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Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell - Bio-Rad

Mini-PROTEAN ® Tetra Cell. Instruction Manual. Catalog Numbers. 165-8000 165-8004 165-8001 165-8005 . 165-8002 165-8006 165-8003 165-8007

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Text of Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell - Bio-Rad

Mini-PROTEAN Tetra CellInstruction ManualCatalog Numbers165-8000 165-8004165-8001 165-8005 165-8002 165-8006165-8003 165-8007Table of Contents Section 1 General Information 1 Introduction 1 Components 1 Specifications 4 Safety 5Section 2 Setup and Basic Operation 6 Gel Cassette Preparation 6 Electophoresis Module Assembly and Sample Loading 9Section 3 Separation Theory and Optimization 15 Introduction 15 SDS-PAGE (Laemmli) Buffer System 16 Native PAGE 17Section 4 Reagent Preparation and Stock Solutions 19 Volumes Required per Gel 19 SDS-PAGE (Laemmli) Buffer System 19 Discontinuous Native PAGE (Ornstein-Davis) 22 Continuous Native PAGE 24Section 5 References 27Section 6 Maintenance 27Section 7 Troubleshooting Guide 28Section 8 Product Information and Accessories 31Section 9 Warranty Information 35 1 Section 1 General Information Introduction The Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell runs both handcast gels and Ready Gel precast gels interchangeably. The Mini-PROTEAN Tetra system includes a casting stand and glass plates with permanently bonded gel spacers that simplify handcasting and eliminate leaking during casting. The cell can run one or four gels, and the mini tank is compatible with other Bio-Rad electrode modules for tank blotting, 2-D electrophoresis, and electroelution. Components To get the best performance from your Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, familiarize yourself with the components by assembling and disassembling the cell before using it (refer to Figures 1 and 2). Spacer Plate The spacer plate is the taller glass plate with permanently bonded gel spacers. Spacer plates are available in mm, mm, and mm thicknesses, which are marked directly on each spacer PlateThe short plate is the shorter, flat glass plate that combines with the spacer plate to form the gel cassette FrameThe casting frame, when placed on the benchtop, evenly aligns and secures the spacer plate and the short plate together to form the gel cassette sandwich prior to Cassette AssemblyOne casting frame, a spacer plate, and a short plate form one gel cassette StandThe casting stand secures the gel cassette assembly during gel casting. It contains pressure levers that seal the gel cassette assembly against the casting Cassette SandwichA spacer plate and short plate with polymerized gel form a gel DamThe molded, one-piece buffer dam is used when running only one or three Electrode AssemblyThe electrode assembly holds the gel sandwich. It houses the sealing gasket, the upper and lower electrodes, and the connecting banana plugs. The anode (lower electrode) banana plug is identified with a red marker and the cathode (upper electrode) banana plug with a black AssemblyThe companion assembly allows you to run gels 3 and 4. It holds the gel sandwich and houses the sealing Tank and Lid The mini tank and lid combine to fully enclose the inner chamber during electrophoresis. The lid cannot be removed without disrupting the electrical circuit. The mini tank and lid are also compatible with other Bio-Rad electrode modules for blotting, first-dimension of 2-D electrophoresis, and electroelution. 3 LidElectrodeassemblyBanana plug jacksGel cassetteNotch onU-shaped gasketMini tankFig. 1. Assembling the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra 2. Assembling the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell casting frame and casting stand4 SpecificationsCasting Stand*PolycarbonatePin, retaining ring, and springStainless steelCasting Frames*PolysulfoneGray gasketsThermoplastic rubber (gray)Electrode AssemblyGlass-filled polybutylene terephthalateElectrodesPlatinum wire, inches diameterGasket, electrode inner coreSilicone rubber (green)Mini Tank and LidPolycarbonateSample Loading Guides**DelrinCombs*PolycarbonateOverall Size(W x L x H, cm) 12 x 16 x 18Precast Gel CompatibilityReady Gel and Mini-PROTEAN precast gels (for more information, go to )Voltage Limit600 V DC and 500 WShipping Weight kgMaximum Sample Volume per Well# WellsWell mm20 l105 l160 mm33 l44 l66 mm33 l44 l66 mm20 l26 l40 mm 420 l730 lPrep/2-DReference mm13 l17 l30 lSample mm310 l400 l680 l* US patent No. 6,162,342 ** US patent No. 5,656,145 5 Chemical Compatibility Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell components are not compatible with acetone or ethanol. Use of organic solvents voids all warranties. Call 1-800-4-BIORAD (US) or your local Bio-Rad representative for technical information regarding chemical compatibility of the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell with various laboratory reagents. The Mini-PROTEAN are not compatible with repeated exposure to 100% TEMED. Rubbing the combs with TEMED prior to casting will destroy the structural integrity of the combs over time. SafetyPower to the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell is supplied by an external DC voltage power supply (not included). The output of this power supply must be isolated from external ground to ensure that the DC voltage output floats with respect to ground. All Bio-Rad power supplies meet this important safety requirement. Regardless of the power supply used, the maximum specified operating parameters for the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell are as follows 600 V DC maximum voltage limit 500 W maximum power limit 40 C maximum ambient temperature limitThe current to the cell enters the unit through the lid assembly, which provides a safety interlock to the user. The current to the cell is broken when the lid is removed. Always turn off the power supply before removing the lid. Do not attempt to use the cell without the safety : This Bio-Rad product is designed and certified to meet IEC61010-1 and EN61010-1* safety standards. Certified products are safe to use when operated in accordance with the instruction manual. This instrument should not be modified or altered in any way. Alteration of this instrument will Void the warranty Void the IEC61010-1 and EN61010-1 certifications, and Create a potential safety hazardBio-Rad is not responsible for any injury or damage caused by use of this instrument for purposes other than those for which it is intended or by modifications of the instrument not performed by Bio-Rad or an authorized agent.