John 2000:97). Anderson (2000:4) provides possibly the most succinct distillation of the above, defining policy as a relatively stable, purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or issue of concern . This definition is useful in that it differentiates between policy as intent and policy as action, and also makes it clear that a policy should not be mistaken for a decision. Qualifying this by introducing the public realm, Anderson (2000:5) concludes that public policies are those developed by governmental bodies and officials . There are a few key implications of such a conceptualization (Anderson 2000:47). Below are some of the key implications. Firstly, a policy is teleological, aimed at changing, achieving or solving something. It does not refer to a random act; the result of chance. Secondly, public policies are courses or patterns of action over time of governments and their agents and agencies. Thirdly, public policies are the result of some public demand. Public policy is also authoritative and based on law. In other words, a policy should ideally be legitimate and can be legally enforced by the State. Hogwood and Gun (1984:40) stress that much policy decision-making is concerned with attempting the difficult task of policy termination on determining policy-succession . Policy may have predictable as well as 17 unpredictable outcomes (Hogwood & Gun 1984:21). Policy is also linked with decision-making, but policy and decisions are not the same. A decision is the crux of administrative action. Decision-making comprises selecting a preferred action from a set of alternative in government institutions. The term policy-making often creates the impression that all that is involved is decision-making on what goals to pursue and how to do so. Policy and decisions cannot be regarded as synonymous since the policy process includes both decisions and actions. Policy is a pattern of action over a period and policy-making indicates a series of decisions. Decision-making is a momentary choice between alternatives and a description of the nature of a single decision (Barber 1997:56). Hence for the purpose of this thesis, decision-making does not include all the elements of policy-making. As regard to policy implementation, this stage involves the translation of decisions into action. There are two main ways of thinking about policy implementation. The first is the top-down approach (Parsons 1997:463), according to which implementation is regarded as a process of top-management driving at the attainment of predetermined goals. The other approach is referred to as bottom-up . Its main premise is that implementation is not so much the preserve of senior officials who know exactly what the policy objectives are; rather, the implementation stage is and should be defined as a heuristic device appropriate and flexible policy interventions should be discovered by the actual implementers such as legislators, courts, interest group and public officials as implementation happens (Barber 1997:60). Brynard (2000:174) is in favour of a synthesis of these two schools noting that the exclusive intellectual defence of either one denigrates the positive aspects that they both afford the policy analyst. His point is that the top-bottom school s focus on policy content is a useful analytical tool, as is the bottom-uppers emphasis on the policy context. For the purpose of this study both 18 aspects will be taken into account for the attainment of intellectually circumspect policy analysis at the Port Louis local government. For the purpose of this study, public policy is defined as a conscious action initiated in a local government institution by top public functionaries and/or political office-bearers for dealing with a situation in such a way that a particular goal can be achieved. In public policy, government plays a major role and the policy is processed by public institutions. Local government In many parts of the world, city-states existed prior to central governments, even in the Middle Ages. It was very late in history that the government emerged as a governing unit in most parts of the world. As central governments were preoccupied with matters of national interest such as war, defence and collection of taxes, other public duties were assigned to locally organized groups. As time went by, larger towns and cities with denser populations, developed in Europe specifically during the 19th century. Locally-elected councils gradually replaced earlier forms of control at local level. European influence gradually affected the development of local government in many parts of the world, for instance, in India (Dukhira 2000:73). Local government is believed to have existed in ancient India. A system of local government popularly known as the panchayat is mentioned in the Rig Veda, one of the oldest religious books of the Vedas in Hindu scriptures (Sarker 2003:530). Likewise there are local governments in many countries of the world. Local government is therefore an integral part of a country s national governmental system. Simultaneously local government provides basic services like water supply, health services, sanitary services and protection services to the community. 19 Heymans (1994:24) defines local government as a decentralized representative institution with general and specific powers devolved to it in respect of an identified restricted geographical area within a state. Local government is known by many appellations, for instance, grassroots democracy, government closest to the people, community-based government, democracy in action, democracy at work and cradle of democracy (Bukhira 2000:31). Local government is the term to which reference in this thesis will be made. Like most conceptual constructions, local government also faces divergent scholarly views and definitions. Some of them are as follows: Stones (2001:129) defines local government as that part of government which deals with those matter which concern the people living in a particular locality. Stoker (1996:21) states that local government is a corporate body, it has an identity for itself and even more, it is considered as having a legal personality. Carney (1998:30) defines local government as the order of government closest to the people and are agents of dynamic change. Jackson (2000:61) defines local government as the breaking down of a country into small units or localities for the purpose of administration. Turner (2001:31) defines local government as a political subdivision of a nation or State which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs, including powers to impose taxes or exact labour for prescribed purposes. Therefore, for the purpose of this thesis a local government is believed to have distinctive characteristics which differentiate it from central government. It is 20 closer to the community, it is in a better position to address policies specifically at the needs of a particular region thereby alleviating pressure on the central government level. Specific rights such as autonomy of decision and public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the local government level are given by central government. This creates a feeling of communality. It also encourages communication and interaction between inhabitants and local government. History recognizes the invaluable contribution of Adrien D Epinay and Remy Ollier towards the creation of the Port Louis local government. The Municipality of Port Louis was set up in 1850 by virtue of Ordinance No. 16 which was passed by the Council of Government on 27 December 1849 (Bhuckory 1969:10). In 1903, the Ordinance of the municipality of Port Louis was strengthened and amended to give greater powers to the citizens in the affairs of local governance (Dukhira 2000:129). It may be noted here that city status was granted to Port Louis in August 1966 (Dukhira 2000:130). Mauritius became independent on 12th March, 1968 from British colonial rule. After independence, the Constitution of Mauritius was amended. Consequently local government was given certain powers in relation to local affairs. In this way, local people started taking interest in the public policy that affected their lives. Scope of the research and the time dimension of the period of study Principally, the study focuses on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with particular reference to the Port Louis local government. In other words the study follows the deductive approach from the general to the specific. Within the context of the hypothesis for the research, it becomes necessary to widen the scope of research, to give a wider understanding to the main theme for the study as stated above. The researcher selected to make observations 21 over a period of approximately five years from February 2003, until February 2008. This period of study was the cut-off point for collecting materials in order to complete the thesis for examination purposes. This study therefore covers exploration of the literature in public participation, policy-making, policy implementation and local government, and the practice of them in the Mauritian context. This study level establishes a ground work from which further inquiries may be undertaken. Method of data collection The research methods followed in realizing the aim of this study include a combination of approaches that are primarily theoretical and analytical. There is a theoretical review of literature in Public Administration, particularly on exposition of the theory of participation, decentralization, democracy, community development, public policy and policy implementation. Attempts are made to rely on primary and secondary sources. In this study a distinction is made between primary and secondary information sources. Primary information sources refers to textual information, qualitative data, official documents, reports, memoranda, letters, published documents of the Port Louis local government and Mauritian Constitution. A secondary information sources, on the other hand, refers to data that are already available, for example, books, reference works, journals, newspaper, pamphlets, unpublished theses and dissertations. Information on public participation in policy-making and policy implementation at the Port Louis local government in Mauritius is obtained through empirical research. Empirical research bases its findings on direct or indirect observation. This research method uses the instrument such as human eye to describe the entity being observed. Therefore, this thesis makes use of a 22 survey questionnaire, interview, qualitative participative observation study and comprehensive literature study as the most appropriate research methods. Survey questionnaire The survey questionnaire was distributed to respondents in selected areas within the geographic borders of the Port Louis local government. The survey questionnaire was distributed to community members in the north, south, east and west of the Port Louis local government. The survey questionnaire was also distributed to various senior officials such as town clerk, deputy town clerk, human resources manager, chief town planner and chief town engineer of the Port Louis local government. Each potential participant in the data collection process was given a questionnaire to read before deciding whether to participate in the survey or not. Full details of the questionnaire is presented in Chapter 4 and in annexures 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The questionnaire is divided into two sections: A and B. The responses of different participants are analysed in Chapter 5. One of the advantages of using a survey questionnaire is that it provides high measurement reliability if proper questionnaire construction is used. It also has a high construct validity if proper controls are implemented. Additionally, this method provides the potential to generalize to large populations if appropriate sampling design is implemented (Mouton 2002:153). However, a survey questionnaire has also limitations such as lack of researcher perspective which sometimes lead to criticisms of surface level analysis and false information given by respondents (Mouton 2002:153). Nevertheless, for the purpose of this study the use of a questionnaire was considered appropriate for gathering baseline information on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government as it provided high 23 measurement reliability and validity. The researcher planned to use a sampling technique which best represented a working universe. The sampling technique used in this research study is the purposive sampling model. In the sampling technique, the sample size per se is considered less essential than the criteria used to choose the sample. Furthermore, this study used a mixture of strategic informant sampling. Smith (1975:118) defined this as a sampling that rests on the assumption that knowledge is unequally distributed and that different participants provide a series of general, specific and marginal observations. The assumption behind purposive sampling is that by using good judgement and an appropriate strategy, the researcher in this thesis, can handpick the cases to be included and develop samples that are satisfactory. By using this technique the researcher can use his expertise to select subjects who represent the population being studied (Bailey 1982:100). Authors such as Wimmer and Dominick (1991:68) have stated that in a purposive sample respondents are chosen because they possess the necessary characteristics and they are accessible to the researcher. The results of the survey have been tabulated followed by an analysis of the results in Chapter 5. Interviews An interview is described by Gillham (2000:3) as a conversation, usually between two people, in which one person (the interviewer) is seeking responses for a particular purpose from the other person (the interviewee). Maykut and Morehouse (1994:80) are more accurate in saying that an interview is a form of discourse shaped and organized by the asking and answering of questions, thereby allowing the interviewer and interviewee to talk about the focus of the study, and it also leads to a discussion of thought and perceptions. In this study, the researcher used the interview as the dominant strategy for data collection. 24 The purpose of the interview method used in this thesis was to search for the level of the public s understanding regarding public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. The interviews were conducted in order to supplement the literature study and the survey questionnaire. Some of the senior officials and councillors of the Port Louis local government were also interviewed with a view of gaining information regarding public participation. The interviews were conducted in person at the residence of the members of the public in the north, south, east and west of the Port Louis local government. One of the objectives for selecting this group of personnel is to identify what mechanisms or strategies the Port Louis local government uses to involve public participation in policy-making and policy implementation. During interviews of local government officials a range of questions were asked based on the questionnaire. As expected the interviews lasted from half an hour to one hour. The goal of studying groups with this characteristic means that purposive sampling, or using the researcher s judgment is to select cases of particular types for in-depth study (Neuman 2003:213). The interviews were transcribed and analysed for recurring themes using open, axial and selective coding. During the first phase of the interview a list of major themes was drafted. Unique features of each case study were noted. During the second phase of the interview, responses were grouped by themes. Ultimately, the third phase was concerned with linking ideas that were researched in the literature. Conducting interviews on a topic such as public participation in the making and implementation of policy offer particular advantages such as high construct validity, in-depth insights, low refusal rates and ownership of findings. It also establishes rapport with research subjects (Mouton 2002:142). On the other hand, interviews are not free from limitations namely lack of generalisation of 25 results, non-standardization of measurement and data collection and analysis are time consuming (Mouton 2002:148). Despite all these, this method was chosen for data collection because interviews gives the opportunity of personal contact with respondents. By conducting as many interviews as possible, it facilitated the task of analyzing and evaluating information for its validity and reliability. Therefore this thesis attempted to comprehend the conduct of particular individuals observed from their own perspective. Detailed discussions are presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Reference technique The reference technique used in this study is the Abbreviated Harvard System as outlined in Roux, , Reference technique. Pretoria: Department of Library and Information Science, University of South Africa. Sources consulted are compiled in an alphabetical list of sources that appear at the end of the thesis. Framework of the thesis and exposition of chapters This section of the research study summarises the structure of the thesis by referring to the titles of the various chapters as well as the purpose of each chapter. The results of the research study are presented in such a way that the reader can easily grasp the overall objective of the thesis. Chapter 1 serves as a basis for the subsequent chapters. This chapter is introductory in nature, in which there is commentary of the choice of the subject matter. It includes the background, motivation, problem statement, the research problems, purpose, hypothesis, approach to the study and the reference techniques employed in this thesis. The time dimension of the 26 research, reasons for selecting the problem for research as well as the scope of the research are mentioned in this chapter. The chapter is concluded with a summary of the contents of chapters in the thesis. Chapter 2 explores the theoretical foundations of public participation by using a literature review on key concepts in the milieu of public participation in the making and implementation of policy. This chapter serves as a bridge between later chapters treated in the thesis as it deals with theoretical overview and core concepts relevant to public participation. Analysis of the key concepts of the problem statement is done in such a way that the measurable parts become evident. The background information provided in this chapter is expected to facilitate understanding of the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Attention is devoted on clarification of concepts such as decentralization, democratization, democracy, local governance, good governance, community development, public policy and policy implementation. The major objective of this Chapter is to identify the golden thread running through these concepts where public participation revolves. In so doing, this Chapter explores the first research question. The Chapter 3 focuses attention on the second research question. The impact of the Constitutional and legislative framework on public participation in policy-making and implementation is explored. This Chapter 3 endeavours to orientate the study in scientific approach. It starts exploring the impact of the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government. Chapter 3 is structured into sections dealing with specific legislative prescriptions particularly on participatory governance in the Mauritian local government, public participation in information provision to policy-makers and implementers, public participation through access to information, public participation through responsiveness to public needs, public participation 27 through accountability to public needs, public participation in developmental local government, public participation through transparency to public needs, public participation through elite, public participation through local administration, public participation in municipal finance, public participation in local politics, public participation in socio-economic issues and public participation through control instrument for the making and implementation of policy. Chapter 4 has an essential place in this thesis as it provides a firm foundation for Chapter 5 which highlights the research findings and its interpretation. Attention is concentrated on research philosophy, design and methodology for thi s thesis. Clarification is made between quantitative and qualitative research methodology. The research design is discussed in detail taking into account design choices, validity and reliability. Chapter 4 devotes attention on questionnaire development, research process, selection of sample, research areas, piloting the questionnaire development, research process, selection of sample, research areas, piloting the questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, data presentation, rethinking subjectivity-using reflexibility, ethical issues in this research, limitations of research and data analysis. Chapter 5 explores the third and fourth research questions. The primary focus of Chapter 5 is to present the research findings and analyze the research data obtained from questionnaire and interviews. Data are presented in tables in order to facilitate reference and interpretation. The percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole number for clarity and uniformity purpose. This part of the study is considered to be essential in order to contextualise the phenomenon of public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government. Discussion of the research findings are also based on the interpretation of information obtained by way of literature review. Chapter 6 comprises of summary, concluding remarks and recommendations. This concluding chapter returns to the problem indentified in the introductory 28 chapter of the thesis. The issues discussed include weighing of the hypothesis and the problem statement against the accumulated evidence. The main aim of this study has been highlighted in Chapter 6 taking into account the four objectives of the research questions. Recommendations presented in Chapter 6 are based on the research findings. Ultimately, the sources consulted are listed. Also annexures and survey questionnaire are presented at the end of this thesis. Conclusion This Chapter has served to identify a problematic situation with regard to public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government, to which the present study is a response and to emphasise the importance of the research problem. It also demarcates the field of study, notes the originality of the study and comments briefly on the approach followed. Moreover, this chapter surveys the structure of the thesis and provides a concise indication of the content of each of the remaining chapters of the thesis. The next step is to endeavour to orientate the research problem in scientific approach, an objective which is pursued in the ensuing chapter. 29 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This literature review of the study is aimed at investigating and exploring the first research question set out in the introductory chapter: What are the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level? This chapter provides a solid foundation for subsequent chapters treated in this thesis. Analysis of the core concepts of the research problem is done in such a way that the measurable parts become obvious. Concepts discussed in this chapter are not the only concepts that exist. The boundary of knowledge regarding public participation is constantly changing as new scientific and theoretical knowledge are being added to the existing one. This makes the field more challenging and interesting to study than it would have been if the same concepts were studied all the time. This chapter starts by clarifying what does concept mean for this thesis. Then explanation follows regarding some of the forms of public participation, levels of public participation, some of the obstacles to public participation practice and legislation on public participation with specific reference to Port Louis local government. Also for the purpose of this thesis specific concepts include decentralization, democratization, democracy, local governance, good governance, community development, public policy and policy implementation. As a result, each phenomenon is explored and its relevance indicated within the 30 context of public participation. The major goal is to identify the golden thread running through these concepts where public participation revolves. Concept In the words of Fred (2003:60) a concept expresses an abstraction formed by generalization from particular aspects of reality. According to Young (2004:81) each new class of data isolated from the other classes on the basis of definite characteristics, is given a name, in short a concept. Concepts are framed, developed and coined at a particular time, when some knowledge is available to the community. As the knowledge increases with that the meanings of the concepts may change depending on the context they are used. As more and more knowledge is gathered with that more accurate and precise meanings are given to concepts (Patton 1989:4). For the purpose of this thesis the concepts are analysed scientifically so that each concept carries comprehensive meanings and the measurable parts become evident. The section below discusses key concepts that relate to public participation in policy-making and implementation at local government level. Some of the forms of public participation Public participation takes many forms and dimensions. The section below discusses some of the forms of public participation at the local government level. 31 Elections Voting can be described as a process through which the electorate choose among candidates who are eligible for a certain vacancy. Voting in elections is regarded as the principal form of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the local government level. The rule is that in a democratic local government, elections are held at intervals of not longer than five years, to give the registered voters an opportunity of expressing the approval or disapproval of the way the elected representatives have acquainted themselves of their work (Fred 2003:71). Therefore, the ballot box is the channel through which the electorates participate in the policy decisions of the government of the day. Consultation Consultation involves a process of communication between the government and the governed in dealing with a public issue (Craythorne 1997:99). Consultation also refers to a process of seeking information or advice. Consultation between the local government and participants is a two-way process: each has something the other wants. Therefore, consultation is a form of participation in which information is made available and opinions of participants are elicited. Interest groups An interest group usually comprises of six to ten people brought together to discuss a specific issue. An interest group serves as a mouthpiece for a specific community group in society (Hanekom 1991:80). On the basis of common interests or a particular interest that is affected by government 32 decisions, interest groups seek to influence policy-making institutions by oral or written representations. The actions of interest groups are aimed mainly at promoting the interests of their members (Patton 1989:21). Hence, interest groups enable policy makers to take cognizance of the prevailing views, facts and values in order to establish meaningful priorities for general satisfaction in the community. The section below explains different types of interest groups. Political parties Political parties are among the principal pressure groups in the making and implementation of policy. A pressure group attempts to influence policy through persistent pressure on policy makers. The main objective of any political party is to gain control, either by its unaided efforts or in collaboration with other parties, of the government administration in relation to public policy (Patton 1989:81). Hence, the political party thus serves as an important mechanism for the articulation and final inclusion of the needs and demands of public in the policy agenda. Professional groups Professional groups such as Medical Council, Dental Council and Association of Law Societies influence policy making and implementation (Fred 2003:91). Thus, professional groups therefore ensure that policy decisions affecting the interests of members are taken into consideration by the government of the day. 33 The business sector The degree of democracy is linked with the basic freedoms that exist in a country such as the right to private ownership. This right enables people to participate in the free market system of profit, supply and demand. Also the connection between the free market system, private entrepreneurship and democracy has certain consequences for public policy making and implementation. Businessmen act as policy advisers to public policy makers (Fred 2003:63). Thus, businessmen are in a stronger position than other pressure group because they usually have more money, ready-made organization and their favourable position provides them preferential access to public participation in the making and implementation of policy. Sports institutions, cultural and religious bodies Sports institutions, cultural and religious bodies participate in public policy-making and implementation (Patton 1989:30). Consider, for instance, policy on sport, subsidizing of arts and religious freedom. Churches and other religious groups endeavour to influence government policy in their favour and in accordance with their values. Hence, these ensures that policy decisions taken by government institutions must consider the interest of members. Referendum A referendum is a mechanism which allows members of the public to make a choice between alternative courses of action on particular issue. The results of the referendum may then be embodied in the particular state's constitution (Leach 2000:90). According to Holden (1993:75) a referendum is a provision permitting voters to accept or reject a public policy measure at a formal 34 election. Its particulars vary from State to State: it may be binding or advisory and constitutional or legislative. However, a referendum requires a long and expensive phase of information and debate. Public may be more susceptible to emotional assertions than to reasoned opinions (Ranney 1995:98). Moreover, a referendum gives public an opportunity to inform policy makers about the popular opinion on a controversial issue (Fred 2003:69). Thus, voters may participate directly in the making of policy by voting for or against a particular proposal in a referendum. The power of referendum does not permit the public to invalidate a law that is already operative, but suspends or annuls a law that has not yet gone into effect. In this sense, a referendum is similar to a governor's veto power. Nonviolent protest Voters participate in the policy making and implementation by means of nonviolent form of protest such as marches, demonstrations and mass meetings. According to Wilkinson (1988:30) nonviolent protest is not necessarily a rejection of authority. Nonviolent protest is based on moral pressure. However, large scale passive resistance is potentially more serious as it directly challenges authority and is an effective strategy for revolutionary action. Hence, nonviolent protest in a complex local government with rapidly changing needs is more than just a safety valve. It is also a valuable form of public participation for a government capable of using it effectively and efficiently for this purpose. Survey questionnaires Survey questionnaires are used for asking prepared questions of a sample population that is statistically representative of all members of the public 35 (Atkinson 1992:21). Survey questionnaires are undertaken in order to find out what the attitudes, views and opinions of the public are about a specific issue. However, survey provides a still image of public opinion, but it does not provide any sense of how it may change with time and other factors. Nevertheless, survey is one of the forms of public participation in policy making and implementation which provide public policy makers valuable information on public preferences. Survey questionnaires are consolidated by using interviews. Simultaneously, interviews consist of the application of survey questionnaires with semi-structured questions directed to key informants in the local government area, with the objective of raising information of a qualitative character about a set of variables which the technical team of planning is responsible for carrying out (Patton 1989:78). Interviews, therefore, give the participants an opportunity to express their opinions and views on public policy issues. Public hearings Public hearings are traditional methods of seeking public views on particular issue or facilitating debate on broad options. Public hearings give the public an opportunity to express their views and ask question on public policy issues. Public hearings are held prior to the enactment of law or before the implementation of public policy (Atkinson 1992:88). For its effectiveness, members of the public needs to be given background information on policy - making. Therefore, public hearings are another form of public participation in the policy matters. 36 Municipal workshop The municipal workshop represents an event in which representatives of all social and institutional players encompassed in the process take part (Fred 2003:41). This event is convened by the mayor and it is directed by the technical planning team. It has as its main objectives the definition of the strategic vision of local government development and the prioritizing of municipal demand. According to Quade (1982:62) municipal worskhops are working sessions of small groups dedicated to complete the analysis of policy issues. One of the benefits of working in a municipal workshop is to be able to share responsibilities with different people undertaking different parts of the work (Atkinson 1992:96). However, a municipal workshop is not adequate for large audiences. It is frequently necessary to organize municipal workshops in several places and on several public issues (Connolly 1995:32). Hence, a municipal workshop is a task oriented meeting organized around a particular public policy issue. Therefore, a municipal workshop is another form of public participation. Conference A forum at which a panel of six to ten citizens, selected from members of the public, question policy makers on a particular topic. Over a period of around three days, the panel assesses the responses, discusses the issues raised and reports its conclusions which are circulated to policy makers and to the media (Patton 1989:31). The forum needs not come to a consensus, but is encouraged to explore the extent to which members are able to agree. The media like radio and television are given an opportunity to question the panel (Fred 2003:21). Thus, the use of teleconferencing has enabled members of the public to have face to face question and answer sessions. 37 Mass media Mass media such as radio and television broadcasting play a vital role in disseminating information on public policy. Members of the public can participate in radio and television programme on public policy and provide their opinions and views thereon (Fred 2003:61). Therefore, radio and television are additional mechanism for public participation in the public matters. Likewise, newspapers and magazines are also mass media through which members of the public can vent their opinions and views on public policy issues (Patton 1989:43). Thus, newspapers and magazines provide written information on policy issues which are vital source for discussion in a democratic local government. Committee meetings A committee is a formally constituted body that consists of people who have been appointed so as to examine a particular policy matter (Webster 1995:180). Meetings are at the heart of public participation processes, whether social get-together, committees, workshops or public meetings (Ranney 1995:300). According to Holden (1993:80) a committee is a type of small deliberative assembly that is usually subordinate to another, larger deliberative assembly. Moreover, committees are meetings with an order of the agenda, some agreed procedures, officials and records. Committees often serve several different functions such as governance, co-ordination, research and recommendations (Craythorne 1997:111). Hence, committee meetings are interactive where participants undertake in-depth discussions on public policy matters. 38 Public meetings Public meetings usually involve a speaker or panel giving a presentation followed by a question and answer session on policy matters. Sometimes these are broken down into small group discussions returning to plenary sessions (Fred 2003:88). Although widely used, public meetings are not the most effective method of involving people (Ridley 2001:32). While public meetings are useful for giving information and gaining support around a clear-cut public issue, they are poor vehicles for debate and decision-making classic public meetings with a platform party can easily be dominated by a small number of people and become stage sets for confrontation. Nevertheless, public meeting provides an opportunity for members of public and policy makers to throw light on policy issues. The internet The use of the internet as a means of making available large amount of regularly up-dated reference material has been seen by many as the way forward in information provisions on public policy (Fred 2003:21). Through the use of e-mail members of the public give their opinion on policy issues. The internet is the fastest means of public participation in policy making. With the establishment of local government website, members of the public are able to give information on different policy matters. 39 Levels of public participation Below are different levels of public participation. The polemics on the concept of public participation presented here form a diversity of secondary sources. There are three levels of passive or masked participation. This is the kind of participation which is outside people s control and therefore whose design and purpose is externally conceptualized. These levels have been identified here as extractionist, vertical and handout induced as described below. Extractionist public participation This type of public participation is reminiscent with central government development planning where a blue-print plans are drawn-up and handed to the local government. In this framework, policy-makers see public participation as a process of drawing-in people into the making and implementation of policy. In this case people are seen as a resource potential in the policy making process. Communities have readily available and free labour for local government modernization programmes, which Knoetze (1984:99) terms as sweat equity. In extractionist public participation, people are often treated as objects to be acted upon by policy makers (White 2003:43). In this paradigm, people are stripped off policy-making responsibilities. Through carefully planned manipulation loaded with participatory slogans and rhetoric, people are degenerated into mere tools for the execution and implementation of policy drawn out by others. This approach assumes that people do not know what their development needs and priorities are. Law enforcement and punitive measure are usually employed to coerce people to co-operate where 40 persuasion fails. Hence, such approaches undoubtedly create room for abuse of power. It is essential to note here that with the above extractionist analogy, however, it does not intend to create the impression that citizens' contribution in policy making and implementation is not important. The crux of the matter here is the question of the quality of public s level of participation in the policy making and implementation. Hence, the greater the scope of public participation in policy making, the less the prevailing conditions would be conducive to extractionism. Vertical public participation This kind of public participation manifests itself in the circumstances where community power brokers develop mutually beneficial relations with individual elites as the basis for people s mobilization for participation. In this form of participation a community appoints one or more of its formal representatives in a policy-making institution (White 2003:44). The basic understanding is that less people are represented in policy-making institution, their interest, preferences and demands would most likely be sidelined or overlooked. In this case public participation is understood in terms of representation. Handout-induced public participation The handout-induced approach to public participation tends to maintain the supremacy of professional knowledge and expertise. This approach often stifles people s initiatives, as people have to wait for professional guidance and approval to make and implement policy. Dependence, therefore, 41 develops and leads to paternalism. The orientation of this approach is the modernization school of thought, which believes that poverty is caused by internal factors such as ignorance, disease, disasters and climatic condition (Patton 1989:11). Thus, this model is characterized by an attempt to involve knowledge and resources from onside in the policy-making process. Some of the obstacles to public participation practice The main areas of difficulty affecting public participation are lack of desire to improve, lack of awareness of the need, unacceptable climate, lack of feedback and resistence to change conflict. These are discussed below. Lack of desire to improve For public participation to be successful, it is important that the masses must have the will to improve (Leach 2000:81). No strategy can succeed if people do not have the inspiration to tackle a problem. Hence, members of the public must be full of passion about improving their living conditions. This desire must be very strong so that members of the public become aware of the need to improve. Lack of awareness of the need This is another obstacle of public participation practice. At time when the need for improvement does arise members of the public do not show an awareness and are not sensitive to it. It serves no purpose if there is a need for participation but nothing is done about it (Leach 2000:84). Thus when the need for participation does arise, members of the public should be affected in 42 such a way that they are ready to create the right climate for public participation. Unacceptable climate Unacceptable climate is another obstacle to public participation. For success of public participation there should be acceptable climate. All the members of the public and institutions that are influenced by participation should be in favour of it (Leach 2000:134). Thus, lack of cooperation between all the parties involved in public participation leads to in-effective interaction. Lack of feedback Public participation is also affected by lack of feedback. It is important for members of the public to know that their inputs are being received and used. Once members of the public have identified their needs, this information should be passed on or feedback to the relevant agents. Hence, the agents must give feedback to the public so that they know that their inputs are regarded as valuable and are being used (Leach 2000: 91 & 190). Resistance to change Public institutions resist change, and communication blocks within public institutions can prevent them from making timely responses to the needs of members of the public. The established routines and institutional systems of many bodies seek to promote the status quo . Institutional structures which support sustainability and therefore public participation are a threat to command and control style management system (Leach 2000:41). Hence, 43 public managers who have risen to power in this style of structure frequently resist the transition to alternative structures which embrace public participation. Conflict in public participation Public involvement may result in an increased level of conflict (Leach 2000:58). Becoming involved in a consultative process where the decision has already been made or where the possible outcomes are not made clear at the outset can lead to a great deal of frustration. Anger may follow when the input of the public is ignored. Conflict can also occur between professionals. One source of such disagreements could evolve from the different emphases of scientific peer reviews process is well established and is essential to assess the technical information provided to policy makers (Leach 2000:80). Therefore, conflict in public participation affect the success of public participation initiative. From the above, it is clear that although a local government endeavours to implement public participation in the policy-making process, yet it has to deal with the obstacles. Hence, the above obstacles prevent effective and successful public participation in local government. Legislation and policies on public participation with specific reference to Port Louis local government The Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) makes several provisions directly linked with public participation in the policy- making process. Article 76 stipulates that the government must encourage public participation as a matter of policy: The State shall promote 44 and encourage public participation in laying down policies, making decisions on political issues, preparing economic, social and political development plans and inspecting the use of State power at all levels. Linked to this precedent, is another path-breaking article under the section on the rights and liberties of the Mauritian people: A person shall have the right to participate in the decision-making process of public officials in the performance of an administrative act which affects or may affect his or her rights and liberties as provided by law. Section 62 of the Constitution, 2003 also recognizes the special interests of civic sector organizations in the formulation of policies which directly affect their members or constituents. For instance, when deliberating a bill concerned with children, women, the elderly, the disabled or the handicapped, consultation with civic sector organizations is required. Section 71 of the Constitution, 2003 provides the citizens of Mauritius with some basic rights for public participation: right of expression, right of free assembly, right of association and right to petition. Although the Constitution provides the public with some basic rights for public participation in legislation and governing process, yet there is no specific right for legislation and policy-making addressed directly for public in the Constitution. In general, rights of initiative in legislation and policy-making belongs to parliament, government and the president. Also there is no specific access to information law and no detailed procedures for right to know and access to information in any law related to public participation. Moreover, Section 82 of the Constitution, 2003 also provides that citizens may join together and form self-governing local bodies to further their common interests. Specific matters falling within the jurisdiction of the State may be left by statute to be realized by local bodies. This provision proves to 45 be a useful tool for public participation at local government level. Citizens of local governing communities decide on the affairs of the local serf-government through a council like that of Port Louis local government, which is elected freely and secretly on the basis of direct, equal and general voting rights. A direct form of policy-making by the public in local self -governing communities on matters of local self-government are the local assembly, the referendum and local autonomy. The important role public participation plays in the administration of a particular local government is universally accepted even though the extent and degree of participation may vary from one country to another or amongst local authorities themselves. In Mauritius, with the coming into force the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) local authorities are required to state what they have done or doing to involve members of the public in the policy-making process which affect their living condition. According to section 9 of the New Local Government, Act 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), participation in local government takes many forms: consultation, where the council identifies an issue and seeks public response; direct public involvement, where the community is a full member in the policy-making institution; community action, where groups put forward their own demands; and community self-governance, where elected representatives have responsibilities over a comprehensive set of functions. Hence, Port Louis local government is required to apply the above provisions in the making and implementation of policy. It is important for Port Louis local government to take note that public participation is a fundamental 46 instrument for good governance and one of the basic rights as stipulated in legislation. The concept of decentralisation on public participation at local government level One of the most important benefits of local government is that it is closer to the community than the central government and is therefore in a better position to be able to recognize the needs of the community. That is why the concept of decentralization is often used in close connotation with local government. The promotion of public participation through decentralization has been the centre stage since the advent of multiparty democracy in most developing countries including Mauritius. This section of the thesis examines decentralization as one of the concepts for promoting public participation in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government. Decentralisation is the antonym or opposite of centralization or concentration. The system whereby local government is established at a distance from the central government is known as decentralization. Centralisation, on the other hand, denotes the system of a central government where final authority is vested. Moreover, centralisation also relates to the highest degree of coordination and uniformity. The concept of decentralization is closely bound up with local government. Within the context of a state, decentralisation is referred to the process designed to disperse power from the central government to local government. Municipal decentralization is closer to the community and therefore in a better position to identify the specific needs of the community. Political decentralization or devolution lead to the establishment of a system of local government through which the community has the opportunity to participate in the making and implementation of policy (Dror 1975 : 78). 47 According to Crook (1994:339), policy advocates have justified decentralization as a vital building block of good governance, which is generally interpreted as accountability, transparency and pluralist. Politically decentralization is considered a means to promote public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the local government level. Two major forms of decentralization are recognized in the literature: deconcentration and devolution. Deconcentration refers to the transfer of state responsibilities and resources from the central government to the local government within the same administrative system. Devolution, on the other hand, involves the transfer of specific political responsibilities and resources to a community which is represented by elected representatives based on the multi-dimensional character of the nature of a state, It is also useful to identify the conceptual dimensions of decentralization: political decentralization administrative decentralization integrated decentralization, sectoral decentralization, economic decentralization and financial decentralisation. The concept of political decentralization in public participation Political decentralization refers to an opening of political space at the local government, the political decentralisation is important for the creation and strengthening of local government institutions for enhancing the vertical and horizontal decentralization (Dror 1975:76). The latter refers to local government institutions for promoting separation of power and accountability of the executive such as local legislative and to judicial structures. It also refers to the creation and strengthening of local government institutions designed to promote the vertical decentralization of power through local government institution. According to Osborne (1994:28) political decentralization involves a degree of political autonomy, with policy-making 48 transferred from central government to local government. In this regard, political decentralization is viewed as self-government enjoyed by local units in their relation to central government, thus implying a measure of independence from central control. It is usually gauged by the allocation of powers and functions between central and local units. Moreover, political decentralization is an integral part of the logic of democratization - the power of the voters to determine their own form of government, representation, policies and public services (Hanson 1995:66). Therefore, political decentralization presupposes transfer of functions or authority from central level of government to local institutions that are based on local political representation. This means that the local institution to which tasks are devolved must be governed by locally elected representatives. The concept of administrative decentralization in public participation Administrative decentralization means delegation of tasks or transfer of authority from central government to local government. This type of decentralization is frequently referred to as de-concentration. De-concentration relates to policy-decision taken at local government level (Conyers 2000:21). With de-concentration, strong centralizing tendencies coexist with particular forms of bureaucratic decentralization (Hanson 1995:80). It refers to efforts at de-concentrating policy-making from central government to local government (Manor 1996:21). According to Schedler (2000:96) administrative decentralization is concerned with how political institutions, once determined, turn policy decisions into allocative outcomes through fiscal and regulatory actions. Hence, administrative decentralization is concerned with strengthening the field of administrative organizations at the local government level. 49 The concept of integrated decentralization in public participation Integrated decentralization means transfer of authority to local government level which has a territorial restricted mandate (Ridley 2001:80). Integrated decentralization is concerned with co-ordinating the distribution of scarce resources between and across local government authorities (Arblaster 1998:81). According to Connolly (1995:78) integrated decentralization refers to transfer of tasks or authority to local government multi-purpose institutions. Hence, local government institutions are supposed to co-ordinate and set priorities between policy issues. The concept of sectoral decentralization in public participation Sectoral decentralization takes place if the responsibility for one sector is transferred to a local institution that has this task as its single responsibility within its territorial jurisdiction (Ridley 2001:90). Sectoral decentralization refers to the transfer of centrally produced and provided public goods and services to local-level units in the government hierarchy of jurisdictions (Conyers 2000:98). According to Hanson (1995:113) when a whole range of public services is grouped together in a specific geographic area due to various considerations such as communication problems, geographical co-ordination and commonality of political structures, the classification is done according to sectoral decentralization. A multitude of public functions is therefore allocated to such institutions. Examples of this type of decentralization are frequently found in local government sectors, among others, health, sanitation, water supply and agriculture. 50 The concept of economic decentralization in public participation Economic decentralization refers to the effort to open up the economy to competitive forces at the local government level. This also include deregulation and a range of macro-economic reforms (Allen 1984:42). According to Hanekom (1991:57) economic decentralization refers the process of transferring public sector tasks from central government level to local government level taking into consideration factors such as price, distribution, demand, supply, consumer choice, competition, taxation, monetary policy, fiscal policy, trade policy, unemployment and inflation. Therefore, economic decentralization enables local government to manage available scarce resources efficiently. The concept of financial decentralization in public participation Finally, financial decentralisation, among other things, refers to the transfer of financial resources from central to local governments taking into account the responsibilities allocated to these institutions. This helps local authorities to manage autonomously their projects in order to promote the welfare of the citizens (Manor 1996:38). To be genuinely supportive of a financial decentralization process, the basic characteristic should include: transparency of allocation, predictability of the amounts available to local institutions and local autonomy of policy-making on resource utilization (Hanson 1995:120). Hence, financial decentralization refers to downward transfer, by which central government cede influence over budgets and financial decisions of local government. For a genuine decentralization to prevail at the Port Louis local government, it is important that the above mentioned dimensions of decentralization be prevalent. Chapter 5 of this thesis explores this issue through research 51 conducted at Port Louis local government. Decentralisation along any one of these dimensions will reinforce and assist the process along others at the local government level. The contrary is also the case, and centralized along any of these dimensions tends to constrain decentralization along other dimensions. Decentralisation brings government closer to the people and lay a solid base for participatory democracy and a representative system of government that guarantees grass-roots involvement in local governance. Among the policy objectives set out in the Mauritius Decentralisation Policy (2005:4) are the: promotion of accountability and good governance at the local level; creation of a democratic environment and institutions in Mauritius for government and development at the local level; strengthening and deepening of democracy by bringing the services and decision making closer to the community; and establishment of strong local institutions that embrace participatory democracy. Therefore, without the application of these dimensions, or at least one of them, in place, decentralization to self-governing Port Louis local government will be nothing more than rhetoric. Chapters 5 and 6 in this thesis examine these through research conducted among the citizens and some of the staff at Port Louis local government. 52 The concept of development on public participation Literature studies show that public participation lead to community development. Before continuing to explore the literature on public participation at local government, it is important to say something on the concept of development. Development is defined as a process through which human potentials are realized (Bryant & White 1982:5). David Korten says that development is a process by which people in the community increase both institution and personal capacities for effective and sustainable management of available resources for improving the general well being of inhabitants (Meyer, Theron & Van Rooyen 1975:15). The concept development has many dimensions such as economic development, physical development and social development. Economic development is aimed at trade, mining, industry and agriculture. Initiative of projects at community level are undertaken by local people. Physical development is concerned with infrastructural provisions, for instance, regional planning, water supply, housing and road building. As far as social development is concerned, it relates to health, education, culture and social welfare services. Its objectives are for attaining human development and effective public services. According to Lisk (1988:100), development is linked with popular public participation in the making and implementation of policy decisions at all levels including economic, physical and social activities. Being a multi-dimensional concept, development is closely linked with public participation for promoting better life for the people (Kenny 1994: 10). It has been observed that for most western nations, the concept of development is synonymous with economic growth. In the distance past it was stated that the gap between the poor and rich countries enlarged because of unequal 53 distribution of resources thereby leading to poor economic growth. Economists came up with the concept economic development to explain the phenomenon of development. Economic development has been used in local government since long in order to explain the condition necessary for employing scarce resources judiciously. Ultimately, after much research the nature of development was emphasized from collective application of human resources targeted towards the promotion of public welfare in the community. The concept of community development was used for the first time in 1948 at the Cambridge Conference (Ferrinho 1980:40). Here, the concept community development was defined as a programme of approaches and techniques which depend on local communities for self-determination, leadership and effort for obtaining community objectives (Ferrinho 1980:51). According to Lombard (1991:120) community development is a process that involves community involvement and participation. This denotes that participation strengthens the efforts of local people for mobilizing resources. By so doing, inhabitants of a locality identify and discover common needs and goals. The concept of community development has furthermore been defined by Kramer (1983:31) as a process through which various methods are employed by people for attaining participation goals. Closer analysis of the concept of community development shows that it is linked with public participation at community level. It has been stated by Levi and Litwin (1986:80) that in community development, local people mobilize resources in order to have a say in policy-making institutions. This opens the gate and forum for applying concept like policy-making in public participation. Additionally, community development demands community involvement and participation. By so doing, ordinary people overcome the feeling of 54 powerlessness and develop a strong bond through interaction at community level. Also community development provides an avenue by which different members of the community influence the policy-making and implementation processes. The concept of democracy on public participation One of the prominent characteristics of democracy which is central to democracy is the concept of public participation in the policy-making institutions. The literature reviewed indicates that a close connotation exists between public participation and democracy. It is argued that local government is a democratic tier of government. Local government is also very close to the citizens (Gildenhuys [ ]:12). As mentioned in the introductory chapter, democracy is considered as government by the people or by the people elected representatives . The concept democracy originates from the Greek words demos and kratein. Demos means the people and kratein. means to rule (Holden 1993:9) Athens is among the first recorded and one of the most important democracies in the ancient times. The philosopher Aristotle used the word democracy in the relation to local government (Gildenhuys, Fox & Wissink 1991:130). The idea was for allowing all citizens to participate in the activities of local government through meetings in order to address common interest (Gildenhuys et :140). Analyzing this approach of Aristotle shows that it is not possible in to-days world for organizing meeting and permitting all citizens to participate in large local government for problem solving. All citizens may not be free simultaneously and therefore not present in one meeting. 55 The increased importance given to local government is related to a worldwide wave of democratization. Before continuing the exploration of democracy it is essential to give the meaning of the different forms of democracy. The section below discusses participatory democracy, representative democracy, direct democracy and indirect democracy from the perspective of local government. The concept of participatory democracy at local government level Participatory democracy means a process that emphasizes the broad involvement of public in the direction and operation of local government systems. While etymological roots imply that all governments deserving the name democracy would rely on the participation of their citizens, traditional representative democracies tend to limit public participation to voting, leaving the main work of local governance to a professional political elite (Holden 1993 : 75). From this it can be deduced that participatory democracy strives to create opportunities for members of public to participate in the making and implementation of policy at the local government level. The concept of representative democracy at local government level Representative democracy is not generally considered participatory. Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the people s representative. Representative democracy is a theory of civics in which voters (in free, secret and multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests. 56 A representative democracy can involve more power given to the local legislators than under a constitutional monarchy or participatory democracy, so almost all constitutions provide for an independent judiciary to balance representative power (Holden 1993:41). Therefore, representation describes how residents of a community are empowered in the local government. In representative democracies, elected representatives speak for their constituents in the local legislature. One critique of representative democracy is that it centralizes power into the hands of the wealthy, thereby increasing the likelihood of public policies which benefit the wealthy. This can be called corruption in and abuse of power by a local government. It has been observed that in the United States, the principal means to reduce this risk is to form government called a constitutional democracy or more accurately a republic with constitutionally ordained democratic local institutions. Wherein a separation of power is used to constitutionally establish a system of checks and balances. Such checks and balances are a critical element of a Jeffersonian democracy. Other democracies among advanced industrial countries rely on the strength of public participation, particularly through multi-party systems at the local government level. Moreover, while some contend that representative democracy eliminated demagognery, there is little reason to believe the elected local representatives is subject to the persuasive appeal of demagogues. The concept of direct democracy at local government level Direct democracy is classically termed as pure democracy. It is a form of local government based on a theory of civics in which public at the local government level directly participate in the making and implementation of 57 policy. Direct democracy is characterized by three pillars, namely initiative, referendum and recall. Initiative means originating policy issues affecting people in their locality. The second pillar relates to the ability to hold a binding referendum on whether a given law should be scrapped. This effectively grants the populace a veto on local government legislation. The third pillar gives the public the right to recall elected officials by petition and referendum (Holden 1993: 41). At local government level direct public participation involves election of councillors. Although direct democracy seems to be ideal for local government yet cannot fulfill all the interests of complex modern local government. Therefore for keeping the momentum of democracy on at the local government level, an indirect democracy in public participation is helpful. This is discussed below. The concept of indirect democracy at local government level Indirect democracy is a broad term describing a means of local governance by the people through elected representatives. Indirect democracy can be representative or non-representative. The most common systems found in todays local democratic government are mixed systems, combining elements of direct and indirect democracy. A representative democracy is a form of indirect democracy in which representatives are directly elected, and who are usually difficult to recall. Indirect democracy takes also the form of non-representative or delegative democracy (Ranney 1995:18). In delegative democracy, delegates are selected and expected to act on the wishes of the constituency. In this form of democracy the constituency may recall the delegate at any time. Therefore in the indirect democracy not all decisions are taken by public s 58 representatives. Some policy decisions are taken by the citizens themselves through, for example, referenda (Holden 1993:60). Relationship between local government, democracy, decentralisation and community development From the above, it is evident that there is some linkage between these concepts. For example local government and democracy mutually reinforce one another. Just as genuine local governments appear improbable without democracy, local governments are reputed to help to educate citizens in the art and discipline of democracy public participation. Local governments also help to recruit and train the political leadership as Tocqueville, the French aristocrat, noted after observing first-hand the workings of the American political system. Moreover, local governments also make it easier for citizens to demand accountable, efficient and transparent performance from public officials because of their geographical and psychological proximity to the people compared to the central government. Also, the local governments become the reference point for communication between the government and the local communities. In short local government provide a conducive environment for democracy and decentralisation to prevail. Decentralisation and democracy go hand in hand. Decentralisation creates the appropriate forum for democracy to flourish. By dispensing power from the centre to the periphery through decentralisation the practice of democracy at the local level become possible. This enhances public participation in the making and implementation of policy. 59 Local governments also help to mobilize resources for economic growth and eventually community development. Local governments provide and maintain basic infrastructures which stimulate community development. By providing efficient services to the community, local governments, relieves central government from tension regarding provision of public services at grass- roots level. Local governments are closer to the community and are in a better position to communicate with the citizens. Additionally, local governments are of critical importance for breaking bulk with respect to information, new technologies and seeds for small-scale agriculturalists and industrialists. All these eventually lead to community development. Indeed, it is not difficult to observe that there is a correlation between local government, democracy, decentralisation and community development. These concepts are the cornerstone of public participation at the local government level. The concept of democracy has different perceptions for people. According to Lincoln, democracy means government by the people and rule by the people . Holden (1993:21) states that democracy is a political system where the citizen positively or negatively make their contributions to public policy. The different views associated with democracy has been further discussed under the heading layers of democracy in local government. Mosca (2003:41) states that participatory democracy is an impossibility. The economist, Joseph Schumpter declared that democratic theory needs to be revised. The critics of the contemporary theory of democracy, as Pateman (2003:42) came to call it, agree that the classical theorist had been misunderstood. Paterman, having exposed the so-called myth of the classical theorists and the modern, contemporary theorists of democracy leads researchers to re-defining democracy with the intention of including maximum and authentic public participation. Furthermore, according to Mill, democracy is regarded as a system in which the most powerful collective 60 decision makers are selected through fair, honest and periodic elections. The literature viewed shows that democracy do not have a universally accepted definition. For attaining the goal of this research the concepts of democratic principles are analysed in an attempt to clarify the meaning of the concept democracy. Principles of democracy at local government level According (Ranney 1995:401) the principles of democracy is based on political equality, majority rule, popular consultation and popular sovereighty. These principles indicate that public participation is an essential aspect of democracy. Questions like the following are asked in democratic communities: Who should participate in policy-making at local government level? How to create a conducive environment for continuous public participation in local government? How many citizens are needed in policy-making at local government level? For addressing these questions it is important that the concepts of principles be discussed. The section below discusses the concepts from the view points of local government. 61 Political equality This principle relates to the fact that all people should be treated equally without thinking of their caste, colour, race or sex (Ranney 1995:400). Further all members of the community must be given equal chance for participating in the political activities. (Ranney 1995:403). Nevertheless, according to this principle only equal opportunity is given to the people in the political activities and not based on equal participation of the citizen. Hence, the diversity in the levels of participation has no effect on the principle of equality. In term of section 4 of the New Local Government of Mauritius (Act 21 of 2005) everybody at the local government level is given equal right for participation in the affairs of local government. Majority rule For the prevalence of democracy, it is essential that the will of all people must prevail. This principle states that matters at local government level should be settled based on the wishes of the majority (Arblaster 1998:80). Hence, the principles of majority rule states that no local government policy decision should be taken against the wishes or desires of majorities (Ranney 1995:141). This principle states public participation is an essential element for identifying citizen s views and eventually determining which view the majority of people support. Popular consultation This principle states that decision on public policies must be taken in consultation with the people themselves (Ranney 1995: 401).Popular consultation creates a conducive environment for public participation to 62 prevail. Also a conducive climate contributes towards the selection of public policies preferred by the citizens (Ranney 1995:504). Hence, local government become responsive to public needs. In terms of Section 9 of the New local Government of Mauritius (Act 23 of 2005) local government must consult the members of the public for the realization of public policies. Popular sovereignty Democracy is based on popular power and authority which the people possess. This in turn leads to popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty states that government policy- making power is vested in the hands of all members of the community (Ranney 1995:401). This principle requires public participation in the making and implementation of policy. However, this principle does not demand that all members of community must simultaneously participate in the policy making activities (Ranney 1995:402). For example mentally disabled and under age children are excluded in the participation process (Holden 1993:32). Moreover, for sovereignty to prevail, people delegate their decision-making power to local legislators executives and judges. This principle originates from public participation. According to the New Local Government of Mauritius (Act 23 of 2005) local government is given the right to govern the local affairs through municipal elections. The concept of democracy on public participation at local government level To sustain democracy in the local government, it has been established that there are three main theoretical traditions regarding democracy (Kay 1970:198) for, such as, democracy by proxy, participatory democracy and representative democracy. Democracy by proxy relates to the fact that 63 modern society because of its size and complexity cannot allow participatory democracy to prevail, therefore leaders are allowed to make decisions on the behalf of citizens. Smith (1988:90) say that it is possible that a man may have a vision of the common good and yet not take part in government . The elected political office bearer s represent the interests of the public. If the interests of the public are not fulfilled, the winning political party with the majority vote loses the support of the public and eventually the forthcoming municipal election. This phenomenon of representation of public interest at the local government level is one of the basic tenets of democratic characteristics. Next, as far as participatory democracy is concerned it focuses on the significance of participation in all phases of public life, for developing individual potential and capacities. Participatory democracy provides a forum for expressing public opinions through collective organization (Kay 1970:198). Ultimately, representative democracy emphasizes on accountability of public officials to the voters. The concept of representation means the public election of political representatives to serve the local legislative institutions. Representative democracy means that all major population categories of society should be proportionally reflected in the different levels of local government. Although there is greater support for the concept of representative public administration as a goal in the local government there is less agreement on the strategies to be followed on how to implement them. The least controversial way to representative democracy is equal employment opportunity. It can be stated that if minorities and women are given equal opportunity to obtain employment in local government, the negative effects of past discrimination will eventually vanish. Moreover, affirmative action can be applied also in order to attain the goal of representative democracy. By involving public in the policy-making and policy implementation local 64 institutions can help to promote the general well being of society Smith (1988:110). Democratic consolidation and the nature of democracy on public participation Like most conceptual construction, democratic consolidation also elicits divergent scholarly opinions. Andrews Schedlar (2000:18) observes that the scholarship on consolidation suffers from two deficiencies. First, it is conceptually unclear and too many understanding are added to it. Schedlar prefers to focus only on assessing the prospects of democratic continuity. Schedlar s second concern is a lack of methodological rigour in consolidation studies. On the one hand are furutistic studies concerning the expected fate of present democracies; these studies are based on ambiguous criteria, unreliable indicators and intuitive inferences. On the other hand are comparative studies and case studies, based on historical evidence. Quite often the two approaches become methodologically mixed, with the result that conclusions on consolidation depend on the relevant observers expectation that the democratic regime in a selected local authority will last well into the foreseeable future. Schedler (2000:41) is of the view that consolidation should be conceptualized in terms of probabilities. Both explanation (comparative and case studies) and prediction (futuristic studies) should not be deterministic, but rather probabilistic. In those terms consolidation can be operationalised as including the following: a diminishing risk of an autocratic regression; 65 subsiding threats of destabilization; a rising likelihood of military acquiescence; and dissolving uncertainties about the continuity of democracy All these are relevant for Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government as a comparative study can contribute towards providing criteria in terms of which democracy in Mauritius can be calibrated, not only to determine its stage of consolidation, but also to indicate which elements of democracy are better developed than others. This balance sheet will provide a substantiated indication of prevalence of democracy at the local government level in Mauritius. In order to facilitate an understanding of democracy in Mauritius the next paragraph discusses conceptualizations of democratic consolidation. Di Palma (2001:150) relied on Huntington s emphasis on institutionalization (1990:60). By that Di Palma meant the process by which organizations and procedures acquire value and the adaptability, complexity, autonomy and coherence of its organizations and procedure. Di Palma, furthermore, endorsed Huntington s notion of socialization or developing a democratic public participation culture as an indicator of consolidation. Linz and Stephan (1999:14) are well known for the notion that democracy is consolidated when it has become the only game in local government . The ideas of Linz and Stepan are summarized below. Behaviorally, a democratic regime in a territory is consolidated when no significant national, social, economic, political or institutional actors spend significant resources attempting to achieve their objectives by creating a non-democratic regime. Attitudinally, a democratic regime is consolidated when a strong majority economic problem and deep dissatisfaction with incumbents, 66 hold the belief that democratic local authorities are at the most appropriate place to govern collective life. Constitutionally, a democratic regime is consolidated when governmental and non-governmental forces alike become subject to, and habituated to, the resolution of conflict within the bounds of specific laws, procedures and institutions sanctioned by democratic process. Hence, consolidation appears to concentrate on institutionalization, democratic procedures and an acceptance of culture of democracy. This implies that local government institutions have developed the capacity to govern, that procedures for governing have been established which are popularly perceived as fair and legitimate. This leads to democratic consolidation. The different layers of democracy on public participation at local government level Four layers of democracy has been identified in literature relevant to this research. These layers are not mutually exclusive categories, and thus the notion of layers in used to establish the image of democratic permutations resting on one another. The first layer involves the optimal or ideal political stratification of society in support of sustainable democratic local authorities. According to James Myburgh (2004:81) majoritarian view is associated with the general will . Myburgh links this view to the French Revolution and Jacobin view that the people are one and possess a single correct general will the implication is that democracy means rule by the majority. According to Myburgh, this view, endorsed by Alexis de Tocqueville, assumes that the health of a democracy is dependent on the degree to which a local government enjoys the support of, and fulfill the interests and aspirations of the majority. In Myburgh s eyes (2004:99), the general will has two consequences. First, democracy means 67 that the people have regained their sovereignty. Hence their power and authority should be concentrated without any constraints. Second, those who stood outside of, or who opposed the general will , are not entitled to the rights and protection of the majority. The opposite side of the spectrum of this democratic layer is the pluralist social contract within a liberal democratic framework. Philosophically, this dictates that the majority must always be counterbalanced by minority rights. Libertarian philosophers were concerned with how to divide, limit and contain the power of the majority while at the same time ensuring that local government derive its authority from society. Between the libertarian social view of individualism and a network of minority rights, and the general will of majoritarianism, is the consociational view of plural societies with minorities accommodated in an organized majority (grand coalition). Arend Lijphart (1999:150) confirms the four well-known consociational principles, namely: gvernment by grand coalition , that is, by a broadly representative of all significant group; goup autonomy by means of territory and decentralization; poportionality, especially with regard to political representation; and mnority veto power concerning issues of vital importance to minorities. It can be deduced that in contrast with the pluralism of liberal democracy, consociational intends to bind minorities into a proportionally-based local majority. A local government with democratic and proportional representation is a classic combination of consociationalism. 