*IEC61010-1 and EN61010-1 are internationally accepted electrical safety standards for laboratory Section 2 Setup and Basic Operation Gel Cassette Preparation Handcast Gels1. Glass Cassette and Casting Stand Assembly Note: All glass plates should be clean and dry. a. Place the casting frame upright with the pressure cams in the open position and facing forward on a flat surface. b. Select a spacer plate of the desired gel thickness and place a short plate on top of it (see Figure 3a). c. Orient the spacer plate so that the labeling is up. Slide the two glass plates into the casting frame, keeping the short plate facing the front of the frame (side with pressure cams) (see Figure 3b). Note: Ensure that both plates are flush on a level surface and that the labels on the spacer plate are oriented correctly. Leaking may occur if the plates are misaligned or oriented incorrectly. d. When the glass plates are in place, engage the pressure cams to secure the glass cassette sandwich in the casting frame (see Figure 3c). Check that both plates are flush at the Place the casting frame into the casting stand by positioning the casting frame (with the locked pressure cams facing out) onto the casting gasket while engaging the spring-loaded lever of the casting stand onto the spacer plate (see Figure 3d). Note: The gray casting stand gaskets must be clean and dry. The casting stand gaskets are made of a special thermoplastic material that swells when soaked in water, so we recommend that you do not soak the gaskets for prolonged periods prior to casting. If the gaskets do get accidentally soaked and display swelling and/or deformation, just allow them to air dry and they will regain their original shape, size and performance. 7 f. Repeat steps a e for additional 3. Assembling the Mini-PROTEAN casting stand and Gel Castinga. Discontinuous Polyacrylamide Gelsi. Place a comb completely into the assembled gel cassette. Mark the glass plate 1 cm below the comb teeth. This is the level to which the resolving gel is poured. Remove the Prepare the resolving gel monomer solution by combining all reagents except APS and TEMED. (Refer to section 4 for gel formulations.) Degas the solution under vacuum for at least 15 min. Do not use a sink water Add APS and TEMED to the degassed monomer solution and pour to the mark using a glass or disposable plastic pipet. Pour the solution smoothly to prevent it from mixing with air. 3a3b3c3d8 iv. Immediately overlay the monomer solution with water or t-amyl : If water is used, add it slowly and evenly to prevent mixing. Do not overlay with butanol or Allow the gel to polymerize for 45 min to 1 hr. Rinse the gel surface completely with distilled water. Do not leave the alcohol overlay on the gel for more than 1 hr because it will dehydrate the top of the : At this point the resolving gel can be stored at room temperature overnight. Add 5 ml of 1:4 dilution of M Tris-HCl, pH buffer (for Laemmli system) to the resolving gel to keep it hydrated. If using another buffer system, add 5 ml 1x resolving gel buffer for Prepare the stacking gel monomer solution. Combine all reagents except APS and TEMED. Degas under vacuum for at least 15 Dry the top of the resolving gel with filter paper before pouring the stacking Add APS and TEMED to the degassed stacking gel monomer solution and pour the solution between the glass plates. Continue to pour until the top of the short plate is Continuous Polyacrylamide Gelsi. Prepare the monomer solution by combining all reagents except the APS and the TEMED. Degas under vacuum for 15 min (refer to section 4 for gel formulations).ii. Add APS and TEMED to the degassed monomer solution and pour the solution between the glass plates. Continue to pour until the top of the short plate is Insert the desired comb between the spacers starting at the top of the spacer plate, making sure that the tabs at the ends of each comb are guided between the spacers. Seat the comb in the gel cassette by aligning the comb ridge with the top of the short Rinse the casting frame(s) and stand with distilled, deionized water after Ready Gel Precast Gels1. Ready Gel Cassette PreparationNote: The Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell is guaranteed for use with Bio-Rad s Ready Gel and Mini-PROTEAN precast gels. For more information, go to Remove the Ready Gel from the storage pouch. b. Gently remove the comb and rinse the wells thoroughly with distilled water or running buffer. c. Cut along the dotted line at the bottom of the Ready Gel cassette with a razor blade. d. Pull the clear tape at the bottom of the Ready Gel cassette to expose the bottom edge of the gel. e. Repeat for second Ready Gel. Note: If only one or three gels are to be run, use the mini cell buffer dam. Electrophoresis Module Assembly and Sample Loading Required materials: Clean and dry Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell tank Electrophoresis module (electrode assembly module only for 1 or 2 gels; for 3 or 4 gels also use the companion running module) Running buffer (700 