68 The second layer of democracy is concerned with public participation. Democracy manifests itself in various permutations, two of which, namely representative and deliberative democracy are further examined below. Gutmann and Thompson (2001:21) introduced an important debate on deliberative democracy. In their view, deliberative democracy emphasizes the necessity for citizens and their representatives to engage in a process of deliberation when they disagree on moral issues and stresses that they should continue to reason together to reach mutually acceptable policy decisions. This is most relevant for moral disagreement on public policy at local government level. According to these authors, proceduralism and constitutionalism as theories of democracy pay scanty attention to deliberation. Deliberate democracy as the antidote of purely representative democracy addresses two cardinal issues in the relationship between local government and citizens: accountability and representation. Accountability is an important component of local government machinery (Allen 1984:14). Accountability is not merely a matter of exercising control; it is also a matter of rendering account, and internal and external surveillance by various stakeholders who act as watchdogs over the local government affairs (Richards 1995:60). Representation according to Gutmann and Thompson poses two challenges to universal accountability, namely: who provides the reasons for a policy decision and to whom should the reasons be given? Representation in this thesis means that all the major categories of population in a society is proportionally reflected in the organized group for the purpose of participation in the making and implementation of policy at the local government level. In a representative democracy political labour is divided and specialized. Therefore, policy-makers may come to conclusions that are different from 69 those on whose behalf they deliberate. Representatives are accountable first and foremost to their voters. Deliberative democracy, however, expects universal accountability, because it deals with moral issues of universal application. It requires representatives more than mere efforts to be re-elected at local government level. Representatives are also expected to justify their actions in universal moral terms, based on the principles of reciprocity (reasons for decisions that are accepted by all who are bound by them) and generality (the moral reasons should address the claims of anyone who is affected by the decisions). The dilemma of representation in the context of deliberative and representative democracy raises this question: should elected representatives be trustees or delegates of their voters? Deliberative democracy prefers to treat them as local representatives and therefore not only as representatives of their constituencies. It therefore again raises the question of accountability to whom, if not exclusively to their voters. It can be deduced that representation is unavoidable given the scale and complexity of modern local government. It further shows that the two most conventional theories of democracy do not accommodate the ideals of deliberative democracy. The third layer of democracy concentrates on the content of democracy. On the one side of the proverbial spectrum is a procedural definition of democracy, also used as a minimalist definition to highlight the intrinsic nature of democracy. On the other is a substantive, instrumentalist or maximalist definition. The procedural definition find most of its support in American public administration scholarship. According to Samuel Huntington (1990:41), after world war II a debate went on between those determined, in the classical vein, to define democracy by source or purpose. By 1970s the debate was 70 over, and Schumpeter had won. Theorisis increasingly drew distinctions between rationalistic, utopian, idealistic and definitions of democracy. On the other hand, empirical, descriptive, institutional and procedural definitions of democracy were drawn. Perusing the various definitions, one discovers that democracy has become an altar on which everyone hangs his or her favorite ex voto. Almost all normatively desirable aspects of political life, are credited as definitional features of democracy: representations, accountability, equality, participation, dignity, rationality, security, freedom the list goes on. And from an analytical point of view, lumping all good things together is of little use. Munck and Verkuilen (2002:10) defines democracy primarily in terms of elections: fair, honest and periodic elections in which candidates are free to participate in elections. Adam Przeworski (1999:10) supports the procedural emphasis on elections, but concentrates more on public participation because of the fact that, since world war II, in many countries the quest for universal suffrage and public participation at the local government has been achieved. The substantive definition finds few supporters amongst scholars. Jon Elster (2000:11) and Claude Alke (2001:31) are among the exceptions. The substantive definition values democracy as a means to other ends, and mostly as an instrument to alleviate socio-economic conditions and promote public participation at local governmental level. For democracy to be consolidated in this respect, it should be seen as producing positive public participation results. The research adopted by the majority of scholars discussed above poses a methodological dilemma: can a research object be redefined in order to suit a particular research methodology, but not reflect the complete composition of 71 the public participation phenomenon under investigation? To put this another way: can scholarly insistence on a procedural definition eventually also has an impact on popular perceptions and assessment or force them to be redefined? This is directly relevant for determining and assessing the nature of democracy pertinent to public participation in Mauritius. International political actors such as World Bank and the European Union have their own working definitions of democracy that are directly applied to their borrowing conditions. Others such the British New Labour and Inkatha Freedom party emphasises good local governance, human rights, local participation in policy-making and anti-corruption. John Elster (2000:13). If different perceptions of, or preferences for, democracy exist locally and internationally, incongruent conclusion about the nature and state of democracy are almost inevitable. Mauritius is an example of such incongruence. The fourth layer of democracy relevant for Mauritius involves the role of the State in relation to local authorities. Social democracy and liberal democracy represent divergent models in this layer. Liberal democracy propagates a local municipal area and limited state functions, a strong private sector, competitive market economy and public responsibilities for social welfare through public participation. Social democracy allows for a proactive local government. Hence, by dissecting democracy into four layers, a richer and more nuanced perspective of democracy regarding public participation in Mauritius is possible. Democracy cannot be expected to be stagnant even in a consolidated democracy. Hence, this research is a scholarly task for bring out popular support for local government about public participation in the 72 making and implementation of policy - the perennial and elusive concept in democracy. The concept of policy-making in public participation at local government level The various definitions and interpretations of public policy have already been presented in the introductory chapter. It has also been mentioned about a working definition of public policy for this research. Closely linked with public policy is policy-making. Policy-making is an activity that precedes the announcement and publication of an objective (Hanekom & Thornhill 1993:67). Policy-making indicates a series of decisions that precedes the formulation of policy and decisions on how to carry it out (Dror 1975:40). Moreover, policy-making is also seen as a process that involves several participants such as public official, political parties, legislatures, interest group and individual citizen. All these are explored in details in chapter 3 of this thesis. According to Fred (2003:80) policy making is a process of continued action by which local government determines what action should be taken and which goals should be achieved for the benefit of the community Meyer (1996 : 53) describes policy-making as the executive and legislative process by which goals, objectives, principles or intentions that commit public officials at local government level to a course of action are developed. It is to be noted that the end product of the policy-making process is public policy. According to Meiring (2000:42) public policy is perceived as an official explanation by an authorised person of the objectives to be met in order to achieve a certain state of affairs. This definition of public policy is in accordance with the definition of Easton (1953:300) that defines public policy 73 as the publishing of local government objectives and values. Dye (1995:8) has a much more simplified approach to public policy and defines it as what local government has decided to do or not to do. Analysis of these definitions shows that policy-making process in public participation involves an inherent oriented activity aimed at achieving an objective. Policy-making in public participation is seen as a process that precedes the publication of community objectives by the local government by which attempts are made to enhance and promote the well being of the citizens at the local government level. If these definitions of public policy and the policy-making process are taken into consideration then policy-making can be regarded as a process by which local government sets objectives to solve certain problems for the good of community. For accomplishing the objective of this thesis policy-making in public participation involves a pattern of actions generated by the public at local government level over a period of time and during which time a variety of policy decisions are taken on community matters. In order to understand the process of policy-making in public participation it is essential to know the importance of policy-making and policy implementation. The section below explores the importance of policy-making in public participation. The importance of policy-making in public participation Policy-making in public participation is one of the most ambitious public activities. It attempts to influence future events through public participation. The problems to be tackled in local government make heavy demands on the policy-making process in order to find satisfying solutions. The calibre of the policy process becomes more important when the following considerations are taken into account: 74 The context in which public policy is made limits the extend to which the policy can be subjectively conceived or objectively observed as most effective (Dror 1975:91). The results of public policy are affected by a vast number of external variables beyond the control of the policy system concerned - unpredictable and unforeseen events such as technological development, changes in ideologies and public opinion (Dror 1975:100). Hence, the success of a public policy is not only dependent on the content of that policy. The quality of public policy is determined by fortuitous and uncontrollable factors such as social visionaries , prophets and charismatic leaders who by their presence influence policy outcomes (Dror 1975:41). The policy system itself may have characteristics that restrict the policy s potential, hence, its chances of success. It is essential to note that inherent characteristics, for instance, human limitations cannot be changed without radical transformation than adjustable features such as the balance of power in local government institutions (Dror 1975:80). Deficiencies in the policy-making The literature reviewed shows that policy-making in public participation has deficiencies and weaknesses (Dror 1975:56). Some of the deficiencies and weaknesses in policy-making as regard to public participation are discussed below. 75 Goal-opaqueness. When there is any uncertainty about the goals, public policy tends to be precedent-based rather than goal-oriented. However, goal-opaqueness can reduce conflict and promote consensus by enabling the public participants to adjust and interpret the objectives to suit themselves, hence ascertaining the acceptability of policy (Dror 1975:60). Zero policy-making. Policy-makers may prefer not to compromise themselves and may avoid explicit policy on controversial questions. Decisions are vague and are taken on an ad-hoc basis. Although this affects long-term planning, yet it facilitates intellectual and political tension in the system (Dror 1975:80). Resistance to change. Policy actors tend to cling to common ways and to resist change, since the outcomes of new public policies are not always predictable. Also, there are vested interests in the status quo which involve a compromise between participants (Dror 1975:75). Distorted image of reality. A distorted image of reality combined with the assumption that this image is reality results in misguided policy. This can be the result of rapid change, policy-maker s perception on deficiencies in the data input and also a political influence (Dror 1975:31). Immanentism. When immanent or immediate problems are given priority over long-term planning in the policy-making process, this can lead to crisis action (Dror 1975:30). Exclusiveness. Exclusiveness on the part of policy-makers cuts them off from outside expertise. Hence, outside expertise can help to bring 76 new ideas and can reduce false perceptions and assumptions (Dror 1975:91). Despite all these deficiencies and weaknesses of the policy-making system in public participation, it is possible to improve same. Improvement can be brought in the local legislative and executive procedure; for instance, independent analysis of major issues, training of public officials, provision of adequate information on policy and effective monitoring of policy control measures. Secondly, departments at the local government level can be rationalized. Having a small number of large departments permits more integrated execution of policy and simplifies the task of interdepartmental coordination. Improvement can also be brought to middle and top management level (Dror 1975:100). Another area where improvement can be brought about is departmental policy planning group. The success of such groups will depend on the relationship between the group and the departmental head (Dror 1975:71). Last but not the least, expert advisers can make a valuables contribution to policy-making in participation. Expert advisers can bring new ideas in the policy-making environment. However, the effectiveness of expert advisers can be influenced by factors such as their personal relationships with politicians and the department. (Dror 1975:83). As pointed out earlier, public policy involves deliberate action aimed at goal realization and assessment of the policy situation. This can be regarded as 77 the policy-making function. The section below discusses some of the functions of policy-making in public participation. Policy-making as goal setting in public participation Goal setting is essentially based on prior identification and articulation of community values and needs. Goal setting is also based on norms and criteria applied to gauge the effectiveness of policy in addressing these community needs. Community needs arise owing to the disparity between the status quo and the desired situation. Satisfying a need demands the definition of the problems, the context within which they have to be addressed, the variables influencing the situation and the relationship between such variables (Quade 1982:80). Moreover, the policy-maker in public participation has to deal with the following questions when dealing with problems that need to be tackled and grounds to be attained. How the situation crops up? Why is it a problem? Why are solutions needed? Who perceives it as a problem? Is the problem under consideration the exact one or is there any other underlying problems? In attempting to find solutions to an identified problem, public participants can be influenced in the following ways: 78 rewards and penalties; institutional rearrangement; development and application of technology; and changing the values of the participants through information and education. Hence, goal setting in policy-making as regard to public participation involves the identification and definition of those needs that enjoy priority. Before these goals can be achieved, public participants have to examine alternative ways of achieving them, determine the human capital and physical resources required for each alternative. The next section examines policy-making as the identification of alternatives in public participation. Policy-making as the identification of alternatives in public participation After defining goals, public participants have to identify alternative ways of achieving them. Alternative is not potential substitutes for each other, nor do they have to fulfill the same functions (Quade 1982:41). It is to be noted that not all the possible options are known from the outset; some may emerge in the course of the policy process (Quade 1982:80). The identification of alternatives is a creative process which requires personnel, materials, time and financial resources (Dror 1975:51). At local government level before alternatives are weighted up, the following information must be borne in mind 79 A quantitative and qualitative estimate of the effectiveness of an option in achieving the goals. Also an option must indicate whether it is worth considering further (Quade 1982:62). An approximate aggregate cost of implementation of the option. It is also important to take note of the pros and cons of an alternative by means of a description detailing its method (Dror 1975:21). A description of any possible spillover effect that may arise owing to implementation of an option (Quade 1982:81). A tentative comparison with other options, which may indicate that some options are potentially more acceptable than others and must be given preference (Dror 1975:21). Ultimately, an analysis of other relevant factors, such as risk and uncertainty, obstacles that may affect implementation (Quade 1982:78). Policy-making as a choice between alternatives in public participation The alternative that promises maximum achievement of the stated policy goals must be selected. The criteria for evaluation of alternatives are the following: the selected alternative must offer maximum benefits; the chosen alternative should be practicable in political, social, technological and economic terms (Quade 1982:1); and 80 the costs of chosen alternative should be low (Quade 1982:7) In order to have a better understanding of the above, it is important to throw some lights on the variables that influence the selection of criteria and alternatives in the making of policy. The next paragraph discusses some of the variables relevant for this study. Concepts that influence the selection of criteria and alternatives in the policy-making process The section below examines some of the concepts that have an impact on the selection of criteria and alternatives in the policy-making process at the local government level. Concepts like values, interests, conflict situations, available information, available resources, legal and statutory requirements, hierarchy of decisions and stage of policy-making are discussed in relation to public participation. The concept of value in policy-making The policy-making process in public participation is inseparable from value structure at local government level. Public administration and public policy are by definition goal-oriented and operate on the assumption that values of community must be considered. A value is a norm that influences the public participants. A value influences the policy-making process, not only in the sense that it forms the basis of the demands put to the policy, but also because it determines how policy is made and carried out (Quade 1982:83). At local government level, values vary considerably in intensity, durability and extensiveness throughout the citizens. Value conflicts and sharp deviations from both proclaimed and accepted values are inescapable. Values are rooted in allegiances to local government organizations. Hence, values are 81 deeply affected by a large variety of beliefs and disbeliefs, both secular and religious at the local government level. The concept of interest in policy-making Interest can lead to community division and conflict; it is also the prime incentive for policy-makers to become involved in the policy-making process. Analysing interests and their influence on the policy-making process, certain questions arise. The first of these concerns the connection between interests and policy choices. A further question concerns the objectivity of interests (Wahl 1975:482). A distinction has to be made between the subjective and the objective meaning of interests. In a subjective sense, interests means taking an interest in or being aware of , thus, referring to the psychological disposition of an individual with respect to a particular matter of local government level (Wahl 1975:81). In its objective sense the term refers to matters in which an individual has an interest or by which the individual is affected. An analysis of subjective interest is essential in policy-making because it sheds light on political behaviour, for instance on aspects such as objectives of public participation at local government level. Subjective interests do not exist purely fortuitously, but are systematically determined by objective circumstances and objective interests may lead to subjective awareness (Wahl 1975:82). For instance, an individual lives in a peaceful community. The local government takes a policy decision to build a highway through the residential area which affects the interests of the inhabitants: a highway will generate traffic and noise. This can affect the tranquility of the environment. As a result, the residents have an objective interest in the final decision of the local government in this matter, which makes them aware that their interest may be harmed and therefore excites their interest. This leads the 82 inhabitants to take active steps to influence the impending policy decision in favour of their interests (Quade 1982:81). According to Connolly (1995:21) there is a difference between what people think is in their interests and where their real interest lies. At times, people may be unable to evaluate the available alternative of policy-makers owing to ignorance, lack of intelligence or other mental defects. The individual s choice is inhibited by habituations as in the case of smokers. Experience and education may be a pre-requisite for the assessment of alternatives (Connolly 1995:88). Also manipulations through propaganda and advertisement can influence the choice of alternatives. Hence, it is possible that interests in an objective sense may be observed and measured against standards and criteria that are not part of the participant s own consciousness. Conflict situation This is another concept that may affect the choice of criteria and alternative. Conflict situation relates to decisions about the behaviour of other participants in policy-making. In this case the decisions are inter-dependent. Some problem-solving techniques for these situations are based on the mathematical concept of games theory. Available information This relates to information available on the nature, scope and possible consequences and costs of implementing the chosen alternative (Quade 83 1982:90). Other essential factors are the way in which information is presented and the policy maker's information preferences (Dror 1975:56). Available resources Available resources such as human capital, money, materials, technology, among others, are essential for selecting alternative course of action (Wahl 1975:82). However, beneficial and sensible the implementation of an alternative may be, it cannot be considered if resources are not available. Therefore, for realization of an alternative, resources must be available. Legal and statutory requirements A policy-maker can only take policy decisions to the extent permitted by law or by- laws at local government level. When a public official takes policy decisions in terms of which regulations will become applicable, the public official has to remember that these regulations should not conflict with the enabling Act. Also, the legality of decisions is determined by the legal provisions governing the delegation of administration powers (Quade 1982:41). Hierarchy of decision The achievement of principal objectives is facilitated by formulating subordinate objectives which establishes a purpose. This means relation between decisions. General goals depend on the implementation of partial and particular subordinate objectives. The practicability and acceptability of 84 the latter are determined by their connection with the general objectives (Quade 1982:45). Stage of policy-making in public participation Last but not the least variable that may influence the selection of criteria and alternatives is the stage of policy making. The problem concerned may be unprecedented or it may be tackled by a routine decision. The same is applicable to the choice of alternative solution. The selected alternative may be brand-new or it may be an old one. Hence, future choices are restricted by existing decisions and approaches. This may necessitate a new approach, for restructuring and re-engineering the policy process. To accomplish this, the next section throw light on models of the policy-making process. Models for public policy analysis in public participation at local government level Over the years various analytical models have been developed for the study of public policy at the local government level. The models have been designed to provide better understanding of the inputs to the policy-making process, the conversion of the inputs into outputs and the nature of the outputs. A model can be defined as a simplified representation of reality which is used to interpret and explain complicated phenomena. The literature reviewed shows that models for public policy-making are grouped into two approaches the descriptive approach and prescriptive approach. The descriptive approach relates to empirical theory and the prescriptive approach relates to normative theory (Hanekom 1991:86). The 85 meaning of the concept of approach for this study is to come closer to understanding public policy-making analysis. It is to be noted that no single approach can be regarded as the ultimate, correct or only approach. Should this happen, all other possible approaches would be excluded. This would be detrimental to the subject discipline of public policy-making and if only one approach is held up to be correct, this would be to the disadvantage to the researcher because the researcher would not develop a critical attitude. In this particular research descriptive and prescriptive approaches to public policy making have been applied. The descriptive approach details with functional process model, mass model, classic model, group model and system model. On the other hand, prescriptive approach is concerned with incremental model, rational model, economically rational model, satisfying model, optimum model and mixed scanning model. The section below discusses these models in order to provide a better clarity of policy-making process. Functional process model of policy-making in public participation When the functional process model is used for analysing public policy, the analysis is based on the functional activities involved in policy-making. This focuses on the process. The following questions must be considered: How are the alternative recommendations on some particular matter formulated? Who decide whether or not a particular action is a contravention law or its by-law? 86 How are measures formulated and applied? How is legislation applied and enforced? From these questions it can be deduced that this model is not only oriented to local government institutions, but lends itself to a comparative study of policy-making in public participation. However, in this model the influence of certain concepts can be disregarded. Also the above questions suggest that policy formulation is an intellectual process. Elite/mass model of policy-making in public participation Approached from the perspective of elite theory, public policy-making in public participation can be regarded as a reflection of values and preferences of small elite groups. This model postulates that a small elite group is responsible for the formulation of public policy. According to the elite/mass model, the masses are passive and indirectly influence policy-making by participating in elections (Dye 1978:80). This model concentrates on only one form of public participation that is voting. Hence, this helps the citizens in making their choices of government thereby promoting democratic governance at the local government set up. Classic model of policy-making in public participation Traditionally the classic or institutional model of policy analysis in public participation was intended to give a description of the roles of the local government institutions involved in policy-making (Hanekom 1991: 80). Recently the focus has shifted to an analysis of public policy as the product of institutional activities. 87 It is noted that public policy has no significance unless the legislator has made it public that is until a statement of policy has been made. According to this model the legislator gives the policy legitimacy, the local government has the monopoly over the wielding of power in the community and the public policy making is uniform ( Dye 1978:80). However, this model does not use public participation in the policy-making process. Therefore this model is not preferred compared to group, elite and systems models (Henry 1992:300). Group model of policy-making in public participation Interest groups and pressure groups play an essential part in the formulation of public policy. A detail discussion of interest and pressure groups as public participants in public policy-making has been presented in chapter 3 of this thesis. The individual has no political importance unless he or she acts on behalf of the group or as a member of the group (Dye 1978:23). The group determines the individual s contribution to public policy-making. However, the final arbiter remains the legislator. The legislator use legislation to ratify the result of group influence and demands (Henry 1992:141). Moreover, public policy results tend to favour the interests of the group applying the powerful pressure (Hanekom 1991:61). Hence, the group model in policy-making indicates that some interest groups tend to have more power and skill than others and as a result exert stronger pressure on policy makers. The policy makers are sensitive to the influence of interest groups and an unstable function formation can have a disruptive influence on the formulation of public policy (Dye 1978:80). The group model also suggests that public participatory methods like collective bargaining and negotiation can be used by interest groups in the public policy-making process. 88 Systems model of policy-making in public participation The systems model of public policy-making is regarded as the responds of a political system to the factors acting on it from an external environment (Hanekom 1991:80). For instance, the inputs from the external environment such as demands by groups for satisfaction of their wants and support by obeying the by-laws of local government and by paying local taxes are converted by the political system into outputs that is public policy (Dye 1978:40). The systems model deal with the following questions: What variables are relevant in policy-making? How do environmental inputs affect the content of public policy? To what extent does the political system succeed in converting demands into public policy? How is public policy affected? All these questions indicate that various issues in the environment influence the public policy-making. It is to be noted that the public is the major component of the environment of policy-making. An investigation has been carried out in the environment at the Port Louis local government and the outcomes have been presented in chapter 5 and 6. Incremental model of policy-making in public participation Public policy-making is perceived as the continuation of existing local government activities with only incremental adaptation to changes in the course of time (Dye 1978:71). The incremental approach is associated with 89 Charles Lindblom who used the term as criticism of the rational-comprehensive policy-making model. Applied to the analysis of public policy it means that only a limited set of alternatives is available for public policy-makers and each of the alternatives differs only slightly from the status quo. However, the assumption is that the existing policy is legitimate and satisfactory comprehensive changes are difficult because public objectives are difficult to realise (Hanekom 1991:75). Rational model of policy-making in public participation Rationalism is seen as the opposite to incrementalism. Rationalism implies a comprehensive approach. Rational model in policy making deals with conscious action. According to Dye (1978:40) the following requirements are essential in rational policy-making: all the value preferences of the community must be known; all the policy alternative must be known; all the outcomes of each policy alternative must be shown; qualify and quantify each policy alternative; and choose the most effective policy alternative It is important to know the value preferences of the community and course of a policy decision must effectively realise a specific goal. The rational model for the analysis of public policy emphasises on the articulation of how public policy ought to be formulated or how the conversion of inputs into outputs ought to be arranged so that it functions maximally. However, limitations prevent rational policy-making in local government institutions from becoming general because there is no consensus on any social values. Also conflicting 90 values cannot be compared and often the real consequences of all alternatives are not perceived. Economically rational model of policy-making in public participation Since it is difficult to apply the rational model fully, the author Quade (1982: 12) has proposed that the phase or rational policy making be executed only to the extent that it is economical. On the basis of this analogy, the economically rational model was created. This means that the costs of the inputs has to be less than the advantage of the outputs. However, this model is unsatisfactory because rational policy-making remains the higher form of problem solving at local government level. Satisfying policy-making model in public participation This model was initially developed by Simon (1975 : 21) . Based on social psychology, the satisficing quality of this model refers to the best quality that policy-making can realise. Briefly, this model represents the search for an alternative. Originally, the policy-maker identify various self-evident alternatives based on their experience and then assess them on the grounds of their satisfying qualities. Should the policy-makers find alternatives that do have satisfying qualities, they accept them without looking for additional alternatives. According to this model, the prime concern to the policy- maker is the satisfying quality and not the optimum quality. 91 Optimum policy-making model in public participation Dror (1975:21) developed the optimum policy making model as an extension of and an improvement on the preceding model. The main characteristics of the optimum model are: i t is qualitative; economic consideration form the basic rationale of this model; it comprises of rational components; and i t incorporates an automatic feed back mechanism. An optimum quantitative model of policy-making can only be constructed when the terms, marginal outputs, opportunity costs and average outputs are expressed abstractly. However, a totally abstract model is of little practical value. In a real-life situation, the quantitative aspects of policy-making will always be expressed in terms of the available inputs and the particular outputs in the specific case. Therefore it is not possible to construct a universally applicable optimum quantitative model which will be operational. Moreover, since policy-making require scarce resources there should also be a policy regarding how the resources should be used. In this case, it is also not only the rational process that it always used. The preceding consideration must therefore be applied in optimum policy making in a manner that ensures the most economical use of resources. According to Dror (1975 : 31) policy-making in a broad sense encompasses phases like, how policy decisions are to be made, the normal policy-making process and the feed back. Hence, according to this model feedback is essential although real results do not always correspond with the expected results. 