ml for 2 gels; 1000 ml for 4 gels) Ready Gel precast gels or hand-cast gels PowerPac Basic power supply 1. AssemblyNote: When running 2 gels only, use the electrode assembly (the one with the banana plugs), not the companion running module (the one without the banana plugs). When running 4 gels, both the electrode assembly and the companion running module must be used, for a total of 4 gels (2 gels per assembly).10 a. Set the clamping frame to the open position on a clean flat surface (see Figure 4a).b. Place the first gel sandwich or gel cassette (with the short plate facing inward) onto the gel supports; gel supports are molded into the bottom of the clamping frame assembly; there are two supports in each side of the assembly. Note that the gel will now rest at a 30 angle, tilting away from the center of the clamping use caution when placing the first gel, making sure that the clamping frame remains balanced and does not tip over. Now, place the second gel on the other side of the clamping frame, again by resting the gel onto the supports. At this point there will be two gels resting at an angle, one on either side of the clamping frame, tilting away from the center of the frame (see Figure 4b).Note: It is critical that gel cassettes are placed into the clamping frame with the short plate facing inward. Also, the clamping frame requires 2 gels to create a functioning assembly. If an odd number of gels (1 or 3) is being run, you must use the buffer dam (see Figure 4b).c. Using one hand, gently pull both gels towards each other, making sure that they rest firmly and squarely against the green gaskets that are built into the clamping frame; make certain that the short plates sit just below the notch at the top of the green gasket. d. While gently squeezing the gel sandwiches or cassettes against the green gaskets with one hand (keeping constant pressure and both gels firmly held in place), slide the green arms of the clamping frame over the gels, locking them into place. Alternatively, you may choose to pickup the entire assembly with both hands, making sure that the gels do not shift, and simultaneously sliding both arms of the clamping frame into place (see Figure 4c). The arms of the clamping frame push the short plates of each gel cassette up against the notch in the green gasket, creating a leak-proof seal (check again to make certain that the short plates sit just below the notch at the top of the green gasket). At this point, the sample wells can be washedout with running buffer, and sample can be loaded (Figure 4d).Note: If running more than 2 gels, repeat steps 1a d with the companion running module11 Important Note: Do not attempt to lock the green arms of the clamping frame, without first ensuring that the gel cassettes are perfectly aligned and stabilized against the notches on the green gaskets of the module. To prevent the gels from shifting during the locking step, firmly and evenly grip them in place against the core of the module with one hand. Caution: When running 1 or 2 gels only, do not place the companion running Module in the tank. Doing so will cause excessive heat generation and prevent electrophoretic separation. Fig. 4. Assembling the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell electrophoresis module. 4a4b4c4d4e12 2. Sample Loadinga. Fill the assembly (upper chamber) with buffer to just under the edge of the outer gel plate. b. Load samples into each of the assemblies while they are sitting on a flat surface, outside of the tank. c. Load the samples into the wells with a Hamilton syringe or a pipet using gel loading tips. d. If using Bio-Rad s patented sample loading guide, place it between the two gels in the electrode assembly. Sample loading guides are available for 9, 10, 12, and 15-well formats. e. Use the sample loading guide to locate the sample wells. Insert the Hamilton syringe or pipet tip into the slots of the guide and fill the corresponding wells. Note: Load samples slowly to allow them to settle evenly on the bottom of the well. Be careful not to puncture the bottom of the well with the syringe needle or pipet. Note: Samples may be loaded in the modules prior to placing the modules into the tank. Samples may also be loaded in the modules after the modules have been placed into the tank. Both methods will produce acceptable results. In both instances, the assembly (upper chamber) and the tank (lower chamber) should be filled with buffer according to the instructions under and Placement of the Electrode Assemblies in the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Tank Note: required total buffer volume, 700 ml for 2 gels; 1000 ml for 4 gels. The Mini-PROTEAN Tetra tank has two positions in which to place two assemblies: the electrode assembly (back position) and the companion running module (front position).a. Begin by placing the tank on a flat surface, with the front of the tank facing you (the front of the tank is the face that has the 2-Gels and 4-Gels line markings); when oriented properly, the red marking on the top inside edge of the tank will be on your right, and the black marking on the top inside edge of the tank will be on your left. 13 b. If running 2 gels only, you will be using just the electrode assembly, so place this assembly in the back position of the cell, making sure that the red (+) electrode jack matches the red marking on the top right inside edge of the tank. c. If running 4 gels, place the electrode assembly (banana plugs) in the back position (as detailed in ) and the companion running module (no banana plugs) in the front position. Make sure that in both instances the red (+) electrode is matching with the red marking on the top inside right edge of the tank. Note that incorrect orientation will not permit proper placement of the lid. d. Fill the tank (lower chamber) with buffer to the indicated level (550 ml for 2 gels and 680 ml for 4 gels). 4. Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Tank Assemblya. Place the lid on the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra tank. Make sure to align the color-coded banana plugs and jacks. The correct orientation is made by matching the jacks on the lid with the banana plugs on the electrode assembly. A stop on the lid prevents incorrect orientation. Note that the raised tabs on each side of the tank will now slide through the slots in the lid, guiding the lid to a proper close. At this point, firmly, yet gently, press down on the lid with your thumbs using even pressure, till the lid is securely and tightly positioned on the tank. Caution: When running 1 or 2 gels only, do not place the companion running module in the tank. Doing so will cause excessive heat generation and will prevent electrophoretic separation. 5. Power Conditions a. Insert the electrical leads into a suitable power supply with the proper polarity. b. Apply power to the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell and begin electrophoresis; 200 V constant is recommended for SDS-PAGE and most native gel applications. The same voltage (200 V) is used for both 2 and 4 gels. The optimal voltage for your application may differ. Run time is approximately 35 min* at 200 V for SDS-PAGE. * Electrophoresis time will vary between 35 and 45 min for Tris-HCl gels, depending on acrylamide percentage 6. Gel Removal a. After electrophoresis is complete, turn off the power supply and disconnect the electrical leads. b. Remove the tank lid and carefully lift out the electrode assemblies. Pour off and discard the running buffer. Note: Always pour off the buffer before opening the arms of the assembly, to avoid spilling the buffer. c. Open the arms of the assembly and remove the gel cassettes. d. Remove the gels from the gel cassette by gently separating the two plates of the gel cassette. Note: To remove the gel from a Ready Gel cassette, first slice the tape along the sides of the Ready Gel cassette where the inner glass plate meets the outer plastic plate. e. Remove the gel by floating it off the plate by inverting the gel and plate under fixative or transfer solution, agitating gently until the gel separates from the plate. f. Rinse the Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell electrode assembly, clamping frame, and mini tank with distilled, deionized water after use. 15 Section 3 Separation Theory and Optimization Introduction Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separates molecules in complex mixtures according to size and charge. During electrophoresis there is an intricate interaction of samples, gel matrix buffers, and electric current resulting in separate bands of individual molecules. Hence the variables that must be considered in electrophoresis are gel pore size, gel buffer systems, and the properties of the molecule of interest. Gel Pore Size Gel pores are created by the crosslinking of polyacrylamide with bis-acrylamide (bis) to create a network of pores. This structure allows the molecular sieving of molecules through the gel matrix. Gel pore size is a function of the acrylamide monomer concentration used (%T). By convention, polyacrylamide gels are characterized by %T, which is the weight percentage of the total monomer including the crosslinker. The %T gives an indication of the relative pore size of the gel. In general, pore size decreases with increasing %T. %T is calculated using the following equation. %T = g acrylamide + g crosslinker x 100% total volume (ml) %C is the ratio of the crosslinker to the acrylamide monomer ratio in the monomer solution. %C is calculated using the following equation. %C = g crosslinker x 100% g acrylamide + g C is traditionally used for most analytical gels. Gels can be made as a single continuous percentage throughout the gel, or can be cast as a gradient %T through the gel. Typical compositions are from up to 20% for single percentage gels, or gradients ranging from 4 15% to 10 20%.16 The total monomer concentration for optimal separation is referred to as optimal %T. Optimal %T will vary depending on the molecular weight of the molecule of interest. Empirically the pore size providing optimum resolution for proteins is that which results in a relative mobility (Rf) value between Rf values for specific proteins are calculated as follows. Rf = Distance migrated by the protein of interest Distance migrated by the ion front Gel Buffer System The buffer system determines the power requirements and affects separation. The buffer system is composed of the buffer used in the gel and the running buffer. There are continuous and discontinuous buffer systems. Continuous Buffer Systems In continuous buffer systems, the same buffer ions are present at constant pH in the gel and electrode reservoirs. The gel is typically made of one continuous %T and the sample is loaded directly into the part of the gel where separation will occur. The band width is determined in part by the height of the sample load, so samples should be concentrated and volumes small for best results. Discontinuous Buffer Systems In discontinuous buffer systems different buffer ions are present in the gel and electrode reservoirs. By using different buffers in the gel and in the electrode solutions and adding a stacking gel to the resolving gel, samples are compressed into a thin starting band and individual proteins are finely resolved and separated. Discontinuous buffer systems were devised initially for use with undenatured, or native proteins; however the most popular discontinuous system employed is the SDS-PAGE buffer system by Laemmli (1970). Formulations for this system are included in section SDS-PAGE (Laemmli) Buffer System The Laemmli buffer system is a discontinuous