92 Mixed scanning model of policy-making in public participation According to Etzioni (1974:41) the mixed scanning model play an essential role as an alternative to the rational-comprehensive and incremental models. Mixed scanning is an attempt to integrate the good qualities of the rational-comprehensive and the incremental policy-making models. This model helps to make a comprehensive survey of, say, public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level. In an attempt to analyse the policy-making process at local government from the research of view point, the above models are expected to contribute to a better understanding of this variable. The underlying rationale is that by using a particular model, a more rational policy decision can be made than by using another model, which would lead to a less rational decision. However, man by nature is not capable of absolute rationality in respect of policy-decision, and the policy-maker must strive to satisfy rather than to maximize. The above models of policy analysis reflect reality as accurately as possible. However, one of the disadvantages of using analytical models is that the analysis can be biased because a model is merely a representation of reality. The researcher of public policy must not rely on one model only, but should use several, either alternating them or using them in conjunction with others to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of any public policy. It must be emphasized that no single model can serve as a comprehensive formula for sound policy-making. Each problem must be approached in terms of its unique nature and merit. Hence, policy analysis models are aids to public policy-making. 93 The concept of policy implementation in public participation at local government level This concept denotes the execution of policy decision through a directed change in the environment with a view to attaining the objectives at an acceptable and anticipated cost (Quade1982:86). According to Hanekom (1991:61), policy implementation refers to the enforcement of legislation. The various participants involved in policy implementation are discussed in the next chapter of this thesis. For the purpose of this research policy implementation is referred to as a process of putting public policy into practice at the grass-root level. According to Hanekom (1991:70) policy implementation and policy-making are interrelated. Also policy-making and policy implementation at times occur concurrently. The purpose of researching policy implementation is to determine under what condition and circumstances a positive correlation between policy objectives and desired results can be obtained. Public policy is dynamic and it has to be adapted to changing circumstances. Policy changes are not always favourably received, however, and can cause conflict and tension by provoking resistance and protest action from those who are not in favour of supporting the results (Quade 1982:76). Therefore policy changes should be introduced gradually for its success. Certain specific conditions ensure successful policy implementation. These conditions are as follows: Valid assumptions in policy implementation Public policy must be based on realistic perceptions of the relation between changes in the behaviour of the target group and the achievement of policy 94 goals (Quade 1982:80). At times the behaviour and attitude of the target group is the objective of policy. Therefore at the policy implementation stage this condition must be borne in mind. Support by individuals and groups in policy implementation Interest groups and legislations must support public policy throughout the implementation stage and the judiciary should be either supportive or neutral (Quade 1982:74). Legislators and executive officer must support the policy programme by allocating resources for the implementation of policy. At times it may be necessary to obtain support from an active pressure group so as to influence local government action. Hence, this condition has an influence on successful policy implementation. Good relations with other authorities in policy implementation Effective policy implementation can be influenced by relations between authorities. For instance, local government policy is subject to review and approval by institutions at central government level. If central government sees local government policy as an integral part of central government policy, then the central government may promote the implementation of local government policy. The other side of the picture also exists, in that the success of central policy, may be influenced by local government implementation, especially in cases where the central government does not have majority support in a local authority (Quade 1982:81). Therefore, this condition has a bearing on policy implementation. 95 Sustained support of policy implementation Changes in socioeconomic conditions should not be permitted to interfere with the relative importance of policy objectives. Policy environment is dynamic and policy issues are interrelated (Wahal 1975:90). Political support for a particular policy can reduce as other issues become more essential or receive more public support (Quade 1982:90). Thus, when implementing policy, this condition must be borne in mind. Administrative and political skills in policy implementation Administrative skills refers to the ability to exercise effective financial control, recruits and deploy human resources effectively, and creates conducive working procedures and atmosphere (Quade 1982:31). Political skills refer to the ability to maintain good working relations with public officers, mobilise potential support, use of media effectively and provision of fair treatment at the local government level. Hence, the commitment of public official and political support are essential for successful implementation of public policy. Conditions for legislation and policy decisions in policy implementation Legislation and policy decisions must embody unambiguous policy guidelines that will structure the implementation process. Guidelines should define the objectives and also indicate the order of priority. Moreover, resources such as finance, human capital, material, and equipment must be available for the implementation of policy (Quade 1982:71). This is an essential component of policy implementation. 96 Hence, for successful implementation of policy the abovementioned variables must be taken into account at the local government level. However, a policy may change in the course of implementation owing to ambiguities in the original policy, inadequate resources, inexperience public officials and contradictory guidelines. These elements form part of policy implementation. Conclusion This chapter provides a firm basis for other chapters treated in the thesis particular attention was paid to evaluation research conducted within the framework of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the local government. This part of the study discussed some of the forms of public participation, levels of public participation, some of the obstacles to public participation practice and legislation on public participation at local government level. This chapter explored a series of core concepts relevant to the making and implementation of policy at local government level. It has been made clear that concepts such as decentralization, development, democracy, public policy-making and policy implementation are not the only concept that exist in literature. The boundary of knowledge regarding public participation is constantly changing. The relevance of each concept has been pointed out within the framework of public participation. Ultimately, in order to have a better understanding of the concept policy-making, the theoretical aspect of models has been explored. The models discussed are not the only models that exist in literature. The selected models provide an insight into the phenomenon of public participation. The concepts have been analysed and their relevance indicated within the framework of public participation at the local government level. Hence, the 97 second research question has been analysed in this chapter with particular attention on the impact of key concepts on the milieu of public participation at local government level. 98 CHAPTER 3 IMPACT OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ON PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN POLICY - MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION Introduction As indicated in chapter 1, public participation in the making and implementation of policy is necessary for promoting good local governance. Public participation is an appropriate mechanism for constant interaction between the members of the public and policy-makers at local government level. This chapter devotes attention on the second research question: What impact does the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) have on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius, particularly at the Port Louis local government? In the following sections, some of the specific prescriptions that influence public participation are discussed, for instance, the 2003 Constitution and the 2005 Local Government Act. Attention is also devoted to participatory governance in the Mauritian local government, public participation in information provision to policy-makers and implementers, public participation through access to information, public participation through responsiveness to public needs, public participation through accountability to public needs, public participation in developmental local government, public participation through transparency to public needs, public participation through elite and public participation through local administration. Moreover, this chapter throws light on public participation in municipal finance, public participation in local politics, public participation in socio-economic issues and public participation through control instrument for the making and implementation of policy. 99 The 2003 Constitution and the 2005 Local Government Act: Public Participation In this paragraph a definition of constitution is given. Following this a discussion on the provisions of the 2003 Constitution and the 2005 Local Government Act is provided. A constitution forms part of the machinery in the reality of local politics that is designed to achieve the orderly functioning of a community. A constitution is defined as the whole body of rules, written and unwritten, legal and extralegal, according to which a particular government operates (Ranney 1995:300). The term constitution has two meanings: first it means the whole corpus of rules (written and unwritten). Secondly it means the constitution, which is a written document embodying some or most of the constitutional rules. According to Kotze (1997:102) A constitution embodies the written or unwritten rules forming the highest authority in the land, and it determines the form of the state as well as the distribution of powers among authorities . Rantenbach (1998:8) notes the following characteristics of a constitution: it is a set of basic rules; these rules determine how a government must function and how powers must be distributed in society; and it determines the form of the State by creating permanent governmental institutions. The supreme authority of the entrenched constitution is the most conspicuous characteristic of the 2003 Constitution of Republic of Mauritius. The constitution is the highest law in the Republic of Mauritius and therefore Parliament and all 100 other legal institutions are subject to the constitution, and all laws and actions are invalid if they clash with the constitution (Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment Act 124 of 2003:41). According to Roskin (1994:100) the important functions of a constitution are the following: the constitution is a declaration of national objectives; the constitution formalizes the structures of the State and the government; and the constitution establishes the legitimacy of the government. Therefore, it can be deduced that a constitution determines powers, duties of a government, right, liberties of individuals, limits of individuals, security and procedures that have to be followed so that the State will function on benefit of a society. In the founding provisions of the Constitution it is stated that Mauritius is a democratic state. The Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) makes it imperative for legislatures to provide mechanisms for public participation in their legislative processes. According to section 48 of the Constitution, 2003 every individual shall have freedom of association, right to participation and freedom of expression. Section 55 of the Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) provides for: freedom of speech, press and other media; 101 freedom of participation in activities and programmes of organization; right to vote in elections; right to form a political party; and right to form and join groups The above provisions indicate that people have the freedom to express their opinion on government s policies. Freedom of expression plays a key role in the making and implementation of policy, since interest groups, political parties and media influence public issues. Although the Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) guarantees the freedom of people to participate in the making and implementation of policy, yet such freedom must be utilized within prescribed limits and responsibly. In the wider context, the adoption of the Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) heralds a significant new phase in the Mauritian local government transition process. This change is associated with changing state strategy towards its main policy objective to promote social and economic development through public participation at local government level. In terms of section 12 of the 2003 Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003), local government is constituted as a distinctive sphere with a mandate to govern, to provide services and promote public participation in the governing process. The Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) also defined the developmental role that municipalities are required to play. The legal definition of a municipality is that it comprises of councillors, bureaucracy and community. Municipalities are expected to give priority to the basic needs, promote social and economic development of the community (Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment Act 124 of 2003:61). 102 Section 39 of the 2003 Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) provides for legislative authority of municipalities. Legislative authority is vested in the municipal council. Municipalities have the right to govern, on its own initiative, the local government affairs of the community. In terms of section 63 of the Constitution, municipalities have the right to make and administer by-laws on municipal planning, trading, market, transport, sanitation, parks, road works, health care, school and public places. With the introduction in 2003 of new council structures for municipalities in Mauritius, the role of councillors has been broadened to encompass additional responsibilities such as ensuring transparency, accountability in municipal decision-making and the promotion of general well-being of the local community through judicious use of available resources. These responsibilities establish a new mandate for local government in Mauritius which requires that each local authority develops specific policies aimed at meeting the specific needs of local communities (Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment Act 124 of 2003). In order to meet the constitutional provisions, the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) further consolidates local government policy on public participation. In terms of section 28 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), a municipal council must exercise its executive and legislative authority within the constitutional system of Mauritius. This section 28 states also that a municipal council must seek to develop and enhance public participation mechanisms. A municipal council must also articulate policies in such a manner that members of the public can understand and have access to its by-laws and other legislation. Section 33 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) states that in order to enable members of the public to participate in local affairs a municipality must for this purpose ensure the following: 103 promote a safe and healthy environment in the municipality; give members of the local community equitable access to the municipal services; provide, without favour, democratic and accountable government; promote and undertake community development; and hold public meetings, consultative sessions and feedback on local affairs Details of provisions for public participation in the making and implementation of policy are discussed below in order to indicate the current state of affairs in Mauritius particularly on local government. Participatory governance in the Mauritian local government Openness to public participation in local government policy-making is considered important, because it enables the local residents to influence their everyday-life decisions and thus narrows the gap between the rulers and the ruled (William 1998:21). According to Lando (1999:80), participatory local governance encourages active and daily face-to-face local problem-solving. The participatory local governance aims are more than a simple universal suffrage and the right to influence and select leaders. Proponents of participation advocate the reduction of formal hierarchial constraints and encourage grassroots organization (Hanser 2000:48). Local government is claimed to be the primary channel of public participation in public affairs. Participatory ideals regarding local government imply that active public participation in local policy-making and implementation is 104 both a goal in itself and an instrument for strengthening democracy in the community and in a society at large. The Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), contain specific prescriptions concerning the need for enhanced public participation in policy- making at local government level for promoting good governance. According to section 7 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) local good governance is described as a process whereby local government institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources and guarantees the realization of human rights. In this regard, good governance in local government is seen as the process through which those charged with the regulation of people s conduct and the management of resources have as their basic guide and target, the guarantee of basic rights of those that are led. The rights participatory approach to governance is meant to integrate the norms and standards that are enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005). In terms of section 2 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), a municipal council must promote public participation and must also provide the following: notification and public comment procedures; dealing with petitions and complaints lodged by members of the public; public meetings and hearing by the municipal Council consultative sessions with interest groups; and 105 feedback sessions. Moreover, section of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) states that members of the public must be encouraged to participate in, among others, the following matters: policy-making and policy-implementation of municipal services; participation in the municipal s budget; monitoring and review of municipal performance; and the preparation, review and implementation of integrated community development plan. There is a responsibility on municipalities to develop the capacity of local communities to understand and participate in the making and implementation of policy. This envisages greater public participation than the casting of a vote every five years at election time (Barichievy 2003:8). The preamble of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) provides: a fundamental aspect of this Act is that active engagement of communities in the affairs of municipalities. In terms of section 41 of this Act three substantive aspects of participatory governance are definition of the municipal local government, requirements for public participation and ward committees. According to section 24 of this Act municipal local government is defined as governing structure (the elected councillors), the administration (the appointed staff) and the local inhabitants. This definition establishes the grounds for greater public participation in municipal local government affairs (Local Government Act 23, of 2005:20). In terms of section 28 of this Act, municipalities are firmly embedded in local communities. 106 The second innovation sets out the requirements for public participation in various policy-making processes, among others, consultation, petitions, public meetings, hearings by the municipal council and interest groups. This Act also makes mention of the requirement, among others, in respect of public participation during the local government budget process. For instance, immediately after an annual local government budget is tabled in a municipal council, the municipal administration must make public the annual local government budget and invite the local community to submit representations in connection with the budget. This Act also makes provisions that the municipal council must consider any opinion of the public. Additionally, according to Section 12 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) municipal councils must publish by-laws so as to bring the contents to the attention of the local community. The third innovation deals with the ward committees. Municipal ward committees are chaired by the ward councillor and elected members from the local community. Elected members are intended to reflect a variety of ward interests. Ward committees make representations on issues affecting a particular ward. Hence, all these indicate that this Act regards public participation as a cornerstone of local good governance (Local Government Act 23, of 2005). 107 108 Port Louis local government structure According to Section 6 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) Port Louis local government consists of a municipal council, municipal officials, municipal mayor, municipal councillors and municipal wards. Municipal departments of Port Louis local government include the Chief Executive s Department, the Financial Controller s Department, the Management Audit Department, the Town Planning Department, the Public Infrastructure Department, the Health and Environment Department, the Sports and Welfare Department, the Public Relations Department and Library Department. All these are depicted in figure 3, the organizational structure of Port Louis local government. In this thesis a structure refers to the sum total of the ways in which a local government divides its manpower into distinct tasks and then coordinates among them. This structure depicts both the political and administrative set up. It also shows the scope covered by different departments as structured and organized at the Port Louis local government. The Port Louis local government consists of a municipal council which fulfills a specific role in ensuring that the general welfare of the community is promoted in its totality. Municipal councillors are elected by the community to see to and represent their interests. The municipal council is headed by a major who does not have any executive power. The municipal mayor acts as the chairperson of the municipal council. By virtue of section 30 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), a person shall be qualified for the election as a chairperson if he or she: is a citizen of Mauritius of the age of 18 and above; is domiciled and resident in Mauritius; 109 has been educated up to at least the School Certificate level or its equivalent; and is a member of a political party. In terms of section 37 of this Act, a person shall be disqualified for local government chairmanship if he or she: acquisition of the citizenship of another country; is a person adjudged to be of unsound mind; having been sentenced to imprisonment for an offence involving dishonesty by a court or an appropriate authority; being an undischarged bankrupt and having been so declared by a law in force; and contravention of the code of conduct. By virtue of his or her position, the function of policy formulation falls on the chairperson of local government. The chairperson s role as a policy-maker provides the opportunity to shape the future of his community and to ensure that the programmes and services, he or she chairs, are given priority and attention. In terms of section 37 of this Act, a municipal councillor is an elected representative of a local political ward. He or she along side other councillors forms the local government legislative council. According to section 40 of this Act, a municipal councillor performs the following functions: legislative functions; 110 The municipal council by virtue of section is empowered to perform legislative functions. The legislative function is exercised by way of by-laws passed by the municipal council. The municipal council just like any legislative is saddled with the responsibility of approving budget estimates and even amending them to suit the objectives of the local government. authorisation of public funds; Section 43 of this Act provides that no money shall be withdrawn from the public fund unless authorized by the municipal council. the councillor as an overseer; and The councillor s role as an overseer involves monitoring and evaluating council s policies, programmes and services. It extends to ensuring that the council and its staff are doing the right things towards actualizing council s goals. The overseer role can be summarized as assessing whether or not the local government is operating efficiently and efficiently. overseeing policy development. It is the duty of the councillor to ensure that policies being initiated by the municipal council are tailored towards the needs of the community. The councillor is particularly empowered to do this because he or she is the closest to the people. The councillor has a duty to ensure that municipal council s policies are such that the local government has the capacity to execute them. Section 56 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) directs the local government to promote and encourage public participation in the presentation, maintenance and balanced exploitation of resources. Therefore, a councillor in 111 his or her duty of monitoring policies has to ensure that available resources are judiciously utilized. Hence, the municipal councillors exercise legislative functions which entail taking decisions at council meetings on the implementation of ordinances. All council decisions are taken only once a majority vote has been passed on the relevant issue at a council meeting. Additionally, the municipal council is legally empowered to generate revenue from taxation. The municipal council also exercise control over the activities of its officials, for instance, preparation of reports on municipal matters. Apart from the chairperson and councillors, there are other municipal council officials who assist in the day-to-day running of the affairs of the Port Louis local government. A brief discussion of them is given here. The administrative authority rests with the chief executive who is the head of Administration. Heads of different departments interacts regular with the chief executive concerning administrative matters. The chief executive is entrusted with specific functions, among others, seeing to it that councillors are given agendas, minutes and council decisions are enacted economically, effectively and efficiently. The chief executive is the local authority s accounting officer. The heads of departments are the team leaders because they are responsible to see to it that officials who work in specific departments execute the general policy of the municipal council. Municipal services offered by Port Louis local government have been mentioned in sections and of this chapter. In terms of section 4 of the New local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 to 2005) Port Louis local government has the following objectives: promote the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of the local community; 112 improve the overall quality of life of people in the local community; ensure that services and facilities provided by the municipal council are accessible and equitably distributed; ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively to best meet the needs of the local community; ensure transparency and accountability in policy-making; and involve members of the public in the municipal policy-making process. Port Louis local government is an organ of state within the local sphere of government exercising legislative and executive authority. It consists of a political structure and administration. Personal contacts between members of public, chairperson, councillors and/or public officials can contribute towards public participation in the making and implementation of policy. Hence, members of public can utilize these contacts about their opinion with respect to current or proposed public policies affecting their community. Chapter 4 and 5 of this thesis will deal with research survey and findings on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at Port Louis local government. Public participation in information provision to policy-makers and implementers Apart from the local government policy that influences public participation at local government level, information provision to policy-makers and implementers has also an impact on public participation. Policy-makers make public policies on behalf of the community (Connelly 2003:40). It is essential for policy-makers to 113 comprehend the needs of members of the public. Subject to Section 8 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), a local authority shall deal with local conditions and needs of the inhabitants such as the following: development, implement and monitor its strategic plans and budgets; plan for and provide services like cleaning, lighting of roads, maintenance of public roads, sanitation, hygiene, environmental protection, regulation of public market, sports, parks, abattoirs, housing, school, library and maintenance of historic building; raise revenue to enable the local authority to perform its function; establish norms and standards in the conduct of its affairs; and do such things as are incidental or conducive to the performance of any of its functions under the Act. In the local government the emphasis is placed on the needs of the public. In order to get information on public needs local authority depends on effective communication and feedback. To achieve this, Port Louis local government has a Public Relations Department intended to exchange opinions between the governors and the governed. Therefore, public opinions could be used to evaluate the objectives of policy and implementation processes. Public participation through access to local government information Public access to local government information influences public participation in the making and implementation of policy. The most advanced democracies have come to realize that they have inherited, from the ancient times, a tradition of 114 secrecy in government institutions which is incompatible with the public s right to know how public affairs are conducted (Marsh 1987:300). Public access to information advocates that information possessed by local government institutions is public information and can legitimately be requested by the public, if it does not severely infringe on the privacy rights of individuals (Meyer 1995:60). Another perspective is that access to information means that right of public access to information, documents and records held by local government institutions, except for matters that are narrowly defined (Meyer 1995:70). In explaining the right of access of the public to government-held information, Cleveland (1986:701) states that: Government is information . Its staff are merely all information workers, its raw material is information inputs, its product is those inputs transformed into policies, which are simply an authoritative form of information. Baxter (1984:131) is of the opinion that free access to government-held information is neither practical nor desirable. Disclosure of information may jeopardize state security, upset economic policies and may enable individuals to gain unfair commercial advantage over competitors. He further says that privacy may be invaded by disclosure of sensitive personal information. According to Sharma (1979:19) requests for information can be refused if disclosure of the information constitute infringement to government institution, if disclosure is in contravention of an obligation imposed on a institution and if disclosure can cause serious harm to a person s health. However, according to Almond and Verba (1989:60) valid information is essential to one s ability to influence others. For example, a well-informed individual is likely to perform better in negotiations than an ill-informed person with the same capability and skill of using information. This indicates that public participation can thrive if relevant information is made available to members of the public. Dissemination of information to public constitute a foundation for public knowledge and views, 115 since one s knowledge and opinions are dependent on the information at one s disposal. Hence, dissemination of information is a prerequisite for public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government. As mentioned in the introductory chapter in terms of section 22 of the Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) the public has the right to freedom of information. In accordance with section 22, public access to information may be disclosed, among others: if disclosure is authorized by legislation; for the purpose of criminal proceedings; for the purpose of complying with a warrant or order issued by a court; and To another government institution for the purpose of law enforcement. In terms of section 22 of the Constitution of Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) members of the public should have information about participation particularly the following, namely: methods of public participations; right to participation; and impact of participation on policy-making. Hence, it can be stated that government authorities cannot operate successfully if their activities are veiled in mystery, misunderstanding and ignorance. It is of fundamental importance that access to information as stipulated in section 22 of 116 the Constitution be promoted. Government bodies must tell people simply and clearly what they are attempting to do and why. Also government bodies must be able to justify their methods and be frank about shortcomings and obstacles. Only through a deliberate effort of this kind can ignorance or criticism be avoided and a discerning body of knowledge be established. Public participation through responsiveness to public needs Public participation is also influenced by responsiveness to public needs and aspirations. Responsiveness to public needs can be defined as a process to taking appropriate timely actions by a public official in response to needs voiced out by the community (Brynard 1990:65). The requirements for responsiveness to public needs are as follows: members of the public must express their needs; policy-makers must consider and take the needs expressed by the public; and there must be good mechanisms for receiving expressed public needs. Local responsiveness means the ability to quickly identify changing needs and to redirect limited resources to address those needs (William 1998:11). The idea of a responsive local government goes beyond accountability and answerability, and embraces the requirement of municipalities to systematically take note of the full range of participation in the making and implementation of policy. The difference between openness to public participation and responsiveness is that the latter involves the obligation of local authorities to discover changes in public opinion itself, while the former encourages people to take initiative. 117 Various instruments discussed in chapter 2 section of this thesis are used by the public to express their needs. In chapter 2 section of this thesis mentioned is made of the different forms of participation in local government in response to public needs. Furthermore, Section 21 of the New Local Government, Act 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) makes provisions for accessible and affordable municipal services which have an impact on responsive public needs. Therefore it is essential that the municipal services are not administered on the basis of hunch and guesswork. Every essential municipal service provided must be based on the real needs of the citizens. It is important that local government must ensure not to provide superfluous or unwanted services because this could result in wastage. Hence, continuous public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level is essential to demonstrate responsiveness. Public participation through accountability to public needs Public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level is also influenced by another factor, accountability. As a preliminary, the accountability itself requires a brief analysis. Accountability is most simply elucidated by reference to the broader concept of responsibility. These two terms are commonly linked together, sometimes as virtually interchangeable synonyms (Hughes 1991:340). Responsibility has a number of connotations, including freedom to act, liability for praise or blame and proper behaviour on the part of the person responsible. Thus, accountability and relational responsibility are rebated as part of whole. Accountability relates to one aspect, the calling to account and acceptance of oversight, of one type of responsibility, where there is relational responsibility to members of public. Those who are accountable are in some sense subordinate to those who oversee their activities and to whom they must give account. In this study accountability refers to the extent to which Municipal Council and policy makers 118 are answerable to the members of the public in relation to the use and application of voters money. To promote accountability, members of the public involves themselves in local governance. Accountable local government is one of provisions of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005). In accordance with section 5 of this Act, public should demand accountability from Municipal officials. Accordingly this Act accountability is defined as process of exercising control, rendering account and internal and external surveillance by various stake holders over the affairs of local government (Local Government Act 23 of 2005). One further significant aspect of these Act is that members of the Municipal Council are accountable collectively and individually to community for the way public funds have been employed by the local authority. It can be stated that every member of the public has a role to play in exacting accountability. Where a municipal official is permitted to brush aside or ignore the criticism and even admonition of citizens, and that such official persists in acting as an independent agent without any sense of answerability to anyone or any institution, citizens should act immediately to bring him or her back on track. This also applies to municipal councillors and officials. No public official is a law unto him or herself (Taylor 1998:80). Therefore the public plays an invaluable role in ensuring that municipal officials do not act beyond their brief but pursue the public interest. One of the areas at Port-Louis local government where accountability was tested is in the election held on 13 October 2000. Port-Louis local government election determined, through the polls, which candidate had lived up to the expectations of the electorate and which councillor had fallen into disfavour and had therefore been ousted (Dukhira 2000:97). Hence, public participation in the making and implementation of policy is essential for promoting accountability which keeps the municipal officials and councillors in checks and promote good local governance. 