buffer system that incorporates SDS in the buffer. In this system, proteins are denatured by heating them in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a thiol reducing agent such as 2-mercaptoethanol. The resultant denatured polypeptides take on a rod-like shape and a uniform charge-to-mass ratio proportional 17 to their molecular weights. Proteins are separated according to their molecular weights, making this system extremely useful for calculating molecular weights. Native PAGE Native PAGE is a technique for separating biologically active proteins. In contrast to SDS-PAGE, the mobilities of proteins in a native PAGE system depend on both size and charge. There is no single electrophoresis buffer system that will optimally purify all native proteins. Key parameters for separating proteins in a native PAGE system are isoelectric point (pI) of the protein of interest and the pH of the electrophoresis buffer. pH and pI The pH of the electrophoresis buffer must be within the pH range over which the protein of interest is stable and retains biological activity. In addition, the pH of the buffer must impart sufficient charge to the protein for it to move through the gel. Changes in pH will affect both the charge and size (hydrodynamic volume) of the protein of interest and will affect migration rates. For example, a buffer with a pH greater than the pI of the protein will impart a negative charge on the protein and it will migrate toward the positive electrode (anode). Conversely, a buffer with a pH lower than the pI of the protein will impart a positive charge and the protein will migrate to the negative electrode (cathode). A pH equal to the pI will result in no net charge in the protein and it will not migrate in an electric field. Protein mobilities are best modified by the buffer s pH. Buffers with a pH closer to the pI will provide the best resolution. However run times may be lengthy. Conversely, buffers with a pH further from the pI will migrate quickly but resolution may be compromised. The choice of pH becomes a tradeoff between separation and speed. How to Choose a Native PAGE System 1. Discontinuous Buffer Systems (Ornstein and Davis 1964) This discontinuous buffer system should be the first nondenaturing gel system tried. Detailed protocols are provided in section The advantage of a discontinuous system is the use of a stacking gel to concentrate dilute protein samples. However, the stacking phenomena can also cause aggregation of some proteins and interfere with resolution. If protein aggregation occurs, a continuous buffer system should be Note: The pH attained in the resolving gel of the Ornstein-Davis system approaches pH , which may be outside the range of stability for some proteins, causing denaturation. Additionally, the pI of the protein of interest may be too close to or above the Ornstein-Davis buffer pH ( ), which may result in a very low net charge or a positive net charge that may significantly reduce or even prohibit migration to the anode. Alternative discontinuous systems can be found in an article by Chrambach and Jovin (1983). Note: It is very desirable to know the pI of the protein of interest before selecting a buffer system. 2. Continuous Buffer Systems A continuous buffer system will be required if discontinuous systems cannot be used due to stacking-induced protein aggregation. In a continuous system the same buffer is used in the upper and lower electrode chambers as in the gel. Since stacking does not occur, proteins migrate in bands at least as wide as the applied sample. Consequently, sample volumes should be minimized. The mobility of proteins in a continuous system is dictated by pH rather than by sieving through the polyacrylamide gel. For this reason, 6% polyacrylamide gels are recommended for most applications. For very large proteins, 4% or 5% gels may be used. McLellan describes various continuous buffer systems from pH Detailed protocols are provided in section 19 Section 4 Reagent Preparation and Stock Solutions Volumes Required Per Gel The volumes listed are required to completely fill a gel cassette. Amounts may be adjusted depending on the application (with or without comb, with or without stacking gel, etc.). Gel Thickness (mm)Volume (ml) : 10 ml of monomer solution is sufficient for two stacking gels of any SDS-PAGE (Laemmli) Buffer System Stock Solutions and Buffers 1. Acrylamide/Bis (30%T, ) g acrylamide ( g/100 ml) g N N -bis-methylene-acrylamide ( g/100 ml) Make to 300 ml with deionized water. Filter and store at 4 C in the dark (30 days maximum). Or use: Preweighed acrylamide/bis, :1 mixture (30%T, C) (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0125, 150 g) 30% acrylamide/bis solution, :1 mixture (30%T, C) (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0158, 500 ml) (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0159, 2 x 500 ml)2. 10% (w/v) SDS Dissolve 10 g SDS in 90 ml water with gentle stirring and bring to 100 ml with deionized water. Alternatively, 10% SDS solution (250 ml) can be used (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0416). 3. M Tris-HCl, pH g Tris base ( g/100 ml) 80 ml deionized water 20 Adjust to pH with 6 N HCl. Bring total volume to 150 ml with deionized water and store at 4 C. Alternatively, M Tris-HCl, pH (1 L) premixed buffer can be used (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0798). 4. M Tris-HCl, pH 6 g Tris base 60 ml deionized water Adjust to pH with 6 N HCl. Bring total volume to 100 ml with deionized water and store at 4 C. Alternatively, M Tris-HCl, pH (1 L) premixed buffer can be used (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0799). 5. Sample buffer (SDS reducing buffer) ml deionized water ml M Tris-HCl, pH ml glycerol ml 10% (w/v) SDS ml (w/v) Bromophenol Blue ml total volume Store at room temperature. Use: Add 50 l -mercaptoethanol to 950 l sample buffer prior to use. Dilute the sample at least 1:2 with sample buffer and heat at 95 C for 4 10x electrode (running) buffer, pH (makes 1 L) g Tris base g glycine g SDS Dissolve and bring total volume up to 1,000 ml with deionized water. Do not adjust pH with acid or base. Store at 4 C. If precipitation occurs, warm to room temperature before use. Alternatively, electrophoresis running buffer 10x Tris/glycine/SDS, 5 L cube (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0772) can be used. Use: Dilute 50 ml of 10x stock with 450 ml deionized water for each electrophoresis run. Mix thoroughly before use. 7. 10% (w/v) APS (fresh daily) 100 mg ammonium persulfate Dissolve in 1 ml of deionized water. 21 Gel Formulations (10 ml) 1. Prepare the monomer solution by mixing all reagents except the TEMED and 10% APS. Degas the mixture for 15 min. 30 % DegassedPercentDDI H2OAcrylamide/BisGel buffer10% w/v SDSgel(ml)(ml)(ml)(ml)4% * Resolving Gel Buffer M Tris-HCl, pH * Stacking Gel Buffer M Tris-HCl, pH 2. Immediately prior to pouring the gel, add:For 10 ml monomer solution: Resolving gel: 50 l 10% APS and 5 l TEMED Stacking gel: 50 l 10% APS and 10 l TEMED Swirl gently to initiate : Prepare any desired volume of monomer solution by using multiples of the 10 ml recipe. The volumes of APS and TEMED must be adjusted accordingly. Warning: The catalyst concentration is very important! Webbing and incomplete well formulation can result from inaccurate catalyst Discontinuous Native PAGE (Ornstein-Davis) Stock Solutions and Buffers 1. Acrylamide/Bis (30%T, ) g acrylamide ( g/100 ml) g N N -bis-methylene-acrylamide ( g/100 ml) Make to 300 ml with deionized water. Filter and store at 4 C in the dark (30 days maximum). Or, use: Preweighed acrylamide/bis, :1 mixture (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0125, 150 g) 30% acrylamide/bis solution, :1 mixture (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0158, 500 ml) (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0159, 2 x 500 ml) 2. M Tris-HCl, pH g Tris base ( g/100 ml)80 ml deionized water Adjust to pH with 6 N HCl. Bring total volume up to 150 ml with deionized water and store at 4 C. Alternatively, M Tris-HCl, pH (1 L) premixed buffer can be used (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0798). 3. M Tris-HCl, pH 6 g Tris base 60 ml deionized water Adjust to pH with 6 N HCl. Bring total volume up to 100 ml with deionized water and store at 4 C. Alternatively, M Tris-HCl, pH (1 L) premixed buffer can be used (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0799). 4. Sample Buffer ml deionized water ml M Tris-HCl, pH ml glycerol ml (w/v) Bromophenol Blue ml Total volume Store at room temperature. Use: Dilute the sample at least 1:2 with sample buffer. 23 5. 10x electrode (running) buffer, pH g Tris base (15 g/L) g glycine (72 g/L) Bring total volume up to 1,000 ml with deionized water. Do not adjust pH. Alternatively, electrophoresis running buffer 10x Tris/glycine, 1 L (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0734) can be used. Usage: Dilute 100 ml of 10x stock with 900 ml deionized water for each electrophoresis run. Gel Formulations (10 ml) 1. Prepare the monomer solution by mixing all reagents except the TEMED and 10% APS. Degas the mixture for 15 % DegassedPercentDDI H2OAcrylamide/BisGel buffergel(ml)(ml)(ml)4% *Resolving Gel Buffer M Tris-HCl, pH *Stacking Gel Buffer M Tris-HCl, pH2. Immediately prior to pouring the gel, add: 50 ml APS and TEMED (5 l for resolving gels; 10 l TEMED for stacking gels) Swirl gently to initiate polymerization. Note: Prepare any desired volume of monomer solution by using multiples of the 10 ml recipe. The volumes of APS and TEMED must be adjusted accordingly. 24 Continuous Native PAGE Stock Solutions and Buffers 1. Acrylamide/Bis (30%T, ) g acrylamide ( g/100 ml) g N N -bis-methylene-acrylamide ( g/100 ml) Make to 300 ml with deionized water. Filter and store at 4 C in the dark (30 days maximum) Or use: Preweighed acrylamide/bis, :1 mixture (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0125, 150 g) 30% acrylamide/bis solution, :1 mixture (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0158, 500 ml) (Bio-Rad catalog #161-0159, 2 x 500 ml) 2. Sample Buffer ml electrophoresis buffer ml glycerol ml Bromophenol Blue ml deionized water ml total volume 3. Continuous Buffers (McLellan) McLellan describes various continuous buffer systems from pH to pH Use the table on the page to prepare 5x continuous non-denaturing PAGE electrophoresis buffers. Add both the acidic and basic component to 1 L of water. Do not adjust the pH. If the final pH is outside the listed range discard the buffer and remake. 25 Basic pHAcidic Component5x SolutionComponent5x g/LLactic ml/L(MW )85% g/LAcetic ml/L(MW ) g/LAcetic ml/L(MW ) g/L(MW )(MW ) g/L(MW )(MW ) g/L(MW )(MW ) g/L(MW )(MW ) g/LBoric g/L(MW )9MW ) g/L(MW )(MW ) g/L( M)(MW )26 Dilute 200 ml of 5x buffer with 800 ml deionized water to prepare 1x electrophoresis buffer. The final concentrations of buffer components will be. pHBasic componentAcidic mM -Alanine20 mM Lactic mM -Alanine40 mM Acetic mM GABA20 mM Acetic mM Histidine30 mM mM Histidine30 mM mM Histidine35 mM mM Tris 30 mM mM Tris 25 mM Boric mM Tris 40 mM mM Ammonia20 mM CAPSGel Formulations (10 ml)1. Prepare the monomer solution by mixing all reagents except the TEMED and 10% APS. Degas the mixture for 15 % DegassedPercentDDI H2OAcrylamide/BisGel buffergel(ml)(ml)(ml)4% : Prepare any desired volume of monomer solution by using multiples of the 10 ml recipe. 