119 Public participation in developmental local government In chapter 2 particularly in section , it was indicated that community development is linked with public participation. Community involvement provides an avenue by members of the community to influence the making and implementation of policy. In terms of Section 43 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005), Local government in Mauritius must promote participation in community development activities. As highlighted in this Act a local authority is charged with developmental functions that include conducting meetings for the identification of community needs and initiation of self-help projects, mobilizing funds and resources. This Act further mentions active participation by communities in matters of community development. This includes matters such as capacity-building programmes, ward service delivery audits, enhancing customer care and strengthening relations with community-based organisations. According to this Act, developmental local government is defined as local government committed to working with public within the community to find sustainable ways to meet their economic, social and material needs. The term developmental local government encapsulates a new mandate which will be intrinsic to the developmental role local authorities will be required to play. In terms of Section 6 of this Act, developmental local government has the following characteristics: optimizing social development; integration and co-ordination; democratising community development; and learning and leading. 120 In terms of section 8 of this Act, the following provisions have been made for promoting community development, namely: municipalities must participate in community development programme aimed at promoting the welfare of the public; each municipal council must, within a prescribed period after the start of its elected term, adopt a single inclusive and strategic plan for community development of the municipality; municipalities must align resources, form policy framework, integrate and co-ordinate development plans; an integrated development plan must reflect the municipal council s vision for the long term community development; the local community to be consulted in the drafting of the integrated community development plan; and a municipal council must review its integrated community development plan annually. The key community developmental outcomes envisaged for local government through public participation are, namely; creation of conducive integrated municipalities; provision of household infrastructure; local economic development; and 121 community empowerment. The New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) requires municipal councils to develop a culture that shifts from representation government to participatory governance. In essence, this implies that municipal councils must take steps to create a more active public participation in terms of which policy decisions will be taken with communities rather than for them. Section 12 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) provides that municipal councils may establish committees at ward in order to enhance public participation, education, health and environment committees in which councillors are expected to represent local interest. According to this Section 12, Port-Louis local government has established community development committee comprised of Chairperson, Chief Executive, Treasurer and Town Engineer (Local Government Act 23 of 2005). This committee is in charge with development functions that include conducting meetings for the identification of community developmental needs, initiation of self-help projects and mobilize resources. This committee contact the community directly and are crucial for promoting public participation in policy-making. However, it is to be noted that effective public participation in most cases can be hampered by the lack of training among the community members on developmental issues and also by the prescription of membership to the committees which tends to emphasise representation and restricts direct participation by the grassroots. Chapter 4 of this thesis deals with research survey aimed at obtaining views of the public regarding public participation in community development projects, It is therefore evident that, in seeking to fulfill its community developmental role, local government is required to place local communities at the centre of development undertakings. The New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) focuses, among others, building local democracy, institutional and financial capacity. Hence, local government is required to initiate and implement 122 development projects to meet identified community needs aimed at developing the community. Public participation through transparency to public needs Public participation at local government is also influenced by transparency. The 2005 New Local Government Act, Section 9, stipulates that local authorities in Mauritius has to be transparent. According to this Act, transparency is defined as a process during which municipal official and councillors perform their activities which are thoroughly open to public scrutiny (Local Government Act 23 of 2005:23). According to Taylor (1998:21) when certain municipal activities are conducted within the enclosed space of municipal institutions then this leads to abuse of power and maladministration. Lack of transparency gives municipal officials the opportunity to be oppressive in the execution of their tasks. Admittedly, no local government of local institution likes to be constantly scrutinised and placed under the microscope. However, the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) make provisions, among others, that local authority should ensure transparency in policy-making. Hence, transparency is an important ingredient of public participation for ensuring local good governance. Transparency can be promoted in local governance through regular public meetings, adequate dissemination of information and education of the public through adult-learning programmes to improve knowledge of policy-making and implementation processes (Taylor 1998:34). Public participation through elite The degree to which people feel compelled to participate in the making and implementation of policy is influenced by elite. For the purpose of this thesis the elite consist of those persons who possess the qualities necessary for its 123 accession to full political power. The prescription of membership for grassroots structures places emphasis on representation, which restricts the extent to which local inhabitants take part in the making and implementation of policy. The well-being of local communities apts to hinge on the power wielded by a few important individuals that is the elite. Mauritius utilizes the elite-mass model of policy-making which normally inhibits politicians from freely sharing every bit of information with their constituencies. This particular policy model as described in section of chapter 2 prescribes that a handful of people formulate public policies for the majority. To keep up a semblance of public participation, the policy-makers extensively democratize the policy process. However, according to Dukhira (2000:58) grassroots participation is sometimes more of a nuisance than of a value. He further argues that this happens because the poor at grassroots level have few or no expertise. Politicians therefore become reluctant to consult them (Taylor 1998:41). Dukhira (2000:80) stated that local elite easily manipulated development projects at Port Louis local government, for example, one project leader decided that a sport complex should be located near his residence despite an alternative location suggested by the community. The results of Port Louis local government election of 13 October, 2002 based on a simple majority has led to the dominance of a single party (Dukhira 2000:121). Although the electoral results tend to show growing popularity and substantial gains by the ruling party, the situation poses a threat to meaningful pluralistic local politics. One of the challenges in this context is that of finding mechanisms to reduce political dominance and ascertain genuine involvement of the grassroots in the making and implementation of policy. In terms of section 147 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) the key focus include strengthening the bottom-up approach, promote financial autonomy, promote accountability, promote transparency and reserve seats for people with disabilities, women and the youth among other disadvantaged groups to broaden representation in the 124 municipal councils. Hence, this Act, acknowledges democratic value of local government, right of citizens to participate in the policy-making institutions equity, freedom and liberty of the community. Public participation through local administration The real meaning of the phenomenon of administrative state is that it emphasises the increasing significance of the executive branch at local government level. A characteristic of the administrative state is that it creates a public administration that keeps on growing in terms of size, powers and penetrations of every facet of community life at local government level. Section 123 of the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) stipulates the following: public administration should be accountable; public administration must be broadly representative of the Mauritian people; public administration must ensure transparency; public services must be provided fairly, equitably and impartially; public administration must promote community development through public involvement; public administration must respond to people s need and encourage public participation; and efficient and effective human resource management 125 In terms of section 124 of the Constitution these provisions are applicable to all spheres of government. A variety of factors exert pressure on local government to extend the administrative branch such as: the growth of human population which imposes demands on local government in terms of the extent to local government services that have to be provided; complexity of community: public administration grows as local government attempts to protect people against each other, alleviate misery and arbitrate conflict; implementation of constitutional dispensation; organisational characteristic of local government; and mobilisation of administrative experience and technical skills. It is essential to realise that the municipal official is thoroughly embroiled in this controversy about the phenomenon of the administrative state. Also administrative authority which refers to local government departments influence public participation. The executive body interacts regularly with administrative bodies. This is because politics and administration cannot easily be separated into watertight compartments. The two functions are inter-related, therefore there is need for continuous intervention between municipal councillors and officials, if local government is to function effectively. According to Section 128 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) the role of local administration is to organize and implement policy decision 126 of the municipal council and to exercise functions that have been designated by the law. In terms of section 130 of this Act, involving the public in making and implementation of policy is not an isolated activity. This should be a mutual endeavor, involving the efforts of both sides, the community and the public. Therefore, in a democratic local government, public participation, especially at the community level is a tool to influence, monitor and improve local government actions and decisions. Moreover, in terms of section 136 of this Act, local administration should adopt rules for: creating different departments for submitting information, with individual officials who are responsible for giving the concrete information; right to participate in policy matters; right of information; and right of submitting inquiries or requests. The legacy of a shortage of qualified human resources is still experienced in most municipalities partly due to inadequate training programmes and inadequate qualifications among the serving officials especially in the financial management and accounting (Dukhira 2000:63). In a research conducted by Dukhira (2000:80) among different municipalities in Mauritius, he indicated that administrative capacity of most local councils is insufficient to ensure the effective discharge of municipal services devolved upon them. Dukhira concluded that lack of skills among most municipal officials is reflected in the below-standard policies that are formulated. Thus, it is essential that for sustenance of public participation in local governance adequate numbers of highly qualified human resources should be available. Intensive capacity- 127 building programmes oriented towards decentralized systems should be continuous process for strengthening administrative set-up. Public participation in municipal finance Finance as component refers to the system by which the units within the structure of local government acquire the resources necessary to perform their functions (Dukhira 2000:69). The local government system in Mauritius has been weak and resource-starved for the past 40 years due, inter-alia, to the reliance on central government grants (Dukhira 2000:80). Local authorities in Mauritius have always complained and probably with good reason that a lack of adequate funds prevent them from fulfilling their obligations. Presently, public participation is pursued in the context of centralized financial systems that are characterized by problems such as insufficient funds, lengthy budgetary processes and legislative financial controls. Financial problems of local governments have been addressed partly by allocation of subsidies. For the promotion of public participation strategies effectively, it is essential to have adequate financial resources. In accordance with the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 124 of 2005) local governments in Mauritius obtain their revenue from the following main sources: rents and tariffs for municipal services rendered; local property tax; and subsidies by central government. It would appear therefore that although subsidies are always welcome, they have negative picture in so far as they bring about greater control over local government and affect their autonomy. This is why local government at times 128 have been hesitant to accept subsidies from high level government and have insisted that their own sources of revenue be created. It is critical that the financial management systems of local governments be updated through computerized and modern accounting systems, effective financial controls and effective supervision to ensure the prudent public financial management. Public participation in local politics Public participation is influenced by local politics. Party politics can influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level in three different ways, firstly by virtue of the nature of the political system such as one or multiparty local government. Secondly as a result of direct intervention by politicians and thirdly due to municipal official themselves entering the terrain of politics. In this thesis a political party is defined as an organized group of citizens who prefer to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit try to control the government. In one-party system, there is only one legally recognized political party. In such a system the influence of party politics is not only strong but absolute. The opposite of an autocratic and undemocratic one-party system is a democratic multiparty system. The concept of the government of the day is not used when referring to a one-party local government (Connelly 2003:51). The second way in which public participation is the making and implementation of policy can be influenced is by multiparty system. In a multiparty system different political parties come into power at regular intervals to participate in the local governance. However, if one party remains in power indefinitely the political dispensation effectively becomes a one-party system because the other parties do not get the opportunity to implement their policies (Taylor 1998:62). 129 The third way in which party politics can influence public participation is when municipal officials enter the political arena. It is essential to bear in mind that councillors at local government are chosen to occupy their positions by means of a democratic election process. The positions of councillors in a democratic local government depend on the support of voters and they can be discharged from office by virtue of municipal elections. On the other hands, appointed municipal officials are not elected but are functionaries who are responsible in a professional capacity for the daily functioning of the local government. Such municipal officials also act as agents for the making and implementation of policy at local government level. These officials keep their position even if the governing party changes after a municipal election. The municipal official has to respect the wishes of the voters as expressed and formulated by the government of the day. A municipal official has the right and responsibility, however, to refuse to carry out an instruction that is illegal or unconstitutional (Theunissen 1998:140). The emergence of many political parties in the multiparty system represent the flourishing of pluralism and political diversity in Mauritius. However, there is a trend towards a culture of antagonism and lack of political tolerance (Dukhira 2000:311). The political tolerance is obvious at the national level through general election results which are based on ethnic lines, use of inflammatory language, tension and political violence during election campaigns. The political environment characterized by intolerance for a variety of views, electoral manipulation and violence, renders existing local institutions ineffective in their duty to promote public participation in the political process. Also political pluralism tends to breed intense and unmanageable conflicts. Section 48 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) stipulates that party politics have the following characteristics: decisions are taken by elected party; 130 public policy is decided within parties; public policy is decided within parties; partise act cohesively to enact policy decisions; and party politics is accountable to the local council and voters. A party government is a form of democratic political system. In party government, parties are regarded the main legitimate actors of politics. However, the widely recognized special role of parties does not necessarily mean that they are popular. Legistimacy is not always associated with a high reputation or effectiveness in public s perception. Public participation cannot survive in the absence of political tolerance. Hence, in order to promote public participation effectively, political leadership has to create stable local democratic and consensus-building environment through inter-party discussions and municipal training workshops. Public participation in socio-economic issues The promotion of public involvement is often hampered by several factors, including the lack of effective civic education, poverty and illiteracy (Dukhira 2000:36). The numerous researches conducted in many countries on the influence of these issues in encouraging public participation reveal the fact that public participation is relatively high in case of the better educated, higher occupation and income groups, urban dwellers and members of voluntary associations. The relevance of education to public participation is obvious. Education gives one greater information, enhances one s sense of civic duty, political competence, interest and responsibility. The more educated are likely to be capable of transmitting their political interest and knowledge to the next 131 generation and therefore, education is capable of influencing the extent of public participation by the next generation also. Yet research findings have not been uniformly consistent on this question. Thus, Connelly (2003:3) has found that similar levels of educational attainments may lead to different degrees of public participation because of difference in income. But Foksett (2004:80), on the other hand, has found that public participation differs with the same level of income but with different level of educational attainment. Hence, education, no doubt, is an important element of public participation. But the magnitude of this influence is liable to be limited by the working of other elements such as occupational skills, status of individuals and self-confidence. In a research conducted by Dukhira in the year 2000 among local authorities in Mauritius revealed that most councillors had poor academic backgrounds and faced problems in attempting to understand policy issues. The local leaders also had difficulty to communicate their vision in a way that reaches and motivates local people. Dukhira deduced that such a situation tended to hamper representative government as most councillors were unable to clearly articulate diverse needs of the community. However as discussed under the section of this chapter, the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) makes provision for the qualifications of a chairperson, councillor and their functions in the local government. Fundamentally, the level of education and the economic standing of representatives play a crucial role in effective local governance. Also, factors such as personal attitudes and expertise influence individual participation at local government level. Hence, citizens need motivation and a thorough understanding of the political system, civil rights and responsibilities in order to participate intelligently in local government issues. 132 Public participation through control instrument for the making and implementation of policy Besides above, control as an instrument also influences public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level. All activities of the local authority must be directed at policy goals realization and this necessitate stringent controls over local activities. One of the most formidable and influential control instrument in the making and implementation of policy at local government level is the control exerted by voters. Generally speaking, members of community at local government level show great interest in what affects them directly (Hanekom 1991:81). Voters control mechanisms in public participation have been explained in chapter 2 section Control in this research is regarded as not only checking the individual action of every public official, but of steps through which account is rendered for actions or inactions to determine whether municipal council s directives are adhered to and goal is realized as envisaged. Moreover, to pass the test of accountability, regularity in local government activities is essential. Regularity in this sense means eliminating and combating ineffectiveness and inefficiency in public participation in local governance. Effectiveness refers to the extent to which local government objectives have been realized and the degree to which public needs are being met (Holden 1993:70). Effectiveness in this study refers to the extent to which public participation in the making and implementation of policy is met. To efficiently relates to realizing an objective with minimum resources (Holden 1993:86). In this thesis, efficiency means judicious use of resources in realizing public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level. To determine all these the next chapter deals with research survey at Port-Louis local government. Therefore, control in public participation is an essential factor for policy-making and implementation at local government level. 133 Additionally, once an administrative function of a local government has ran its course, the results of administration must be evaluated in the light of set objectives as stated in section of this chapter. Specific control instruments can be used from time to time to make certain whether or not efforts to reach the desired objective are on course. The New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) make provisions, among others, control over local government affairs through public participation. Continuous public participation in the making and implementation of policy serves as a control mechanism to have a say in the local governance. This also limit the abuse of authority at local government level. Public participation control mechanism like public participation is important at local government level because political authorities are accountable to the public for their actions and for the actions of its established institutions. Also because local government funds are held in trust, continuous and complete control over the receipt and expenditure of such money is necessary. Conclusion This chapter highlighted the impact of the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government. One of the issues dealt with is the local government policy in Mauritius. This section of study explained the new phase in the Mauritian local government transition process aimed at promoting public participation brought about the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 2003 of 2005). Attention was concentrated on policies that ensure public participation in local governance. 134 Another issue that has an impact on public participation is participatory governance in the Mauritian local government. Under this heading three substantive aspects to the innovation of participatory governance namely municipal local government, requirements for public participation and ward committees have been explained. In order to have a better understanding of public participation, Port Louis local government structure was depicted and explained. Mention was made on objectives of the Port Louis local government. Attention was also devoted on issues such as public participation in information provision to policy-makers and implementers and public participation through access to information. These issues were analysed under the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005). Moreover, chapter 3 discussed public participation in regard to responsiveness of public needs at local level. To further elaborate on public participation, another issue that is developmental local government was discussed. Public participation is also influenced by elite. Elite dominance has been explained with reference to Dukhira s views in Mauritius. Moreover, administrative, financial, political and socio-economic issues that have a bearing on public participation have been discussed. Ultimately, public participation at local government is affected by the mechanism of control. The importance of control instrument for the making and implementation of policy has been explained with reference to the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005). The discussion of the above issues serves to accentuate the second research question. In order to consolidate this research thesis, the impact of public participation under the current legislation is further conducted by way of a research survey at the Port Louis local government. The next chapter deals with the research design and methodology for this study. 135 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Introduction This chapter presents the research philosophy, design and methodology for this study. The research philosophy provided in this chapter clarifies the researcher s epistemological viewpoint. This section of study starts by clarifying the meaning and differences between quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Thereafter, it indicates that this study is qualitative in nature. Likewise, the research design presents the design choices made and the strategies used in answering the research questions. The meaning of research design for this study has been given in this chapter. The concepts, construct validity and reliability have been detailed. The relationship between validity and reliability has been made clear for the purpose of this study. Attention has been devoted on the major part of this chapter, research methodology. The questionnaire development, research process, selection of sample, research areas, piloting the questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, data presentation, rethinking subjectivity using reflexivity, ethical issues, limitations of research and data analysis have been explored in greater details in this chapter. The fundamental objective of this chapter is to establish the golden thread for chapter 5 which will deal with research findings and analysis. Research philosophy Research in this study means a search for facts answers to questions and solutions to problems. It seeks to find explanation to unexplained phenomenon, to clarify the doubtful facts. 136 The philosophical foundation of this thesis has developed and evolved from a predominantly positivist epistemology towards a more naturalistic and interpretive epistemology. This view implies the following: understanding and interpreting the phenomenon of public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government; being personally and directly involved in the research project; and having a practical interest in this research study, in order to continuously improve real world practice. The above philosophy is in line with Creswell s (2003) pragmatic, mixed methods approach in which there is a concern with applications and answers to problems. This research study make use of qualitative approach. In keeping with the exploratory nature of this study, a combination of etic and emic data was gathered: etic data from research survey and emic data from interviews. Quantitative and qualitative research Research in this study means a search for facts answers to research questions and solutions to the problem statement. Research brings out factual data on prevailing situations. There are two main types of research: quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research is research involving the use of structured questions where the response options have been predetermined and a large number of respondents is involved. By this definition, measurement must be objective, quantitative and statistically valid. Simply put, it s about numbers, objective and data. On the other hand, qualitative research in this study involves collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what participants do and 137 say. Qualitative research is a field of inquiry that crosscuts disciplines and subject matter. It involves an in-depth understanding of participants behaviour and the reasons that govern participants behaviour. Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research relies on reasons behind various aspects of participants behaviour. Simply put, it investigates the why and how of policy-making, as compared to what, where and when of quantitative research. Qualitative researchers typically rely on four methods for gathering data: participation in the setting, direct observation, in-depth interviews and analysis of responses. This research study is qualitative in nature. Qualitative research Denzin (2000:3) describes qualitative research as situated activity that locates the observer in the world . Qualitative research considerably enhances the scope of public participation research by making it possible to study public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level. Because qualitative researchers study local government contexts in-depth and use a set of interpretive, material practices to make the world visible, qualitative research has transformative power. The research questions set out in section of chapter 1 are intertwined with contextual issues of the participants experiences in the local government setting and as such, a detailed, first hand account of experience from the point of view of those experiencing becomes necessary. Three competing paradigms guide qualitative inquiry: postpositivism, critical theory and constructivism. Guba (1994:108) defines research paradigms as the basic belief system or world-view that guides the investigator, not only in choices of method but in ontologically and epistemologically fundamental ways. 138 Therefore, a research paradigm directs the investigator s approach to study the level of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government. Specific methods of research arise from the researcher s paradigm. Guba (1994:128) explains qualitative paradigms with reference to the following three questions: the ontological question deal with the form and nature of reality. It also deals with what the researcher can study and make knowledge claims about; the methodological question is answered in terms of the researcher s procedure for finding out whatever the researcher believes can be known; and the espitemological question encompasses the relationship between the researcher and what can be known. There are apparently two opposing conceptions of reality that researchers embrace. On the one hand, the foundational stand which is defined as the assumption that reality is one, knowable, independent of perception, out there to be grasped only by the objective eye. The best way to know the reality is for the researcher to remain outside it. On the other hand, the interpretive stand, including the phenomenological approach and symbolic interactionism contends that people activity construct their reality, by imposing meaning upon their experience in the course of social interaction and acting according to their perceptions. There is not one reality, but many and the only way to make meaning of these realities is to be part of them. Hence, the main aim of different adherents of the interpretive approach is not to find out one summative truth but to develop an understanding of a local government situation that takes into account the experience and the interpretation of all those taking part in it. This research study discusses, to some extent how aspects of the personal 139 experience underlie the professional experience of the participants. Attention was given to participants voices. Research design The term design means drawing an outline or planning or arranging details. In this study research design is defined as a plan, structure and strategy of investigation so conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. A research design may be quantitative and/or qualitative. Both types have been discussed in section This section presents the research design for this study, followed by the research methodology in section The research design describes the nature of this study, including the unit of analysis. Design choices are reported, such as the strategies that were used to answer research questions. Issues of validity and reliability are discussed below. Design choices This investigation is an exploratory study, based on empirical research of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government in Mauritius. Janesick (2002:381) invites us to conceive of the design as a dance choreography. He states that A good choreographer refuses to be limited to just one approach or one technique from dance history. Likewise the qualitative researcher refuses to be limited, the qualitative researcher uses various techniques and rigorous and tested procedures in working to capture the nuance and complexity of the social situation under study . 140 Much of the similarity that is used in this analogy relates to dance and qualitative research as a creative act that revels in spontaneity but which is not without direction. All choreography as all research starts with a basic idea that drives the research, a critical question. The specificity of qualitative research is that it is both intentional and reactive; it takes shape only when it is in process. The lines of investigation though defined in broad terms become more precise only as the research process unfolds. In section : research methodology, questionnaire development, research process, selection of sample and research areas, piloting the questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, data presentation, rethinking subjectivity, ethical issues and problems encountered during this research are presented in details. Validity Validity means the effectiveness of an instrument in measuring properties like attitude, behaviour and morale of participants (Cronbach 2000:84). The degree to validity of an instrument is determined through the application of logic. In this research study construct validity has been applied. Construct validity in this study is defined as a process of investigating various kinds and degree of relationships between the construct, public participation. Construct validity is related to generalizing from measures to the concepts discussed in chapter 2. Construct validity in this study has been demonstrated by the careful analysis of the construct, public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government. The construction of public participation in this study was articulated in section The constituent parts of public participation were further explored in greater details in chapter 2 of this thesis. 141 Construct validity in the survey questionnaire was enhanced by basing it on validated categories and instruments from the literature. The interview schedule was an instrument and part of this research effort was to validate and improve it by piloting it. Reliability Reliability in this study means the ability of a measuring instrument to give accurate and consistent result. Reliability is essentially a synonym for consistency and replicability overtime and/or over groups of respondents (Guba 1994:130). In this research study, the different strategies used to answer the various research questions exhibited varying degree of reliability, as discussed below. The literature review, which contributed to the taxonomy of factors to promote public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level. The findings are corroborated by studies found after the synthesis of the taxonomy. The survey questionnaire was piloted and refined for two years, prior to its administration in June 2007. Relationship between validity and reliability Validity and reliability as measurement properties are significantly intercalated. An instrument that is valid, is always reliable. An instrument that is not valid may or may not be reliable. A reliable instrument need not be valid, but a non-reliable instrument is never valid, because a necessary condition of validity is reliability. Reliability is more directly demonstrated logically and statistically, whereas validity is often referred by a comparison of predicted and measured behaviours of participants. 142 Research methodology The research survey was conducted independently by the author between June 2007 and February 2008 in order to gather baseline information on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. In view of the nature of data that were collected, the study followed a descriptive survey research method. The term survey has come from two words, sur and vor , which mean to see a particular thing from a high place. (Guba 1994:140). According to Jacobs (1996:381) a survey is a research technique in which data are gathered by asking questions to a group of individuals called respondents . However, data in this method can also be gathered through observation. Questionnaire development A questionnaire is a set of written questions and/or statements to which the research subjects are to respond in order to provide data which are relevant to a research topic (Jacobs 1996:341). Data for this study was collected through a survey questionnaire as indicated in section of chapter 1. Samples letter submitted to members of public and officials of Port Louis local government are at annexures 2 and 3. Two kinds survey questionnaires were used in this research study for data collection. The first one was the survey questionnaire (Annexure 5) that was used to gather information from the officials of Port Louis local government. The second one was designed for members of public (Annexure 6). The survey questionnaire began with a covering letter informing the participants about the identity of the researcher, the aim of the study in order to encourage them to 143 answer all the questions and finally assure the confidentiality of the answers and the respondents. The survey questionnaire was administered in section A and section B. Research process This part of the study focuses on how the research proceeded from the point the survey questionnaire was prepared up to the point when it was received from the respondents. This section also deals with selection of sample, research areas, piloting the questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, data presentation and problems encountered in this survey. Selection of sample and research areas The sample unit, which was used in this study, was members of the public who lived within the boundary of the Port Louis local government, at the time of research some senior officials and councillors of the Port Louis local government. According to Section 129 of the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) Port Louis local government is demarcated in the north, south, east and west. The implication for such demarcation is that members of the public can participate in the making and implementation of policy within the boundary of Port Louis. It was not the intention of the researcher to survey the entire population of the Port Louis. Many writers argue the difficulty of determining the appropriate and optimum size of the sample (Cohen & Manion 1995:55). The correct sample size is dependent upon the nature of the population and the purpose of the study. In general, it is better to have as large a sample as possible in order to reach general conclusion. In this connection, Nwana (1988:80) highlighted the following point: 144 The larger a sample becomes, the more representative of the population it becomes and so the more reliable and valid the results based on it will become . From this point of view the author Vans (1990:32) suggested two key factors for determining such a size: these are the degree of accuracy the researchers require for the sample and the extent to which there is variation in the population in regard to the key characteristics of the study. There are many ways of determining the sample size required for achieving representative for a given population. One is to select a minimum of 10 per cent of the population, or to apply statistical formula. It could be achieved also by using a handy guide table particularly designed to determine a sample size. In this research the researcher adopted the method of using the table that is designed to help any researcher to know his representative sample of population without using formula or doing any calculation. After obtaining a good up-to-date list of members of public from the electoral commission for the north, south, east and west region of the Port Louis local government, the researcher used a simple random sampling method for selecting members of the public. The benefits of using a simple random sample include: its effectiveness in generating representative sample size; and the greater precision of survey estimates compared to those of other methods. Since there were wide variations of size among the areas selected within the geographic borders of the Port Louis local government, a constant sampling ratio was not favoured. So it was decided that members of the public be selected proportionately to each region. Out of 10 members of the public 1 person was selected through a random selection procedure. 