2. Immediately prior to pouring the gel, for 10 ml monomer solution add: 50 l 10% APS 10 l TEMED Swirl gently to initiate polymerization. Note: Below pH 6, TEMED becomes a less effective catalyst. Increase the concentration of TEMED 5-fold to polymerize gels with a pH range between 4 and Section 5 References Laemmli UK (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage t4. Nature 227, 680-685. Ornstein L (1964). Disc electrophoresis. I. Background and theory. Ann N Y Acad Sci 121, 321-349. Chrambach (1983). A and Jovin, T M, Electrophoresis, 4, 190 204 McLellan T (1982). Electrophoresis buffers for polyacrylamide gels at various ph. Anal Biochem 126, 6 MaintenanceMini-PROTEAN Tetra tank and lid, Rinse thoroughly with distilled water electrode assembly, companion after every use. assembly, casting stand, and frameRinse thoroughly with distilled water electrode after every useGlass plates and combsWash with a laboratory detergent, then rinse thoroughly with distilled water. Limit submersion of spacer plates in strongly basic solutions, such as >100 mM NaOH, to less than 24 hr. Limit submersion in chromic-sulfuric acid glass cleaning solution to 2 3 hr. Prolonged submersion compromises the integrity of the preserve the longevity of the adhesive bond, avoid extended submersion (>5 days) in cleaning solution made from Bio-Rad cleaning concentrate (catalog #161-0722) or other strongly basic Section 7 Troubleshooting GuideProblemCauseSolutionSmile effect band pattern curves upward at both sides of the gel Center of the gel running hotter than either endPower conditions excessiveBuffer not mixed well or buffer in upper chamber too concentrated. Remake buffer, ensuring thorough mixing, especially when diluting 5x or 10x stockDecrease the power setting from 200 V to 150 V or fill lower chamber to within 1 cm of top of short plateVertical streaking of protein Sample overloaded Sample precipitationDilute sample, selectively remove predominant protein in sample, or reduce the voltage about 25% to minimize streakingCentrifuge sample before addition of SDS sample buffer, or decrease %T of the gel* The ratio of SDS to protein should be enough to coat each protein molecule with SDS, generally :1. It may require more SDS for some membrane protein samplesLateral band spreadingDiffusion of the wells prior to turning on the currentIonic strength of the sample lower than that of the gelMinimize the time between sample application and turning on the power startupUse same buffer in sample as in the gel or the stacking gelSkewed or distorted bandPoor polymerization around wellsSalts in sampleUneven gel interfaceDegas stacking gel solution completely prior to casting; increase ammonium persulfate and TEMED concentrations by 25%, for stacking gel or low %T, leave APS the same and double the TEMED concentration Remove the salts by dialysis, desalting, column, Micro Bio-Spin columns, the polymerization rate. Overlay gels very carefully29 Troubleshooting Guide (cont.)ProblemCauseSolutionLanes constricted at the bottom of the gel Ionic strength of sample higher than the surrounding gelDesalt sample and neighboring samplesRun taking unusually longRunning buffer too concentratedExcessive salt in sampleCheck buffer protocol, dilute if necessaryDesalt sampleRun too fastRunning or reservoir buffer too diluteVoltage too highCheck buffer protocol, dilute if necessaryDecrease voltage by 25 58%Doublets observed where single protein species is expected (SDS-PAGE)A portion of the protein may have been reoxidized during the run or may not have been fully reduced prior to the run Prepare fresh sample buffer solution if over 30 days old; increase concentration in the sample buffer; sustitute DTT for BMEFewer bands than expected and one heavy band at the dry frontProtein(s) migrating at the dye frontProtein degradationIncrease the %T of the resolving gel*Use protease inhibitors, , PMSF, buffer chnamber leaksUpper buffer chamber overfilledImproper assemblyKeep buffer level below the top of the spacer plateBe sure U-shaped electrode core gasket is clean, free of cuts, and lubricated with bufferBe sure short plate is under the notch on the gasket, not on top of itLeaking during hand castingChipped glass platesSpacer plate and short plate not levelCsating stand gasket is dirty, flawed, or worn glass plates are free of flawsEnsure plates are aligned correctlyWash the gasket if it is dirty, replace casting stand gaskets if flawed or worn out30 Troubleshooting Guide (cont.)ProblemCauseSolutionPoor end well formationIncorrect catalyst formationMonomer solution not degassed. Oxygen inhibits polymerizationPrepare fresh catalyst solution, or increase the catalyst concentration of the stacking gel to APS and TEMEDDegas monomer solution immediately prior to casting the stacking gelWebbing/excess acrylamide behind the combIncorrect catalyst concentrationPrepare fresh catalyst solution, or increase the catalyst concentration of the stacking gel to APS and TEMEDThe pressure cams on the casting frame are difficult to close or make noise when closedPowder residue has built up at the pivot of the pressure camsRinse or wipe off the powder residue before each use*Polyacrylamide gels are described by reference to two characteristics: 1. The total monomer concentration, (%T) and 2. The crosslinking monomer concentration (%C). g acrylamide + bis-acrylamide x 100%Total Volumeg bis-acrylamide x 100%g acrylamide + bis-acrylamide31 Section 8 Product Information and AccessoriesMini PROTEAN Tetra SystemsCatalogNumber Descriptions165-8000Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness, complete system includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, 2 casting stands, casting clamp assembly, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, companion running module, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8001Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness, complete system, includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, 2 casting stands, casting clamp assembly, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, companion running module, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8002*Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness; 2-gel system includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, casting stand, 2 casting frames, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8003*Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness; 2-gel system includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, casting stand, 2 casting frames, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8004Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell for Ready Gel precast gels, electrode assembly, companion running module, clamping frame, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8005*Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell for Mini Precast Gels, 2-gel system includes electrode assembly, clamping frame, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8006Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness; 4-gel system includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, 2 casting stands, 4 casting frames, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, companion running module, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8007*Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, 10 well, mm thickness; 2-gel system includes 5 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, casting stand, 2 casting frames, sample loading guide, electrode assembly, tank, lid with power cables, mini cell buffer dam165-8025Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell and PowerPac Basic Power Supply, includes 165-8001 and 164-5050165-8026Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell and PowerPac Universal Power Supply, includes 165-8001 and 164-507032 CatalogNumber Descriptions165-8027Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell and PowerPac HC Power Supply, includes 165-8001 and 164-5052165-8028Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell and PowerPac HV Power Supply, includes 165-8001 and 164-5056165-8029Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell and Mini Trans-Blot Module, includes 165-8001 and 170-3935165-8030Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell (for Ready Gel Precast Gels) and Mini Trans-Blot Module, includes 165-8004 and 170-3935165-8033Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, Mini Trans-Blot Module, and PowerPac Basic Power Supply, includes 165-8001, 170-3935, and 164-5050165-8034Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell (for Ready Gel Precast Gels), Mini Trans-Blot Module, and PowerPac Basic Power Supply, includes 165-8004, 170-3935, and 164-5050165-8035Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell, Mini Trans-Blot Module, and PowerPac HC Power Supply, includes 165-8001, 170-3935, and 164-5052165-8036Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Cell (for Ready Gel precast gels), Mini Trans-Blot Module, and PowerPac HC Power Supply, includes 165-8004, 170-3935, and 164-5052*The 2-gel systems do not include the companion running ModulesEach casting module includes 2 combs, 5 sets of glass plates, 2 casting stands, 4 casting frames, and the appropriate sample loading mm mm mm Spacer5 well165-8008165-8013165-80199 well165-8009165-8014165-802010 well165-8010165-8015165-802115 well165-8011165-8016165-8022Prep/2 D well165-8012165-8017165-8023IPG wellN/A165-8018165-802433 Handcast Gel Accesories and Replacement PartsCatalogNumber Descriptions165-3303Mini-PROTEAN Casting Stand165-3304Mini-PROTEAN Casting Frame165-3305Mini-PROTEAN Casting Stand Gaskets, 2165-3308Short Plates, 5165-3310Spacer Plates with mm Internal Spacers, 5165-3311Spacer Plates with mm Internal Spacers, 5165-3312Spacer Plates with mm Internal Spacers, 5Other Replacements PartsCatalogNumber Descriptions165-8037Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Electrode Assembly 165-8038Mini-PROTEAN Tetra Companion Running Module 165-8039Buffer Tank, replacement 165-8040Buffer Tank and Lid, replacement 165-8041Cell Lid with Power Cables165-3201Sample Loading Guide, 9 well (red)165-3146Sample Loading Guide, 10 well (yellow)165-3203Sample Loading Guide, 12 well (green)165-3132Sample Loading Guide, 15 well (blue)165-3130Mini Cell Buffer Dams, 2165-3149Replacement Gaskets for Electrophoresis Assembly, green, 2161-0990Empty Ready Gel Cassettes, 1034 mm mm mm 5 well165-3352165-3357165-33639 well165-3353165-3358165-336410 well165-3354165-3359165-336515 well165-3355165-3360165-3366Prep/2 D well165-3356165-3361165-3367IPG wellN/A165-3362165-336835 Section 9 Warranty InformationThe Mini-PROTEAN Tetra cell is warranted for one year against defects in materials and workmanship. If any defects should occur during this warranty period, Bio-Rad Laboratories will replace the defective parts without charge. However, the following defects are specifically Defects caused by improper operation 2. Repairs or modifications done by anyone other than Bio-Rad Laboratories or their authorized agent 3. Damage caused by accidental misuse 4. Damage caused by disaster5. Common replacement parts including platinum wire, the rubber gaskets, and glass plates 6. Damage caused by the use of organic solventsFor inquiries or requests for repair service, contact your local Bio-Rad InformationModel________________________ ____________________________ Catalog number__________________________________ __________Date of delivery________________________________ ____________ Serial number__________________________________ ____________ Invoice number__________________________________ __________Purchase order number__________________________________ ___* US Patent No. 6,162,342** US patent No. 5,656,145Life Science Group Sig 121110007296 Rev D US/EGBio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. 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