145 For the selection of a particular member of the public for interview, the researcher obtained the details of all the adults from the electoral commission aged 18 or over, from which the researcher selected one person through a random selection procedure. The survey sample was therefore, a simple random sample of all names found in each region. This selection process suggests that the principle of securing representation by rational criteria was pursued. Therefore, it is contended that representativeness in these premises was ensured, thereby strengthening the study claim to bring a reasonable reflection of the sample in the whole Port Louis local government. In addition to members of the public, the researcher also selected a sample of councillors and senior officials of the Port Louis local government. This was done because of the fact that such officials are expected to know the internal functions of the Port Louis local government well. Here again the researcher adopted a random sample approach in order to select the above subject. As mentioned in chapter 1 sections and each respondent was given a questionnaire to read before deciding whether to participate or not. Interviews were conducted at the resident of the members of public in the north, south, east and west of Port Louis local government. A total of 48 interviews were conducted. Piloting the questionnaire Before applying any research instrument it is necessary to ensure that it is a valid and reliable tool. In this study, it was decided by the researcher to have a preliminary field testing of the questionnaire. According to Bradburn (1988:23) the main objective of using the pilot study is the following: The pilot study can be used to indicate questions that need revision because they are difficult to understand and it can also indicate questions that may be eliminated . 146 To this end, Oppenheim (1992:60) expressed the same sentiments as follows: Questionnaires have to be composed and tried out, improved and then tried out again, often several times over, until researchers are certain that they can do the job for which they are needed . These views were echoed by Bell et al (1998:80) when data-gathering instruments should be piloted to test how long it takes the recipients to complete them, to check that all questions and instructions are clear and to enable you to remove any items that do not produce usuable data . In this research, a pilot study refers to a small scale replica of the main study. It is the rehearsal of the main study. It covers the entire process of research: preparation of a broad plan of the study, construction of tools, collection of data, processing, analysis of data and report writing. Therefore, a pilot study provides a better knowledge of the problem under study and its dimensions. Hence, it can be deduced that however well designed a questionnaire may seem to be, it should always be piloted to ensure relevance, objectivity and effectiveness. In October 2006 during a field trip to the selected areas of Port Louis local government, the questionnaires were tested with a random sample of about 20 respondents in the centre of Port Louis local government, not included in the present design. A total of 15 interviews were completed successfully. Analysis of these pretest finding resulted in the elimination of certain questions and the refinement of others. After that the questionnaire was sent to my promoter and joint promoter to further critique it. Both recommended some refinement of the questionnaire. Individual questions were redrafted and the questionnaire was remodeled into its final questionnaire. Items that were irrelevant to the study were eliminated. Other questions were added and sentences of the questionnaire were restricted, reordered and regrouped. By February 2007, the reconstructed and revised questionnaire was ready for administration. On 2ndJune 2007 the main field work was started by the researcher and extended until February 2008. An interview started with a brief introduction, followed by explanation from the researcher about the purpose of 147 this research and an assurance that its information provided will be kept confidential. The interviews with members of the public were held either in the morning or the late evenings when they were free from their work, to enable them to participate in the study. During the day the researcher had discussions and interviews with senior officials and councilors of the Port Louis local government. Administration of the questionnaire The researcher decided to use face-to-face interviews to administer the questionnaire with members of the public, senior officials and councillors of the Port Louis local government. Face-to-face interviews enabled the researcher to probe, to explain, to follow up important points that were raised by members of the public, senior officials and councilors. Face-to-face interviews also enabled the researcher to obtain detailed and rich information. Some members of the public preferred talking face-to-face rather than filling in forms. Therefore, the researcher avoided the postal questionnaire administration. There were other reasons for the researcher in using the face-to-face interviews. Through using face-to-face interview the researcher ensured the high rate of responses to the questionnaire and the high rate of returning ones. Also using the interviews ensured the clear understanding of the questions. However, studies using postal questionnaire can cover a much larger number of instances, but they cause the researcher to miss the nuances of local politics in the communities studied. Hence, one may learn much less from them. Moreover, political leaders in particular are reluctant respondents to postal questionnaires. On the other hand, they are much happier chatting relatively in interviews about their roles and activities. For all these reasons this study extended face-to-face interviews with councillors as well. The time that the interview took with the respondents was between 30 to 50 minutes. All the interviewees were first contacted by telephone. Once the person had agreed to a suitable interview time, the researcher sent a background letter (Annexures 2, 148 5 and 6. One essential function of the background letter was to confirm the agreed interview time and place and to provide the participants with a record of the researcher s contact details. The formality of the background letter aimed to reassure the participants of the credibility of the research and that any information given would be handled in a professional manner. It also suggested that the participants could contact the researcher at any time if the respondents had questions and reassured the participants of their right to withdraw during the research process. The body of the background letter was a brief introduction to the research topic to give the interviewee some indication of what to expect from the interview. This was done with the intention to reassure the unknown and encourage the participants to start thinking about what the participants wanted to say in the interview. As expected, the interviews were an enjoyable experience. A consent form (Annexure 4) was used to gain written approval from the interviewees and to guarantee confidentiality. The researcher began each interview with a brief introduction so as to make the participants feel free to discuss issues that the respondents felt were important. Each of the research participants was allocated a pseudonym to protect their confidentiality. A pseudonym, however, provided a reference point in the research analysis and linked participants to the Port Louis local government contexts more closely than a general term. During the course of the interviewing the researcher was concerned not only with what was said, but also how it was said, and where it was said. All this information was relevant in establishing why things were said. Hence, the contexts of the interviews were considered essential and to this end the researcher kept a field work diary. In the diary, the researcher noted the place and time of the interview, the atmosphere, the interviewee s tone of voice, body language and any other significant features. This information formed a background to the analysis of findings. The in-depth interviews were a way to gain entry into the lifeworlds of various members of the public and officials of the Port Louis local government within the field encompassed by the research topic. 149 Data presentation When fieldwork period was completed, the data collected from the sample of participants through interviews was eventually checked before coding and editing. The data from members of the public was classified according to the north, south, east and west region of the Port Louis local government. Classification of data was also made according to respondents (councillors and officials) of Port Louis local government. The classification was designed to see the extent of difference of perception in one area/group from the other. Required information was organized in tabular forms in order to be more useful. Tabulation in this study means recording classification in a compact form so as to facilitate comparisons and relations between data. It is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. It is of great help in the analysis and interpretation of data. In tabulations and data are arranged in the forms of tables, for facilitating the statistical and mathematical operations. Moreover, two statistical devices were used in the analysis of the data throughout major parts of the study depending upon the nature of the questions. For questions which were too short a response, the test of percentages was used to determine whether the percentage of respondents in one area/group giving one answer differed from the percentage of another area/group giving the answer. Therefore the main forms which were used in this study were frequency distribution and the percentage forms. Using such a technique in this research aimed to obtain an overall view of individual on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at Port Louis local government. Rethinking subjectivity-using reflexivity Researchers using the interpretive mode have to pay special attention to the issue of subjectivity. In fact much of the criticism levelled against this approach 150 lies in the fact that the researcher may underscore some aspects of his or her findings and privilege others (Britzman 1998:81). Proponents of qualitative research argue that no research is biased or value free because it is always done from somebody s perspective. According to Reinharz (1997:5) a researcher create a self into the field, the situationally created self distinct from the research based self and the brought self. In this study, the researcher had conversation with a critical colleague who attended some of the random test interviews not included in the current design. This was done with the intention of being objective in the interviews and it also made it possible for the researcher to step out of himself and take distance with his own representation of himself in the research setting. The critical colleague of the researcher highlighted the contradictions that existed during interactions with the test interviews. This helped the researcher in the gathering creation and interpretation. Ethical issues in this research Ethics in research are considered to deal with beliefs about what is right or wrong, proper or improper, good or bad (Millan 2001:94). According to Gillespie (2002:89) ethics emerge from value conflicts among those in a profession. These conflicts are expressed in discussions and policy decisions that relate to individual rights. For instance, when conducting a research study, the researcher attempts to minimize the risk to participant rights. However, there is conflict between a participant s right to privacy versus the researcher s need to know. Researchers must attempt to minimize risks to participants while trying to maximize the quality of information generated. Qualitative researchers must be sensitive to ethics because of their research topic, face-to-face interactive data collection, an emergent design and reciprocity with respondents (Schumacher 1999:63). Criteria for research design involve not 151 only the selection of information rich informants and efficient research strategies, but also adherence to research ethic (Britzman 1998:86) The two principal ethical issues in this research was those of confidentiality and anonymity. Precaution was taken to maintain the confidentiality of the information given and to respect the privacy of participants. All participants were informed in advance of what was expected of them with the interview. The respondents participated on a voluntary basis and this was evident in the enthusiasm displayed during interviews. The findings of the research were recorded in such a way that participants could not be identified and appropriate codes and pseudonyms were used when individual statements were quoted. Moreover, the attribution of statements was carefully monitored to ensure that participants were not likely to be adversely affected by issues of power and status. This measure was considered so that participants would not feel constrained to share information because of fear of repercussions from within their institution, workplace and home. Each participant was informed of their right to decline participation in this study, which would be respected at any time and for any reason. Also participant permission to autiotape interviews was requested because it was a means of obtaining accurate information. Participants were informed that they would be given a copy of their transcript to check and modify if necessary. Therefore, in the sense of true democratic survey research, participants were empowered to express themselves freely during interview. Also the methodology adopted in this research was reflective of an ethical stance allowed open-ended dialogue between the participants and the researcher. Furthermore, the interviewee made a large commitment to the researcher by donating their time and energy. Following each interview, participants were sent a letter of thanks to recognize their contribution. 152 Limitations of research Every survey is subject to some field problems, which cannot be totally anticipated. Besides, financial constraints for the fieldwork, the general problems encountered in the collection of data stemmed from the transport difficulties and hot weather conditions of the area. Some respondents directly refused to be interviewed. Some of the interviews with members of the public were held in the late evenings owing to none availability of such participants during the day. Travelling at night made the task of the researcher difficult and a longer time was taken than anticipated in some regions of Port Louis local government. Some of the respondents had a tendency to bypass direct answers. So strenuous efforts and patience were required to complete the research survey. They were willing, however, to discuss informally some aspects of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. After the collection of data, it was found that the analysis of the data was much more troublesome task than initially anticipated. Technically, it was the difficulties of aggregating and systematizing of data collected from different sources and methods. In this case, the problem was encountered because of large quantity of data itself. Hoinville etal (1979:81) has suggested that a month in collecting data should be matched by two months for the analysis of that data. Hence, this survey was time-consuming. Therefore, the problems encountered during the survey research broadened the knowledge of the researcher. Data analysis The first step in the analysis of data is a critical examination of the assembled data. The researcher asks himself questions. This stirs up his or her thinking prcess and induces a novel way of looking at research problems. The analysis is made with a view to finding out some significance for a systematic theory and 153 some basis for a broader generalization. Many studies using qualitative methods are not reflexive enough about the interpreting process, common platitude proclaim that the data speak for themselves, that the researcher is neutral, unbiased and invisible (Fontana 2002:80). However, according to Lampard 2002:64) this is very hard to achieve as the researcher becomes buried under an increasing amount of field notes, transcripts and audiotapes. In this research study, a multi-method approach was used where data gathered from observations, interviews and literature analysis supplement each other as part of data analysis. Observation in this study involves collection of data about the nature of the physical and social world as it unfolds before the researcher directly via the senses rather than indirectly via the accounts of others. Kerlinger (2002:93) mentions that during data collection, processual data analysis occurs because the researcher is continuously engaged with the data as it is collected. Therefore, for the purposes of preliminary data analysis on public participation, the author read through his notes and listened to the audio tapes of each interview several times in order to get an adequate impression of the discussion climate and to make verbatim transcriptions in which psychological indicators like pauses, hesitations and enthusiasm were noted. In this way an attempt was made to get familiar with the data. Moreover, data gathered from initial interviews provided direction for framing further questions on the basis of on-going interpretation and analysis. In this research the author reviewed all the data first in a general manner to obtain a sense of the data and themes emerging. A more detailed review followed with bracketing (placing preconceived ideas within brackets) and intuiting (focusing on participant s views) on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. This provided structure to the data gathered. The data was evaluated holistically and an attempt to identify the major categories represented in the universum was made. The major categories were reflected within the different dimensions of the participant s physical, phychological, social, 154 environmental, spiritual and patterns of interactions between these dimensions. In this was the data were analysed and major categories and sub-categories emerging from the data were identified. Conclusion This chapter discussed the research philosophy, design and methodology used in this study. As highlighted in this chapter, this study adopted a combination of etic and emic data collection. This chapter provided a detailed explanation of qualitative research on public participation. Qualitative paradigms were explained based on three questions: the ontological question, the methodological question and the epistemological question. Besides, the two opposing conceptions of reality that researchers faced were explained. It was pointed out that the best way to know the reality is for the researcher to remain outside it. However, interpretive stand including the phenomenological approach state that people activity build their reality by imposing meaning upon their experience and perceptions. This chapter also concentrated on the research design. Design choices were explained. Reference was made on dance choreography. Construct validity in this research was based on the careful analysis of the construct, public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. It was mentioned in this chapter that different strategies used to answer the various research questions shown varying degree of reliability. The instrument used in this research was a survey questionnaire which was piloted and refined for two years before its administration in June 2007. A major part of this chapter was devoted on the research methodology. It was mentioned that the research survey was conducted independently by the author between June 2007 and December 2007 so as to collect baseline information on 155 public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. This chapter focussed on the questionnaire development. The survey questionnaire started with a covering letter informing the participants about the identity of the researcher and the objective of this study. Different questions were arranged in sections A and B of the survey questionnaire (Annexure 5) Attention was paid on the detailed research process; selection of sample and research areas, piloting the questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, data presentation, rethinking subjectivity using reflexivity, ethical issues and problems encountered during this research. Chapter 4 has an essential place in this thesis as it forms the basic foundation for the next chapter which highlights the research findings and its interpretation. 156 CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS Introduction The primary focus of this chapter is to present the findings and analyse the research data obtained from questionnaire and interviews. The themes developed in the current chapter have been generated from the issues that were discussed during the course of the author s interaction with the participants. As mentioned in chapter 1, this research, among others, also aims at establishing the perceptions of respondents on the questions set out in the questionnaire and provide possible solutions to the problem statement of this thesis. The analysis and interpretation of the data thus gathered has been carried out in light of the third and fourth research questions set out in section of the introductory chapter: What modes of public participation are used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? What are the main factors that influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? The method and procedures for these research questions were presented in the previous chapter. Data are presented in Tables for ease of reference and interpretation. For clarity and uniformity, the percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole number whenever possible. The analysis of data is based on the aggregation of participants responses to statement which focus on specific constructs. 157 Responses The study population initially earmarked was 35 members of the public, 10 senior public officials and 10 councillors at the Port Louis local government. Each potential participant was given the questionnaire to read before engaging in the research study. It was observed thereafter, 32 out of 35 members of the public, 8 out of 10 senior public officials and 8 out of 10 councillors responded positively to participate in this research study. Out of 32 members of the public, 8 was selected from the north, 8 from east and 8 from west of Port Louis local government. This was done with the intention to represent and cover the whole geographical area of Port Louis local government. Therefore, the total study population in this research was 48 participants. Respondents profile Section A of the questionnaire was concerned with the profile of the respondents. The data collected from the questionnaire on this question is illustrated in Table 5. Among the questions raised as part of the concerns for this study was the extent to which the exponents of participatory methodologies commit themselves as genuine participants in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. The respondents profile analysis was part of the attempt to understand the participants. Who are they and what inspires them? 158 Table 5. Respondents profile Question Number and (percentage) Total number and overall (percentage) C 1. Age group 18-29 years 30-49 years 50-59 years 60 and above 2. Gender Male Female 3. Level of education Primary Secondary Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate Other (please specify) 20(63) 10(31) 2(6) 16(50) 16(50) 15(47) 10(31) 5(16) 2(6) 1(13) 7(88) 4(50) 4(50) 3(38) 3(38) 2(25) 6(75) 2(25) 4(50) 4(50) 7(88) 1(13) 20(42) 17(35) 11(23) 24(50) 24(50) 15(31) 20(42) 9(19) 4(8) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C 159 Section A (1) of the questionnaire asked the respondents to indicate their age group. Overall, 20 participants (42%) of the sample belonged to the age group of 18-29 years [20 of the 32 members of the public (63%)]. Hence, the overall 20% represented the highest response rate among the participants. It is observed from Table 5, that overall 17 participants (35%) indicated their age group of 30-49 years [10 members of the public (31%), 1 senior public official (13%) and 6 councillors (75%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was high (75%), for instance, 10 of the 32 members of the public (31%), 1 of the 8 senior public officials (13%) and 6 of the 8 councillors (75%). Hence, the overall 35% represented the middle response rate among the participants. Moreover, it is observed that overall, 11 participants (23%) responded their age group of 50-59 years [2 members of the public (6%), 7 senior public officials (88%) and 2 councillors (25%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was highest (88%), for instance, 2 of the 32 members of the public (6%), 7 of the 8 senior public officials (88%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Hence, the overall 23% represented the lowest response rate among the participants. From these responses it can be deduced that the majority of the participants were aged between 18-29 years (42%) and 30-49 years (35%). This is the most active age of the participants. The young participants were members of the public, 20 out of 32 representing (63%). Likewise, among the individual groups the high score was 6 out of 8 councillors (75%). The percentage then continuously decreased as the age group was increased. The more experienced bracket ranged from 50 to 59 years of age and was represented by 23%. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 7 out of 8 senior public officials (88%). All these factors account for a solid group of participants that was relied upon for an effective research survey on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Therefore, it can be said that all age groups of participants were represented. This implies that all 160 age groups were interested in public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Section A(2) of the questionnaire was concerned with gender profile of the participants. It is observed from Table 5 that overall, 24 participants (50%) were male [16 members of the public (50%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, 16 of the 32 members of the public (50%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 4 of the councillors (50%) represented male participants. Additionally, Table 5 shows that overall, 24 participants (50%) were female [16 members of the public (50%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. An examination of this Table indicates that among the individual groups, 16 of the 32 members of the public (50%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 4 of the councillors (50%) represented female participants. From the above, it can be argued that the gender representation among the respondents was equal and fair. This research survey took care of gender representation in the various perspectives advanced by the respondents. Gender mainstreaming in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government was taken care of. This ruled out the possibility of gratuitous and superfluous influence of views by dominant presence of one gender over the other among the respondents. Hence, the level of participation of both male and female respondents was perceived to be fairly equiTable. Question A (2) of the questionnaire was concerned with the level of education of the participants. Overall, 15 participants (31%) indicated that they had studied up to primary level [15 of the 32 members of the public (47%)]. Hence, it can be deduced that 15 out of 48 participants had at least a primary level of education. 161 Analysis of the responses in Table 5 shows that the highest score was 42%. Of the overall group, 20 participants (42%) responded that they have studied up to secondary level [10 members of the public (31%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 7 councillors (88%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was highest (88%), for instance, 10 of the 32 members of the public (31%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 7 of the 8 councillors (88%). Hence, the overall, 42% represented the highest response rate among the total participants. Moreover, it is observed from Table 5 that overall, 9 participants (19%) have responded that they have studied up to undergraduate level [5 members of the public (16%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 1 councillor (13%)]. Among these individual groups, the response rate was at least (13%), for example, 5 of the 32 members of the public (16%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 1 of the 8 councillors (13%). Additionally, an analysis of Table 5 shows that overall, 4 participants (8%) have indicated that they have studied up to graduate level [2 members of the public (6%) and 2 senior public officials (25%)]. Among the individual groups, it is observed that 2 of the 32 members of the public (6%) and 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) indicated that they have studied up to graduate level. Among these groups, none of the councillors stated that they have studied up to graduate level. From these responses it can be deduced that all the participants (100%) were literate. Data on educational attainment given in Table 5 indicates that almost 42% and 31% of the participants were educated up to primary and secondary level respectively whereas 19% and 8% of the respondents were educated up to undergraduate and graduate level respectively. Looking at the questionnaire again, it is observed that none of the participants indicated that they have a post-graduate qualification. The overriding impression that can be drawn from the above is that the level of literacy of the participants may have an impact on the 162 ability to participate meaningfully in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Participant s ability to understand what goes on in the Port Louis local government council Part B(1) of the questionnaire was concerned with the participant s ability to understand what goes on in the Port Louis local government council. The question was based on issues such as understand all the things that go on, have little knowledge of what goes on and things that goes on are incomprehensible. The outcome of the research survey is presented in Table Table Views of participant s ability to understand of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council Question Number and (percentage) Total number and overall (percentage) C Understand all the things that go on Have little knowledge of what goes on Things that goes on are incomprehensible 25(78) 27(84) 5(16) 6(75) 1(12) 0(0) 5(63) 4(50) 2(25) 36(75) 32(67) 7(14) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C 163 According to Table , the highest overall score obtained was on the first question, understand all the things that go on. 36 participants (75%) responded that they understand all the things that go on in the Port Louis local government council [25 members of the public (78%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 5 councillors (63%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least (63%), for instance, 25 of the 32 members of the public (78%), 6 of the 8 senior official (75%) and 5 of the 8 councillors (63%). Hence, 36 participants (75%) were of the opinion that they understand all the things that go on in the Port Louis local government council. Therefore, it can be deduced that overall, 75% respondents participate in the affairs of the Port Louis local council. This implies that the participants were interested to understand all the things that go on in the Port Louis local government council. On the other hand, overall, 12 participants (25%) of the total 48 participants (100%) did not respond to this part of question [7 members of the public (22%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 3 councillors (37%)]. From these findings, it can be concluded that overall, 12 participants (25%) did not understand all the things that go on in the Port Louis local government council or there may be certain factors that affect their ability to understand all the things that go on in the Port Louis local government council. Hence, overall, 25% did not participate meaningfully at the Port Louis local government council. Moreover, Table shows the middle score on the question, have little knowledge of what goes on. 32 participants (67%) responded that they have little knowledge of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council [(27 members of the public (84%), 1 senior official (12%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest rate was (84%), for instance, 27 of the 32 members of the public (84%), 1 of the 8 senior official (12%) and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). Hence, it can be deduced that overall, 32 participants (67%) were of the opinion that they have little knowledge of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council. This deduction implies that 164 some of the participants had little knowledge in the affairs of the Port Louis local government. However, overall, 16 participants (33%) of the total 48 participants (100%) did not answer this part of question [5 members of the public (16%), 7 senior public officials (88%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. From these groups of participants, it can be deduced that 16 respondents (33%) were of the opinion that they did not have little knowledge of what goes on in the Port Louis local government council. Hence, the possibility for greater participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Additionally, Table indicates the lowest response rate on the question, things that goes on are incomprehensible. 7 participants (14%) responded that things that goes on in the Port Louis local government are incomprehensible [5 members of the public (16%) and 2 councillors (25%)]. The responses varied among the individual groups, for instance, 5 of the 32 members of the public (16%), none of the senior public officials and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). It can be concluded that apart from the senior public officials, 5 members of the public and 2 concillors in the research survey were of the opinion that things that goes on in the Port Louis local government council are incomprehensible. On the other hand, overall, 41 participants (85%) of the total 48 participants (100%) did not respond to this part of the question [27 members of the public (84%), 8 senior public officials (100%) and 6 councillors (75%)]. From these findings, it can be deduced that overall, 41 participants (85%) were of the opinion that things that goes on in the Port Louis local government council are comprehensible. Hence, this indicates that overall (85%) of respondents had the possibility for greater participation in the affairs of the Port Louis local government. 165 Participant s views on communication of policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government Section B (2) of the questionnaire asked the participants question on: Are you communicated to about policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government that affect your locality? Interviewees were asked to comment on communication about policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government. Communication in this study is defined as a process of transmitting information from one level to another and it involves a feedback mechanism. It is important to note that communication serves as a bridge between the local government council and members of the public in a democratic set-up. The concept of democracy on public participation was discussed in section One participant (pseudonym B) made the following observation, I don t think, we members of the public are communicated to about policy-making processes. You know it is my belief that very often Port Louis local government uses terms and jargons which are difficult to understand . Another respondent (pseudonym E) commented: People do not know that they have the right to question local government on policy-making processes they just accept. Policy-making processes are not user-friendly and bills are often fast-tracked or reach the local legislative late, leaving insufficient time to familiarize community members with the content of the bill and the result is that people are not communicated to about the policy-making processes. 166 Moreover, a participant (pseudonym G) made the following comment: Yeah, I am of the opinion that there is inadequate communication with members of the public no feedback. According to Participant B, communication needs to be enhanced. Public participation is a new concept and there is a need to raise awareness around the importance of participating in the policy-making processes. This participant felt that a key challenge is to ensure plain English . It is important to avoid unnecessary jargon and to explain technical issues as clearly as possible. From the comments of participant E, it can be deduced that this participant was of the opinion that there is insufficient consultation with the members of the public as regard to policy issues. There is delay in the processing of bills. It is obvious from the comments of participant G, that this participant felt that feedback of results from participation is vital. According to this participant report-back is important so that people can see that their thoughts and ideas have not just disappeared into a black hole . Hence, a general comment that can be made from the opinion of these participants, when members of the public do not understand policy-making processes of local government, they cannot participate meaningfully. Participant s views on information provision regarding political decision at the Port Louis local government Question B(3) asked the participants : Are you well-informed about political decision in the Port Louis local government council that affect your locality? 167 One participant (pseudonym P) stated that: Not only me, I think that all citizens living within the boundary of Port Louis local government are not well-informed about any political decision. Another respondent (pseudonym F) commented that: I don t understand the workings of municipal council . Both statements suggest that the interviewees felt that political decision-making in the Port Louis local government council is an unknown area, even for the enlightened. According to these interviewees the workings of the council are not well known and that people do not think they have a role to play. The overwhelming comment was that these participants felt that they were not well-informed and therefore they had less interest in public participation. Participation at public hearing Moreover, question B(4) was concerned with: Have you ever participated at public hearing? Interviewees were asked to give an indication, in their opinion, of participation at public hearing. Comments ranged from very little to none at all, in terms of the public taking the initiative. One participant (pseudonym Y) commented that: Once I participated and remarked that, at public hearing, community representatives tend to use the opportunity to raise their concerns only and do not make relevant input on the Bill being discussed. Since then I do not have ever participated . 168 Another interviewee (pseudonym Q) made the following comment: I think travelling to the city centers where public hearings are held is a problem for me and time is an issue, public hearings are held on weekdays, when I am not free . Participant (pseudonym H) said, It is not worth attending public hearings, because little hearing goes on. Either the officials seem to be in a hurry, or the councillors cannot respond unless they consult the experts, yet these experts are not accounTable to the public. Another participant (pseudonym W) commented that: There are not enough public hearings and venues are not widely accessible. I am of the opinion that community input is rarely taken into consideration and consultative process is purely cosmetic . From the comment of participant Y, it can be deduced that this participant felt community representatives tend to discuss issues which are to their interest and relevant matters are not discussed at public hearing. Participant Q commented that access to public hearing was a problem and time factor was an issue as public hearings were held on weekdays. Therefore, according to this participants most of the people were not available to attend public hearings. Sentiments like participant H were common among interviewees. It was commented that public does not get feedback on issues and therefore it was difficult to determine whether the public was being heard. One participant commented that the members of the public was being consulted after decisions had already been taken. According to participant W, public hearings were not adequate and accessible. Very often, public input was neglected and consultative process was masked. The overall sense was that there was little public participation. 169 Public participation in radio talk that deals with activities or by-laws of the Port Louis local government Question B(5) asked the participants: Have you ever participated in radio talk that dealt with activities or by-laws of the Port Louis local government? One interviewee (pseudonym R) commented that Yes, I have participated once in radio talk on a topic, fees for entry at the stadium and sport complex, what I noticed was that our talk were re-fined and the listerners did not get the real picture of our talk . Another participant (pseudonym D) made the following observation: I do not see that radio talks are organized to discuss by-laws. Participant (pseudonym S) commented that: Oh, although radio talks are at times held, but it is not worth to be involved because there is too much political influence in radio activities. Overall, (60%) of the interviewees shared more or less the above feelings. According to interviewee R, radio as a medium of public participation did not provide the full picture of the conversations so the listeners were left with part of the talk. The interviewee D was of the opinion that Port Louis local government did not organize radio talks on by-laws. It can be said that this participant were of the view that bills must be discussed with members of the community before it becomes a by-laws and not vice versa. The comment of participant D is in contrast to participant S. For participant S, radio talks are held. According to this participant radio activities are influenced by politics. 170 Participant s views on enquiries to councillors or officials of the Port Louis local government Additionally, question B(6) was concerned with: Have you ever made any enquiries to councillors or officials of the Port Louis local government? One interviewee (pseudonym N) said that: Yes I have made several enquiries to both councillors and officials of the Port Louis local government about municipal services, but to my surprise I have never received any feed back. Another participant (pseudonym I) commented that: Yes, but municipal procedures are too bureaucratic and I have not received the outcome of my enquiries from officials of the Port Louis local government. Participant (pseudonym Z) observed that: Some councillors cannot be trusted, they give false hope saying that they will give a feed back on our enquiries, but this does not happen. Analysis of these statements suggests that these participants were of the opinion that feedback is not given following the submission of enquiries to councillors and officials. Participant s views on protest against officials and/or councillors of the Port Louis local government Moreover, question B(7) asked the participants to comment on Have you ever taken part in a protest against officials and/or councillors of the Port Louis local government? 171 Like the above question, most of the interviewees responded that they made several protests against officials and councillors, but no reaction was received. Interviewees felt that no feedback is given. Participant s views on difficulties faced when interacting with councillors and/or officials of the Port Louis local government Part B(8) of questionnaire was concerned with: Have you ever faced difficulties when interacting with councillors and/or officials of the Port Louis local government? One participant (pseudonym K) made the following comment: Yes, I have always faced difficulty when interacting with councillors and officials. They always seem very busy and at time they reply that they have no time to listen. Participant (pseudonym V) commented that: Officials use terms and language which I get difficulty to understand, I don t know whether they do it intentionally or not. Another interviewee (pseudonym F) stated that: I have observed that most of the councillors and officials are self-centered and concentrate on their own interest. So our interests are not taken into consideration. According to interviewee K, difficulties of interaction with councillors and officials arise owing lack of access to these personnel and time for listening to members of the public. The participant V was of the opinion that communication was a problem owing to incomprehensible terms and language that were used. Ultimately, interviewee F felt that public interests were ignored. Moreover, 172 according to this participant most of the councillors and officials are self-seeking and self-centered instead of concentrating on the interests of the voters. Participant s views on the importance of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question B(9) asked the participants: Do you think that public participation is important in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? One participant (pseudonym L) responded that: Yes, it is very important, as a tax-payer I must know how my money is being used by the Port Louis local government. Another participant (pseudonym M) commented that: Public participation is a mechanism which uphold democratic value, it also ensures accounTable municipal services, therefore I believe that public participation is very important. Overall, (60%) of the interviewees expressed similar opinions like the above. According to participant L, public participation is essential for voters so that they know how their money are employed by the policy-makers and the Port Louis local government council. The statement given by participant M also indicates that public participation is very important for the prevalence of democratic values at grass-root level. According to this participant, officials and councillors are held answerable for the actions and the services provided by the Port Louis local government. 173 Participant s views on the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Section B(10) of the questionnaire asked the participants to rank the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government in terms of their importance. The questionnaire listed a number of possible purposes, for instance, to meet statutory requirements, to increase public awareness, to gain information on public views, to decide between particular options and to empower Port Louis local government. The findings on this question are illustrated in Table According to Table the participants indicated that the main purpose of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is to increase public awareness. This objective was placed in the first rank indicating the most important factor. Overall, 19 participants (40%) ranked the objective, to increase public awareness in the first position [15 members of the public (47%), 1 senior official (12%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. Among the individual groups the highest response rate was 47%, for instance, 15 of the 32 members of the public (47%), 1 of the 8 senior public officials (12%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (38%). Hence, the overall 40% represented the highest rank thereby confirming that to increase public awareness is the most important factor. Additionally, it is observed that overall, 14 participants (29%) ranked the objective, to meet statutory requirements in the second position [10 members of the public (32%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was high (38%), for example, 10 of the 32 members of the public (32%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 1 of the 8 councillors (12%). Hence, the overall 29% represented the second most 174 important purpose of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Table Views of participants on the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question Number and (percentage) Rank order Total number and overall (percentage) C To increase public awareness To meet statutory requirements To gain information on public views To empower Port Louis local government To decide between particular options 15(47) 10(32) 3(9) 3(9) 1(3) 1(12) 3(38) 1(12) 1(12) 2(25) 3(38) 1(12) 2(25) 1(12) 1(12) 1 2 3 4 5 19(40) 14(29) 6(13) 5(10) 4(8) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 175 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C Analysis of the responses in Table shows that the factor, to gain information on public views was ranked in the third position. Overall, 6 participants (13%) ranked this factor as the third most important purpose, for instance, 3 members of the public (9%), 1 senior official (12%) and 2 councillors (25%). It is observed among the individual groups, the response rate on ranking the importance of this factor was at least 9%, for instance, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 1 of the 8 senior public officials (12%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Thus, it can be concluded that overall 13% of participants were of the opinion that the objective , to gain information on public views was the third most important purpose of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Moreover, Table illustrates that the objective, to empower Port Louis local government was ranked in the fourth position. Overall, 5 participants (10%) ranked this objective as fourth most important purpose [3 members of the public (9%), 1 senior official (12%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups, the high response rate was 12%, for instance, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 1 of the 8 senior official (12%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). Hence, it can be said that overall 10% of the participants were of the opinion that the objective, to empower Port Louis local government was the fourth most important purpose of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Table further shows that the objective, to decide between particular options is the least important objective (ranked in fifth position). Overall, 4 participants (8%) ranked this factor as fifth most important purpose [1 member of the public (3%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups the lowest response rate was 3%, for instance, 1 of the 32 member of the public (3%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). Hence, it can be concluded that 8% of the participants were of 176 the opinion that the objective , to decide between particular options was the least important purpose of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Therefore, the ranking of these objectives according to importance the respondents provided an insight in the phenomenon of public participation. Participant s views on the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question B(11) of the questionnaire was concerned with the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Respondents were provided with a variety of possible problems and they were asked to rank them according to importance. The questionnaire listed possible problems such as lack of public interest, lack of time, lack of councillor support, lack of resources and lack of officer support. The results of the findings are illustrated in Table Table indicates that overall, 18 participants (38%) ranked lack of officer support in the first position [16 members of the public (50%), none of the senior public officials and 2 councillors (25%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 50%, for instance, 16 of the 32 members of the public (50%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Hence, such a high score indicates that apart from senior public officials the other participants were of the opinion that lack of officer support is the most important problem in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. This survey further suggests that none of the senior public officials was of the view that lack of officer support is the first most important problem in public participation. Therefore, it can be deduced from this finding that the senior public officials were of the opinion that probably other problems exist which may have an impact on public 177 participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Table Views of participants on the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question Number and (percentage) Rank order Total number and overall (percentage) C Lack of officer support Lack of councillor support Lack of time Lack of resources Lack of public interest 16(50) 13(41) 2(6) 1(3) 0(0) 0(0) 1(12) 2(25) 3(38) 2(25) 2(25) 0(0) 3(38) 2(25) 1(12) 1 2 3 4 5 18(38) 14(29) 7(15) 6(12) 3(6) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C As illustrated in Table , the weighted score analysis confirms that lack of councillor support is the second most important problem of public participation in the making and implementation. Overall, 14 participants (29%) ranked this problem in the second position [13 members of the public (41%), 1 senior official (12%) and none of the councillors]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 41%, for instance, 13 of the 32 members of the public (41%) and 1 of the 8 senior official (12%). It is observed that none of the councillors responded to this problem. Hence, it can be deduced that the councillors did not agree that lack of councillor support is the second most important problem. Furthermore, 178 apart from the councillors the other participants 29% were of the opinion that lack of councillor support is one of the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Additionally, it is observed that overall, 7 participants (15%) ranked lack of time as the third most important problem [2 of the members of the public (6%), of the senior public officials (25%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 6%, for example, 2 of the 32 members of the public (6%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (38%). Thus, it can be concluded that these participants believed that lack of time is third most important problem of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. It is observed from Table that overall, 6 participants (12%) ranked lack of resources as the fourth most important problem [1 member of the public (3%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 2 councillors (25%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 38%, for instance, 1 of the 32 members of the public (3%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Hence, these findings suggest that lack of resources is the fourth most important problem of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Ultimately, Table confirms that lack of public interest is the fifth most important problem. Overall, 3 respondents (6%) ranked lack of public interest in the fifth position [none of the members of the public, 2 of the senior public officials (25%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual group the highest score was 25%, for example 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). It is observed that none of the members of the public responded to this part of the question. Hence, it can be deduced that members of the public were of the opinion that lack of public interest is not the fifth most important problem. Therefore, the overall 6% represented the least ranking rate 179 in the classification of possible problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Participant s views on the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Section B(12) of the questionnaire was asked the participants to rank the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. The questionnaire listed a number of possible benefits, for example, better making and implementation of policy, better policy-making on specific points, improvements in public service, greater public awareness and community empowerment. The findings are illustrated in Table As illustrated in Table , the weighted score analysis confirms that improvements in public service is the first most important benefit. Overall, 23 participants (48%) ranked this benefit in the first position [17 members of the public (53%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 3 councillors 38%). Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 53%, for instance, 17 of the 32 memebrs of the public (53%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (38%). Hence, such a high response rate indicates that the respondents agreed that improvements in public service is the most important benefit (ranked most highly) that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Table shows that overall, 10 participant (21%) ranked greater public awareness as the second most important benefit [7 members of public (22%), 1 senior official (12%) and 2 councillors (25%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 25%, for instance, 7 of the 32 members of the public (22%), 1 of the 8 senior public officials (12%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). 180 Hence, it can be concluded that overall, 21% of the participants were of the opinion that greater public awareness is second most important benefit that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Table Views of participants on the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question Number and (percentage) Rank order Total number and overall (percentage) C Improvement in public service Greater public awareness Community empowerment Better making and implementation of policy Better policy making on specific points 17(53) 7(22) 4(13) 3(9) 1(3) 3(38) 1(12) 2(25) 1(12) 1(12) 3(38) 2(25) 1(12) 1(12) 1(12) 1 2 3 4 5 23(48) 10(21) 7(15) 5(10) 3(6) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C It is observed from Table that overall, 7 participants (15%) ranked community empowerment as the third most important benefit [4 members of the public (13%), 2 senior public officials 25%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups the highest response rate was 25%, for example, 4 of the 32 181 members of the public (13%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). Thus, it can be deduced that overall 15% of the respondents were of the opinion that community empowerment is third most important benefit that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Moreover, overall, 5 participants (10%) ranked better making and implementation of policy as the fourth most important benefit [3 members of the public (9%), 1 senior official (12%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 9%, for instance, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 1 of the 8 senior official (12%) and 1 of 8 councillor (12%). From these findings it can be stated that overall 10% of the participants agreed that better making and implementation of policy is the fourth most important benefit that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. It is observed from Table that overall, 3 participants (6%) [1 member of the public (3%), 1 senior official (12%) and 1 councillor (12%) ranked better policy-making on specific points as fifth most important benefit. Among the individual groups, the lowest percentage was 3%, for example, 1 of the 32 members of the public (3%), 1 of the 8 senior official (12%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). Hence, it can be concluded that the respondents were of the opinion that better policy-making on specific points was the least important benefit that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. 182 Participant s views on the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question B(13) of the questionnaire was concerned with the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Respondents were asked to rank the following variables: often influential, occasionally influential, fairly influential and not at all influential. Table illustrates the findings. Table Views of participants on the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question Number and (percentage) Rank order Total number and overall (percentage) C Often influential Occasionally influential Fairly influential Not at all influential 19(59) 6(19) 3(9) 4(13) 4(50) 3(38) 1(12) 0(0) 3(38) 1(12) 3(38) 1(12) 1 2 3 4 26(54) 10(21) 7(15) 5(10) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C 183 It is observed from Table that overall, 26 participants (54%) ranked often influential in the first position [19 members of public (59%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 59%, for instance, 19 of the 32 members of the public (59%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (38%). Hence, such a high response rate indicates that the participants were of the opinion that overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is often influential. As illustrated in Table , overall, 10 participants (21%) ranked occasionally influential as the second most important impact [6 members of the public (19%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 38%, for instance, 6 of the 32 members of the public (19%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (38%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). Thus, it can be deduced that overall, 21% of the respondents were of the opinion that overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is occasionally influential. Additionally, it is observed from Table that overall, 7 participants (15%) ranked fairly influential in the third position [3 members of the public (9%), 1 senior official (12%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 9%, for example, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 1 of the 8 senior official (12%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (38%). Hence, it can be concluded that overall 15% of the participants were of the opinion that overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is fairly influential. The analysis of the responses presented in Table , indicates that overall, 5 participants (10%) ranked not all influential in the fourth position [4 of the members of the public (13%), none of the senior public officials and 1 councillor 184 (12%)]. Among the individual groups, the lowest rate was 12%, for example, 4 of the 32 members of the public (13%) and 1 of the 8 councillor (12%). The respondents ranked not all influential as the least important variable. Hence, it can be concluded 10% of the participants were of the opinion that overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is not at all influential. Participant s views on the use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question B(14) of the questionnaire was concerned with the use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. The questionnaire listed a number of forms of public participation whose meanings were already discussed in chapter 2, elections, consultation, interest groups, political parties, professional groups, the business sector, sports institutions, cultural and religious bodies, referendum, nonviolent protest, survey questionnaires, public hearings, municipal workshop, conference, mass media, committee meetings, public meetings and internet. The findings are illustrated in Table According to Table , the highest overall score was on election as a mode of public participation. It is observed that 44 participants (92%) responded that, this mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at Port Louis local government [29 members of the public (91%), 7 senior public officials (87%) and 8 councillors (100%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 91%, for instance, 29 of the 32 members of the public (91%), 7 of the 8 senior public officials (87%) and 8 of the 8 councillors (100%). Hence, such a high score indicates that the participants were of the opinion that election was 185 Table Views of participants on the use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government Question Number and (percentage) Total number and overall (percentage) C Election Consultation Interest groups Political parties Professional groups Business sector Sport institutions, cultural and religious bodies Referendum Nonviolent protest Survey questionnaires Public hearings Municipal workshop Conference Mass media Committee meetings Public meetings The Internet 29(91) 8(25) 4(12) 5(16) 8(25) 7(22) 3(9) 9(28) 3(9) 4(12) 9(28) 3(9) 1(12) 10(31) 6(19) 4(12) 3(9) 7(87) 5(62) 6(75) 4(50) 5(62) 4(50) 2(25) 6(75) 2(25) 2(25) 4(50) 2(25) 2(25) 5(62) 3(37) 2(25) 4(50) 8(100) 5(62) 5(62) 4(50) 4(50) 5(62) 4(50) 5(62) 3(27) 4(50) 4(50) 2(25) 1(12) 7(87) 3(37) 2(25) 4(50) 44(92) 18(37) 15(31) 13(27) 17(35) 16(33) 9(19) 20(42) 8(17) 10(21) 17(35) 7(15) 4(8) 22(46) 12(25) 8(17) 11(23) Source: Calculated from research survey data, 2008 Key: Members of the public= , Senior public officials= , Councillors=C 186 used in 2007 as mode of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Therefore, it can be deduced that 92% respondents believed that through election people are able to elect representative so as to participate in the affairs of the Port Louis local government. This implies that this state of affairs has a greater impact on public participation in the policy-making processes. However, overall, 4 participants (8%) did not respond to this part of question [3 members of the public (9%), 1 senior official (12%) and none of the councillors]. From these findings, it can be concluded that overall 8% of participants were of the opinion that in the year 2007, election was not the only mode of public participation used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Moreover, Table shows that overall, 18 participants (37%) indicated that consultation was used in the year 2007 as a mode of public participation [8 members of the public (25%), 5 senior public officials (62%) and 5 councillors (62%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 62%, for example 8 of the 32 members of the public (25%), 5 of the 8 senior public officials (62%) and 5 of the 8 councillors (62%). Thus, it can be concluded that 37% of the respondents were of the opinion that consultation as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Nevertheless, it is observed that overall, 30 participants (63%) did not respond to this part of question [24 members of the public (75%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. From these groups of participants, it can be concluded that 63% were of the opinion that consultation was not the only mode of public participation used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. As illustrated in Table , overall, 18 participants (37%) responded that interest groups was used in the year 2007 as a mode of public participation [4 members 187 of the public (12%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 5 councillors (62%)]. Among the individual groups, the lowest score was 12%, for example, 4 of the 32 members of the public (12%), 6 of the 8 senior public officials (75%) and 5 of the 8 councillors (62%). Hence, it can be deduced that overall, 31% of the participants were of the opinion that interest groups as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. On the other hand, overall, 33 participants (69%) did not respond to this part of question [28 of the members of the public (88%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 3 councillors (38%)]. From these findings, it can be concluded that overall, 69% of the participants were of the opinion that interest groups as a mode of public participation was not used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Additionally, Table shows that overall, 13 participants (27%) responded that political parties as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [5 members of the public (16%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest response rate was 50%, for example, 5 of the 32 members of the public (16%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). From these findings it can be concluded that overall, 27% of the participants were of the opinion that political parties as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. However, overall, 35 participants (73%) did not respond to this part of question [27 members of the public (84%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Hence, it can be deduced that such a high score (73%) indicates that participants were of the opinion that political parties as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. 188 The analysis of the responses presented in Table indicates that overall, 17 participants (35%) agreed that professional groups as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [8 members of the public (25%), 5 senior public officials (62%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 62%, for example, 8 of the 32 members of the public (25%), 5 of the 8 senior public officials (62%), and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). Hence, it can be concluded that overall, 35% of the participants were of the opinion that professional groups were used in the year 2007 as a mode of public participation at the Port Louis local government. Whereas, overall, 31 participants (65%) did not respond to this part of question [24 members of the public (75%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Hence, from these findings, it can be deduced that 65% of participants were of the opinion that professional groups as a mode of public participation was not the only form of public participation used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. With reference to Table , it is observed that overall, 16 participants (33%) responded that business sector was used as a mode of public participation in the year 2007 [7 members of the public (22%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 5 councillors (62%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 62%, for instance, 7 of the 32 members of the public (22%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 5 of the 8 councillors (62%). Thus, it can be deduced that overall, 33% of the participants were of the opinion that business sector as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. However, it is seen that overall, 32 participants (67%) did not respond to this part of question [25 members of the public (78%), 4 senior official (50%) and 3 councillors (38%). Hence, the findings suggest that overall, 67% of the participants were of the opinion that business sector was not the only method of public participation used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. 189 Moreover, Table indicates that overall, 9 participants (19%) responded that sport institution cultural and religious bodies were used as a mode of public participation in the year 2007 [3 members of the public (9%), 2 senior official (25%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the lowest score was 9%, for example, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 4 of the 8 councillor (50%). From these findings, it can be deduced that overall, 19% of the participants were of the opinion that sport institutions, cultural and religious bodies as a mode of public participant was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Nevertheless, overall 26 participants (54%) did not respond to this part of question [22 members of the public (69%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 1 councillor (13%). Hence, it can be deduced that 54% of participants were of the opinion that sport institutions, cultural and religious bodies was not the only mode of public participation used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. The analysis of the responses in Table reveals that overall, 20 participants (42%) were of the opinion that referendum as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [9 members of the public (28%), 6 senior public officials (75%), and 5 councillors (62%)]. Among the individuals groups, the highest response rate was 75%, for instance, 9 of the 32 members of the public (28%), 6 of the 8 senior public officials (75%) and 5 of the 8 councillors (62%). Hence, from these findings it can be stated that 42% of the participants were of the opinion that referendum as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Besides, overall, 39 respondents (81%) did not answer this part of question [29 members of the public (91%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Therefore, it can be deduced that 81% of participants were of the opinion that referendum as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 of the Port Louis local government. 190 Table illustrates that overall, 8 respondents (17%) agreed that non violent protest was used in the year 2007 as a mode of public participation [3 members of the public (9%), 2 senior public officials (25%), and 5 councillors (62%)]. Among individuals groups, the lowest score obtained was (9%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (37%). Thus, it can be argued that overall, 17% of the participants were of the opinion that non violent protest as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. However, overall, 28 participants (58%) did not responded to this part of question [23 members of the public (72%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 3 councillors (38%). Hence, these findings suggest that 58% of participants were of the opinion that non violent protest as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Additionally, overall, 10 participants (21%) responded that (21%) responded that survey questionnaire as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [4 members of the public (12%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 4 councillors (50%]. Among the individual groups, it is observed that the highest score was 50%, for example, 4 of the 32 members of the public (12%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). Thus, it can be concluded that 21% of the participants were of the opinion that survey questionnaire as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. On the other hand, overall, 40 respondents (83%) did not answer this part of the question [29 members of the public (91%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 5 councillors (63%)]. From these groups of participants, it can be deduced that 83% of participants were of the opinion that survey questionnaire as a mode of 191 public participation was not the only mode used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Table illustrates that overall, 17 participants (35%) responded that public hearings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [9 members of the public (28%), 4 senior public officials (50%), 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 28%, for example, 9 of the 32 members of the public (28%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). Hence, it can be argued that 35% of participants were of the opinion that public hearings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. However, overall, 38 participants (79%) did not respond to this part of the question [28 members of the public (88%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. These findings indicate that a high rate of participants (79%) believed that public hearings as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Moreover, overall, 7 participants (15%) responded that municipal workshop as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [3 members of the public (9%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 2 councillors (25%)]. Among the individual groups, it is observed that the response rate was at least 9%, for example 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Hence, it can be deduced that 15% of the respondents were of the opinion that municipal workshop as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Nevertheless, overall, 41 participants (85%) did not response to this part of question [29 members of the public (91%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 6 coucillors (75%)]. These findings indicate that a high percentage (85%) of the participants were of the opinion that municipal workshop as a mode of public 192 participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Analysis of the responses in Table shows that overall, 4 participants (8%) indicates that conference as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [1 member of the public (12%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 1 councillor (12%)]. Among the individual groups the lowest response rate was 12%, for example 1 of the 32 members of the public (12%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (25%) and 1 of the 8 councillors (12%). Hence, overall, 8% of participants were of the opinion that conference as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. On the whole, the score 8% represented the lowest response rate among the participants. On the other hand, overall, 44 participants (92%) did not response to this part of the question [31 members of the public (97%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 7 councillors (87%)] . Therefore, a very high percentage (97%) of the participants were of the opinion that conference as a mode of public participation was not the only mode used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Furthermore, Table indicates that overall 22 participants (46%) responded that mass media as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [20 members of the public (31%), 5 senior public officials (62%) and 7 councillors (87%)]. Among the individual groups, the highest score was 87%, for instance, 10 of the 32 members of the public (31%), 5 of the 8 senior public officials (62%) and 7 of the 8 councillors (87%). Hence, it can be deduced that overall 46% of the participants were of the opinion that mass media as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. However, overall, 26 participants (54%) did not response to this part of the question [22 members of the public (69%), 3 senior public officials (38%) and 1 councillor (13%)]. From these findings, it can be deduced that 54% of the participants were of the opinion that mass media as a mode of public 193 participation was not the only mode used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Table illustrates that overall, 12 participants (25%) responded that committee meetings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [6 members of the public (19%), 3 senior public officials (37%) and 3 councillors (37%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 19%, for example, 6 of the 32 members of the public (19%), 3 of the 8 senior public officials (37%) and 3 of the 8 councillors (37%). Thus, it can be deduced that overall 25% of participants were of the opinion that committee meetings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Nevertheless, overall, 36 respondents (75%) did not answer this part of the question (26 members of the public (81%), 5 senior public officials (62%), and 5 councillors (62%)]. From these findings, it can be deduced that overall 75% of participants believed that committee meetings as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Analysis of the responses in Table shows that overall, 8 participants (17%) responded that public meetings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 [4 members of the public (12%), 2 senior public officials (25%) and 2 councillors (25%). Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 12%, for example, 4 of the 32 members of the public (12%), 2 of the 8 senior public officials (2%) and 2 of the 8 councillors (25%). Therefore, it can be deduced that overall, 17% of participants were of the opinion that public meetings as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. 194 However, overall, 40 participants (83%) did not response to this part of the question [28 members of the public (87%), 6 senior public officials (75%) and 6 councillors (75%)]. It can be deduced that overall, 83% of respondents were of the opinion that public meetings as a mode of public participation was not the only method used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Moreover, Table illustrates that overall, 11 participants (23%) responded that the internet as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 (3 members of the public (9%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. Among the individual groups, the response rate was at least 9% for example, 3 of the 32 members of the public (9%), 4 of the 8 senior public officials (50%) and 4 of the 8 councillors (50%). Hence, it can be argued that overall (23%) of the participants were of the opinion that the internet as a mode of public participation was used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Nonetheless, overall, 37 participants (77%) did not response to this part of the question [29 members of the public (91%), 4 senior public officials (50%) and 4 councillors (50%)]. From these findings it can be deduced that overall, 77% of participants were of the opinion that the internet as a mode of public participation was not the only medium used in the year 2007 at the Port Louis local government. Participant s views on the present public participation Question 13 (15) asked the interviewees: Would you say that the present public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is sufficient? . One interviewee (Pseudonym U) made the following observation: I don t think the present public participation in the making one implementation of policy is 195 sufficient, there is lack of E-Local government, also participation through E-voting is none existent at Port Louis local government . Another participant (Pseudonym X) commented that: I do see that most of the methods of public participation used at Port Louis local government are traditional ones for example too much emphasis on committee meetings and public hearings. This is not adequate, there is a need for modernizing the modes of public participation in order to have access to wider section of population through internet . Overall, (65%) of the interviewees felt that the present public participation at Port Louis local government is not adequate. According to interviewee U, electronic-local government interaction is not available especially electronic-voting system. Similarly, participant X were of the opinion that modern method of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is required especially through the use of internet. This participant commented that by making use of internet a large section of population can involve in public participation. Participant s views on the impact of public participation in the life of the citizen Question B(16) asked the participants: Do you think it makes a difference in your life when your participate in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? . One participant (pseudonym O) commented that: Oh! It does not make any difference simply because I feel that our inputs as members of the public are not considered. For me, it is a waste of time to discuss my views on a particular municipal issue my interests as a citizen are always neglected. 196 Another interviewee (Pseudonym A) made the following observation: Yes, it does make a difference in my life, I have observed that once, I drew the attention of the policy-makers regarding environmental issues when policy on a new road building was being made. My input on this matter was considered . Participant (Pseudonym Z) commented that: For me, no attention is given to local voices . I have never received any feedback on discussion held at the municipal committee regarding municipal services . It was observed that interviewees shared different views on this topic. The statement given by participant A is in contrast with that of participants O. According to participant A input in the policy-making and implementation made a difference in his life, but participant O clearly mentioned that no difference was observed according to him. He further states that his interests were overlooked. Similarly, participant Z shared the same opinion like participant O. According to Participant Z attention is not given to members of the public and also feedback is not given. Participant s views on the visit of councillors to the locality of inhabitants Section B(17) of the questionnaire asked the interviewees: Has your locality ever been visited by a councillor in order to discuss issues regarding public participation in the making and implementation of policy at Port Louis local government? . One interviewee (Pseudonym T) commented that: Yes, my locality is visited by councillors, but just for the sake of visiting and not for holding discussion in the making and implementation of policy? . 197 Another interviewee (pseudonym Q) made the following observation: Yes, when election is near, there is regular visit effected by councillors, but to hold discussion on election matters only . Interviewee (pseudonym V) commented that: My locality is never visited after municipal election, it is common that once election is over the councillors disappear from the scene . Analysis of findings on interviewee T shows that councillors do visit his locality only to discuss election issues. Likewise, interviewee Q were of the same opinion as interviewee T. As regard to interviewee V, councillors do effect visit for election purposes only. Participant s views on the impact of main factors on public participation Question B (18) asked interviewees question on What do you think on the main factors that influence public participation in the making one implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Most of the interviewees commented on a number of factors for instance, one interviewee (pseudonym S) commented that: I think access to policy-making institution has an influence . Another interviewee (pseudonym M) stated that: For me, I believe that knowledge of the policy-making processes is a main influencing factor . 198 Interviewee (pseudonym L) commented that I think, planning is the main factor that can influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy . It can be stated that according to interviewee S, access to policy-making institution is a main factor that can influence public participation. Interviewee M was of the opinion that knowledge of the policy-making processes is a principal influencing factor and interviewee L mentioned that planning as a starting point has a main impact on public participation as regard to the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Participant s views on the impact of principal factors on the improvement of public participation Question B (19) asked the interviewees : What do you think are the principal factors than can contribute towards the improvement of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? Like the previous question, here again interviewees commented on a number of factors. For example, one interviewee (pseudonym W) made the following observation: I think effective information dissemination is a principal factor that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government . Another interviewee (Pseudonym Q) stated that: I am of the opinion that effective communication is a main factor in this venture . Interviewee (pseudonym C) remarked that: Civic education is the most important factor in my opinion that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation . 199 Participant (pseudonym R) commented that: I believe that publicity of public hearings can improve public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Lois local government? Most of the interviewees felt there are a lot of factors for improving public participation. According to interviewee W, effective information provision may be through different media to community members from Port Louis local government is a contributing factor for improvement. Interviewee Q was of the opinion that educating the members of the public on public participation matters can contribute towards the improvement. Through community education, members of the public can get a complete picture and understanding of the structure, role and functioning of the various processes of policy-making. The statement given by both participants Q and R relate to the flow of information from members of the public to Port Louis local government and vice versa. Communication and publicity were identified by these participants as key factors that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Participant s views on the features of the Port Louis local governments overall approach to public participation The last section (B20) of the questionnaire asked the participants: Are there any other features of the Port Louis local government s overall approach to public participation in the making and implementation of policy that you would like to emphasize. One interviewee (Pseudonym T) commented that: I want to say that there is a long delay in policy-making processes. Once, I observed that there was a prolonged delay in action taking on sanitary conditions and road asphaltation in my locality . 200 Another interviewee (pseudonym H) stated that: I would like to comment that the quality customer care is a long over due feature which need attention . Participant (pseudonym M) commented that: Access to municipal services through internet needs to be strengthened, also electronic-voting must be introduced at the Port Louis local government . Analysis of the statement given by interviewees T, shows that policy-making processes take too much time. According to interviewee H, quality customer care needs to be given attention. Ultimately, according to participant M, there is a need to modernize municipal services through the introduction of E-voting and internet access. These features according to interviewees need to be emphasized for effective public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Conclusion The major objective of chapter 5 was to explore the research findings and analyse the data obtained from the participants. Attention was focussed on the research questions which were established earlier in this thesis. This chapter started with the explanation on the study population which was 48 participants (32 members of the public, 8 senior public officials and 8 councillors). Data on respondents profile was presented in Table 5 followed by detailed analysis. Participant s ability to understand what goes on in the Port Louis local government council was illustrated in Table Attention was devoted throughout this chapter on interviewees opinions on issues such as communication of policy-making processes, information provision 201 regarding political decision, public participation in radio talk, participation through enquiries to councillors or officials, protest against officials and/or councillors, difficulties faced when interacting with councilors and/or officials and importance of public participation. Moreover, this chapter also concentrated on the findings and analysis of participant s views on the main purposes of public participation, main problems of public participation, main benefits of public participation, overall impact of public participation and use of different modes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. In these questions participants were asked to rank a number of parameters in terms of their importance. The various responses were analyzed in greater details and appropriate conclusions were drawn. Ultimately, this chapter threw light on the interviewees comment on questions such as whether public participation is adequate, impact of public participation on the life participants, whether participant s locality is visited by councillors, opinion on main factors that influence public participation, principal factors that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation and features of the Port Louis local government s overall approach to public participation in the making and implementation of policy. The next chapter is the last chapter of this thesis which deals with a summary, conclusion and recommendations for improving public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. 229 LIST OF SOURCES Alke , C. 2001. Community development. Melbourne: Nelson. Allen, K. 1984. Public participation in planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Almond, S. M. & Verba, D. 1989. Community participation. Hong Kong: Macmillan. Anderson, J. 2000. Public Policy-making. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Arblaster, S. 1998. Citizen participation and democratic theory. Oxford: Pergamon. Atkinson, D. 1992. Public participation in urban planning. Pretoria: Centre for Policy Studies. Auriacombe, 1999. Guidelines for drawing up research proposals and preparing theses/dissertations. Pretoria: Muckleneuk. Bailey, L. 1982. Methods of Social Research. New York: The Free Press. Baker, R. Michaels, R. and Preston, E. 1975. Public policy development: Linking the technical and political processes. New York: John Wiley. Barber, B. 1997. The new telecommunications technology. London: Sage. Barichievy, K. 2003. Public policy. New York: Oxford. Barney, D. 2000. Promethens Wired. Vancouver: UBC Press. Baxter, Z. 1984. Citizen participation in America. Massachusetts: Lexington. Bayat, & Meyer, 1994, Public Administration: Concepts, Theory and Practice. Cape Town : Southern. Beach, 1985. The Management of people at work. 5th Edison. New York: Macmillan. Bekker, K. [ ] Citizen participation in Local Government. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Bell, F. 1998. Participatory democracy. London: Praeger. 230 Bhuckory, S. 1969. An outline of Local Government. Mauritius: Association of Urban Authorities. Bless & Higson Smith, in Brynard & Hanekon. 1997. Policy implementation. Pretoria. Van Schaik. Boaden, N. Goldsmith, M. Hampton, Stringer, P. 1982. Public participation in Local Services. New York: Longman. Bradburn, A. 1988. Responsiveness of the public official. London: Sage. Brett, R. 1996. Democracy and its critics, New Haven: Yale University Press. Brezovsek, M. 1995. Political participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Britman, G. 1998. Participation and interest groups. Massachusetts. Basil Blackwell. Bryant, F. & White, H. 1982. Development and participation. Oxford: Clarendon. Brynard, D. J. 1990. Responsiveness of the public servant: Origins, Obstacles and strategies. Politeia, 9 (2): Brynard, P. 2000. Policy implementation. In improving public policy, eds, F. Cloete and H. Wissiak. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Carney, 1998. Public Administration. New Delhi: Sterling. Carpenter, A. 1992. Political participation. London: Mathew Arnold. Clapper, 1996. Advantages and disadvantages of Citizen participation, in Bekker, K. (ed). Citizen participation in local government. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Clarke, , Fatchett, & Roberts, 1972. Workers participation in Management. London: Heinemann. Cleveland, L. 1986. The Public Sector. New York: Walter de Gruyter. Cloete, F. 1995. Improving public policy. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Cloete, F. 1997. South African Municipal Government and Administration. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Cohen, F. & Manion, Y. 1995. Community organization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 231 Connelly, D. 2003. Local government. London: Prentice Hall. Connolly, S. 1995. Access and the policy-making process. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development. Connor, T. 2003. Politics of planning and participation. Beverly Hills: Sage. Conyers, X. 2000. Participation and local politics. London: Routledge. Craythorne, 1997. Municipal Administration: A Handbook. Cape Town: Juta. Creswell, J. 2003. Political attitude and democracy. London: Sage. Cronbach, S. 2000. Participation strategies. New York: Peacock. Crook, R. 1994. Comparative government. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Denzin, F. 2000. Public Administration and social development. London: Methnen. Di Palma, Y. 2001. Democracy and politics. New Delhi: Sterling. Dror, T. 1975. On Democracy. Chicago: University press. Dukhira, 2000. Grass roots democracy for national development. Dye, R. 1978. Community and cooperatives in participation. Hants: Gower. Dye, T. 1995. Understanding public policy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Easton, D. 1953. The Political System. New York: Alfred. Elster, K. 2000. Public management. Hong Kong: Macmillan. Ferrinho, H. 1980. Towards a theory of community development. Cape Town: Juta. Fox & Meyer, 1995. Public and Development Management. Bellville: University of Stellenbosch. Gildenhuys, A. J. [S. a.]. Analysing Democracy for Local Government. In Bekker, K. (ed). Citizen participation in London Government. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Gildenhys, H., Fox, W., Wissink, H. 1991. Public Macro Organisation. Cape Town: Juta. 232 Gillespie, S. 2002. Social planning and participation. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Gillham, P. 2000. Integrated democratic governance. Journal of European public policy 7(5). Guba, Y. 1994. Public decision making. California: Jossey-Bass. Gutman, K. & Thompson, C. 2001. Principles of social development. London: Oxford University. Hanekom, & Thornhill, C. 1993. Public Administration in contemporary society: A South African perspective. Revised edition. Pretoria: Southern. Hankekom, S. X. 1991. Public policy: Framework and instrument for action. Pretoria: Southern. Hanser, T. 2000. Citizen government. New York: Sage. Hanson, C. 1995. Democracy and public affairs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Harris, P. 1990. Foundation of public administration: a comparative Approach. Hong Kong: University Press. Heclo, H. 1972. Review article: Policy analysis. British Journal of Political Science 2. Henry, N. 1992. Public Administration and public affairs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Heymans, C. 1994. Local Government Transition and Beyond: Observation and Suggestions : Johannesburg : Development Bank of South Africa. Hogwood, B. and Gun, L. 1984. Policy analysis for the real world. London: Oxford University Press. Holdern, B. 1993. Understanding liberal democracy 2nd edition. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Hoinville, R. 1979. Towards local government services. London: Mosby. Holmes, D. 2000. E-business Strategies for Government. London: Nicholas Publishing. Hughes, K. 1991. Democracy, bureaucracy and public sector. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. 233 Huttington, S. 1990. Managing organization. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. Huntington, S. 1990. Community participation. The Star, Friday 29 January: 60. Jackson, M. 2000. Citizens, Consumer and Councils. Local Government: Macmillan. Jacobs, R. 1996. Local politics. Vermont: Gower. Janesick, C. 2002. Supervision in government. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. John, P. 2000. Analysing public policy. London and New York: Continuum. Kay, A. 1970. Planning, participation and planners. In: Patement, C. (ed). Participation-democratic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kenny, S. 1994. Developing communities for the future. Community development in Australia. Melbourne: Nelson. Kerlinger, L. 2002. Governing at local level. New York: Simon and Schuster. Kotzze, D. A. 1997. Development Administration and management: A holistic approach. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Knoetze, M. 1984. Democractic theory and local government. London: Allen and Unwin. Kotze, H & Kellerman, A. 1997. Development Administration and Management: A Holistic Approach. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Kranner, R. & Specht, H. 1983. Readings in community organization practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Lammers, F. 1988. Popular participation in Planning for Basic Needs. Hants: Gower. Lampard, B. 2002. The power of identity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Lando, P. 1999. Citizen participation. Massachusetts: Lexington. Langton, S. 1978. Citizen participation in America. Massachusetts: Lexington. Leach, J. 2000. Democracy and civil society. London: Verso. 234 Leedy, S, Brynard, P & Hanekorn. Public Administration in contemporary society. A South African Perspective. Revised edition. Pretoria: Southern. Levi, Y. & Litwin, H. 1986. Community and co-operative in participatory development. Hants: Gower. Lijphart, B. 1999. Participation and community organization. Illinois: Peacock. Linz, R. & Stephan, P. 1999. Achieving service excellence in government. Saipa Journal 33(3): 220-230. Lisk, F. 1988. Popular participation in planning for basic needs. Hants: Gower. Local Government Act 23 of 2005, 18 August 2005. Government Gazette. 641 (2000). Lombard, A. 1991. Community work and community development: Perspective in social development. Pretoria: HAUM. Manor, R. 1996. Community organization. London: Verso. Marks, S. 1994. The Imperial Lion : Human Dimension of Wildlife Management in Central Africa. Colorado: Westview Press. Marsh, P. 1987. New frontiers in public sector management. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Mauritius Decentralisation Policy, 4 September 2005. Government Gazette. 26 (219). Maveneke, T. 1995. Exploitation of Indigenous Natural Resources by citizen. CASS: University of Zimbabwe. Maykut, S. & Morehouse, W. 1994. Research and evaluation. San Diego, California: Edits publishers. Meiring, C. 2000. Social development and the State. New York: Methuen. Meyer, L. H., Theron, F. & Van Rooyen, A. 1975. Public and development management. Bellville: University of Stellenbosch. Meyer, I. 1995. Public and development management. Bellville: University of Stellenbosch. Millan, N. 2001. Administrative behaviours at local government. New York: Free Press. 235 Mosca, K. 2003. Capacity building and community organization. New York: Macmillan. Mouton, J. 2002. How to succeed in your Master s and Doctoral Studies. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Munck, R. & Verkuilen, G. 2002. Democracy and local government. Oxford: Pergamon. Murrell, J. 1990. Political analysis. New York: Pitman. Myburgh, Y. 2004. Concepts and models in public sector. London: Sage. Neuman, 2003. Research method: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Allyn : Boston. Norris, P. 2001. Civil Engagement, Information Poverty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nwana, E. 1988. Planning in local government. Chicago: Milton. Offical Secret Act 30 of 1972. 14 April 1972. Government Gazette. 31 (1973). Oppenheim, I. 1992. Foundation of public administration. Hong Kong: University Press. Osborne, F. 1994. Public sector economics. Oxford: Blackwell. Panw, J. C. & Wessels, J. S. 1999. Reflective public administration. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Parsons, W. 1997. Public Policy. An introduction to the theory and practice of policy analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Pateman, T. 2003. Social development. New York: Wiley. Patton, Y. 1989. State and its institutions. London: Blackwell. Przeworski, S. 1999. Social research and community development. London:Praeger. Quade, W. 1982. Associations and democratic participation. London: Verso. Ranney, A., ed. 1995. Political science and public policy. Chicago: Markham. Rantenbach, H. 1998. Public management. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation. 236 Reedy, 1996. Readings in Local Government Management and Development A South African Perspective. Cape Town: Juta. Reinharz, A. 1997. Analysis of public decisions. London: Render. Republic of Mauritius. Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius Act, 1968 (Act 124 of 1968). Mauritius: Government Printer. Republic of Mauritius. 2003. Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003). Mauritius: Government printer. Richards, Q. 1995. Community participation. New York: Wiley. Ridley, P. 2001. Public management. Oxford: Blackwell. Roskin, Y. 1994. Politics and democracy. London: James Currey. Roux, 1989. Reference technique. Pretoria. Department of Library and Information Science, University of South Africa. Sarker, A. 2003, The Illusion of Decentralisation: Evidence from Bangladesh. The International Journal of Public Sector Management Vol. 16, 583. Schedler, K. 2000. Public administration: Designs and planning. New York: Macmillan. Schumacher, P. 1999. Decentralization of public services. The Bureaucrat, volume 38n04: 23-30. Sharma, Q. 1979. Politics and government. Boulder: Westview press. Simon, P. 1975. The value of participation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Smith, M. 1988. Strategies and social research. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Solomon, B. 1976. Black Empowerment: Social Work in Oppressed Communitites. New York: Columbia University Press. Starling, G. 1979. The politics and economics of public policy: An introductory analysis with cases. Homewood : Dorsey. Stoker, G. 1996, Redefining Local Democracy, Local Democracy and Local Government: Mac Millan Press : London. Stones, A. 2001. Citizen Science : a study of people. London: Routledge 237 Svensson, A. 1998. Tools of governance. London: Routledge. Taylor, G. 1998. Community participation in development projects: a sociological study. (unpublished thesis). Port Elizabeth: University of Port Elizabeth. Theunissen, C. 1998. African Security Review. Managing intelligence in an age of knowledge, Vol 8(3): 1-9. Thomas, 1995. Public Participation in Public Decisions: New Skills and Strategies for Public Managers. California: Jossen-Bass. Turner, 2001. A Global Survey of E-government, February 2001: 2 Vans, J. 1990. Political analysis. New York: Pitman. Vroom, & Jago 1988. The New Leadership : Managing Participation in Organisations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Wahal, R. 1975. Community research. New York: peacock. Warner, J. 1997. The Voice of the People. New Haven: Yale University Press Webster 1995. The new international Webster s Dictionary of the English Language. Florida: Lexicon White, P. 2003. Planning and policy-making. Beverly Hills: Sage. Wilkinson, R. 1988. Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: University press. William, S. 1998. Citizen participation. Washington: Self-counsel press. Young, F. 2004. Local government finance. New York: Basic Books. 238 Annexure 1 Royal Road 8th Triolet Mile Mauritius 27 September 2005 The Chief Executive Port Louis local government City of Port Louis Dear Sir/Madam Application to conduct a research I am Sanjiv Kumar BABOOA, a doctoral student of the University of South Africa. I am presently undertaking a research study of public participation at the Port Louis local government the title of which is: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE MAKING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICY IN MAURITIUS WITH REFERENCE TO PORT LOUIS LOCAL GOVERNMENT. In this connection, I would be grateful if permission could be granted to undertake this research. Thanking you in advance for your usual co-operation. Yours faithfully, S. K. BABOOA Telephone: (230) 2617313 239 Annexure 2 LETTER OF INTRODUCTION TO RESPONDENTS Royal Road 8th Triolet Mile Mauritius Dear Participant Public participation survey in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. I am Sanjiv Kumar BABOOA, a doctoral student of the University of South Africa. I am currently undertaking a research study of public participation at the Port Louis local government. As you are a member of the public, I would be thankful if you could assist me in sharing your knowledge of public participation. Kindly be assured that the information provided in the enclosed questionnaire will be kept confidential. Mr S. K. BABOOA Royal Road, 8thTriolet Mile, Mauritius Telephone (230) 2617313 I heartily thank you for participating in this survey. Yours faithfully, S. K. BABOOA 240 Annexure 3 LETTER TO THE OFFICIALS OF THE PORT LOUIS LOCAL GOVERNMENT Royal Road 8th Triolet Mile Mauritius Dear ______________ Would you please refer to our telephone conversation. I am herewith sending you a questionnaire on public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government. Kindly be assured that the information provided in the questionnaire will be kept confidential. I heartily thank you for your co-operation. Yours faithfully, S. K. BABOOA Telephone: (230) 2617313 241 Annexure 4 CONSENT FORM Mr S. K. BABOOA Royal Road 8thTriolet Mile Mauritius Public Participation Survey in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government I hereby agree to an interview on the above mentioned subject. I will be available on _______________________ at ___________________. Yours faithfully, Signature_____________________ Title_________________________ Full Name____________________________________ ________ Telephone Number:___________________ 242 Annexure 5 Identification Number: ..................... SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (To be distributed to the officials of Port Louis local government) Questionnaire for data collection at the Port Louis local government Study start date __________________ Study stop date __________________ This questionnaire is administered as part of a large research project conducted on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with reference to Port Louis local government. The information provided in the questionnaire will be kept confidential and will only be used in the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire. Every effort has been taken to maximize clarity and minimize the time necessary for this survey completion. If you do experience difficulty in interpreting or answering any of the survey questions, please contact me on (230) 2617313. Mr S. K. BABOOA Royal Road 8thTriolet Mile Mauritius Telephone: (230) 2617313 The aim of the questionnaire is to conduct investigation on: 243 What are the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level? What impact does the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) have on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government? What modes of public participation are used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? What are the main factors that influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? Note: The information required in this survey questionnaire will be used only in the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire. 244 SECTION A Please tick the block next to the appropriate answer or supply the required information. 1. Age Group 18 29 years 30 49 years 50 59 years 60 and above 2. Gender Male Female 3. Level of Education Primary Secondary Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate Other (please specify) 245 SECTION B 1. What can you say about your understanding of what goes on in the Port Louis local government Council? Understand all the things that go on Have little knowledge of what goes on Things that goes are incomprehensible 2. Are you communicated about policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government that affect your locality? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 3. Are you well-informed about political decision at the Port Louis local government Council that affect your locality? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 4. Have you ever participated at public hearing? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 246 5. Have you ever participated in radio talk that dealt with activities or by-laws of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 6. Have you ever made any enquiries to councillors or officials of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 7. Have you ever taken part in a protest against officials and/or councillors of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 8. Have you ever faced difficulties when interacting with councillors and/or officials of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 247 9. Do you think that public participation is important in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 10. What do you think are the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government (please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). To meet statutory requirements To increase public awareness To gain information on public views To decide between particular options To empower Port Louis local government 11. What do you think are the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). Lack of public interest Lack of time Lack of councillor support Lack of resources Lack of officer support 12. What do you think are the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). Better making and implementation of policy Better policy-making on specific points Improvements in public service Greater public awareness Community empowerment 248 13. How would you describe the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements where 1 is the most important and 4 the least) Often influential Not at all influential Fairly influential Occasionally influential 14. What were the modes of public participation used in the making and implementation of policy are employed at the Port Louis local government? Election Consultation Interest groups Political parties Professional groups Business sector Sport institutions, cultural and religious bodies Referendum Nonviolet protest Survey questionnaire Public hearings Municipal workshop Conference Mass media Committee meetings Public meetings 15. Would you say that the present public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is sufficient? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 249 16. Do you think it makes a difference in your life when you participate in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 17. Has your locality ever been visited by a councillor in order to discuss issues regarding public participation in the making and implementation of policy at Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 18. What do you think are the main factors that necessitate public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 19. What do you think are the principal factors that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 250 20. Are there any other features of the Port Louis local government s overall approach to public participation in the making and implementation of policy that you would like to emphasize? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE. 251 Annexure 6 Identification Number: ..................... SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE (To be distributed to the respondents of Port Louis local government) Questionnaire for data collection at the Port Louis local government Study start date __________________ Study stop date __________________ This questionnaire is administered as part of a large research project conducted on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius with reference to Port Louis local government. The information provided in the questionnaire will be kept confidential and will only be used in the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire. Every effort has been taken to maximize clarity and minimize the time necessary for this survey completion. If you do experience difficulty in interpreting or answering any of the survey questions, please contact me on (230) 2617313. Mr S. K. BABOOA Royal Road 8thTriolet Mile Mauritius Telephone: (230) 2617313 The aim of the questionnaire is to conduct investigation on: 252 What are the key concepts that relate to public participation in the making and implementation of policy at local government level? What impact does the Constitution Republic of Mauritius Amendment, 2003 (Act 124 of 2003) and the New Local Government Act, 2005 (Act 23 of 2005) have on public participation in the making and implementation of policy in Mauritius particularly at the Port Louis local government? What modes of public participation are used in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? What are the main factors that influence public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? Note: The information required in this survey questionnaire will be used only in the analysis of the responses to the questionnaire. 253 SECTION A Please tick the block next to the appropriate answer or supply the required information. 1. Age Group 18 29 years 30 49 years 50 59 years 60 and above 2. Gender Male Female 3. Level of Education Primary Secondary Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate Other (please specify) 254 SECTION B 1. What can you say about your understanding of what goes on in the Port Louis local government Council? Understand all the things that go on Have little knowledge of what goes on Things that goes are incomprehensible 2. Are you communicated about policy-making processes at the Port Louis local government that affect your locality? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 3. Are you well-informed about political decision at the Port Louis local government Council that affect your locality? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 4. Have you ever participated at public hearing? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 255 5. Have you ever participated in radio talk that dealt with activities or by-laws of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 6. Have you ever made any enquiries to councillors or officials of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 7. Have you ever taken part in a protest against officials and/or councillors of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 8. Have you ever faced difficulties when interacting with councillors and/or officials of the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 256 9. Do you think that public participation is important in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 10. What do you think are the main purposes of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government (please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). To meet statutory requirements To increase public awareness To gain information on public views To decide between particular options To empower Port Louis local government 11. What do you think are the main problems of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). Lack of public interest Lack of time Lack of councillor support Lack of resources Lack of officer support 12. What do you think are the main benefits that public participation bring in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements, where 1 is the most important and 5 the least). Better making and implementation of policy Better policy-making on specific points Improvements in public service Greater public awareness Community empowerment 257 13. How would you describe the overall impact of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? (Please rank the following statements where 1 is the most important and 4 the least) Often influential Not at all influential Fairly influential Occasionally influential 14. What were the modes of public participation used in the making and implementation of policy are employed at the Port Louis local government? Election Consultation Interest groups Political parties Professional groups Business sector Sport institutions, cultural and religious bodies Referendum Nonviolet protest Survey questionnaire Public hearings Municipal workshop Conference Mass media Committee meetings Public meetings 15. Would you say that the present public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government is sufficient? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 258 16. Do you think it makes a difference in your life when you participate in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 17. Has your locality ever been visited by a councillor in order to discuss issues regarding public participation in the making and implementation of policy at Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 18. What do you think are the main factors that necessitate public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 19. What do you think are the principal factors that can contribute towards the improvement of public participation in the making and implementation of policy at the Port Louis local government? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ 259 20. Are there any other features of the Port Louis local government s overall approach to public participation in the making and implementation of policy that you would like to emphasize? ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ ________________________________________ _____________________ THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE.

Related search results