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PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHT KOBELCO WELDING TODAY 1 A Quick Guide to Suitable Welding Consumables for Mild Steel and 490MPa High Tensile Strength Steel For Shielded Metal Arc ...




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TODAYTODAYKOBELCO WELDING CONSUMABLESKOBELCO WELDING CONSUMABLESFORFOR 2nd Special Editionnd Special Edition MILD STEEL AND 490MPa HT STEELMILD STEEL AND 490MPa HT STEELMILD STEEL AND 490MPa HT STEELMILD STEEL AND 490MPa HT STEEL KOBELCO WELDING TODAY1PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTA Quick Guide to Suitable Welding Consumablesfor Mild Steel and 490MPa High Tensile Strength Steel For Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)Tips for successful welding results1. This guidance is to help users select appropriate welding consumables. Users are requested to confirm whether the selectedbrand can satisfy the job requirements before use. 2. Suitable electric polarity for SMAW electrodes are as follows: AC, DCEN or DCEP for EXX13, EXX19, and EXX24; AC orDCEP for EXX16, EXX18 and EXX48; DCEP for EXX10. Wires for FCAW and GMAW use DCEP (DW-A51B uses DCEN). ForSAW flux-wire combinations, AC is recommended. Electric polarity can affect the usability of welding consumables and thechemical composition and mechanical properties of weld metals; therefore, it is recommended to confirm the performance ofthe consumable you selected, using the polarity of a power source available for a particular job. 3. The trade designations with a prefix of G or MF are fused-type fluxes for SAW, whereas those that begin with PF are bonded-type fluxes. The trade designations shown with a prefix of DW or MX are flux-cored wires, whereas those denoted with a prefixof MG or MIX are solid wires. Shielding gas composition can affect the usability of a wire, the chemical composition andmechanical properties of the weld The mechanical properties of weld metals can be affected by preheat and interpass temperatures and welding heat , these parameters must be controlled during welding to assure the weld quality. 5. For details of individual brands, refer to KOBELCO WELDING name*11.[F] designates FAMILIARC . [T] designates TRUSTARC .AWS classificationFeaturesThin to medium plate joints[F] E6013Capable of vertical downward welding.[F] E6013Lower fume emissions.[F] E6013Better bead appearance.[F] E6019Deeper penetration than E6013.[F] E6019Better X-ray soundness.[F] E6019Higher resistance to hot plate joints[F] E7016For mild steel. Higher deposition rates.[F] E7016For mild steel. Better X-ray soundness.[F] E7016Typical electrode for 490MPa HT steel.[F] E7016Extra-low hydrogen. Harmless fumes.[F] E7016Extra-low hydrogen. HIgher resistance to cold cracking.[F] E7016Ultra-low hydrogen. Moisture resistant.[F] E7016Suitable for 520MPa HT steel. Extra-low hydrogen.[F] E7016-GSuitable for 520MPa HT steel.[F] E7016Suitable for HIC resistant steel.[F] E7018Higher deposition rates. Better usability with DCEP.[T] E7018-1Higher deposition rates. Excellent low-temp notch and flat fillets[F] E7018Typical electrode for 490MPa HT steel.[F] E7024Suitable for manual and gravity welding.[F] LT-B50-Non-low hydrogen. Not suitable for thick [F] E6010Suitable for API grades of up to X52.[F] E7010-P1Suitable for API grades of X52-X60.[F] E8010-P1Suitable for API grades of X60-X70.[F] E7048Extra-low hydrogen. Vertical downward welding.[F] E8018-GExtra-low hydrogen. Vertical downward welding.[F] E9018-GExtra-low hydrogen. Vertical downward passes[F] E7016Unsurpassed penetration bead k i n g[F] E7048Excellent re-arcing with a low hydrogen coating. KOBELCO WELDING TODAY2PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHT For Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) For Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) For Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) For Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)ApplicationsBrand name*11.[F] designates FAMILIARC .AWS classificationFeaturesShielding gasThin plate joints[F] E70C-6C/6MStable short-circuiting arc. Little or Ar+CO2Medium plate joints[F] E71T-1CHigher deposition rates in all position welding. CO2[F] E71T-1CHigher deposition rates in vertical-up welding. CO2[F] E71T-9CSuitable for ship-class E-grade [F] E71T-1C/1M, 9C/9MSuitable for ship-class E-grade or Ar+CO2[F] E71T-1MSuperior usability with low +CO2[F] E71T-5M-JBetter crack resistance with DCEN. Basic-type +CO2Medium to thick plate joints[F] E70T-1CHigher deposition rates. Little [F] E70C-6MHigher deposition rates. Little +CO2Horizontal and flat fillets[F] E70T-1CLarger legs. Better bead appearance and [F] E70T-1CHigher resistance to inorganic zinc [F] E70T-1MHigher resistance to inorganic zinc +CO2[F] E70T-9CSuitable for ship-class E-grade [F] E70T-1CHigher speeds on inorganic primer coated name*11.[F] designates FAMILIARC .AWS classificationFeaturesShielding gasThin to medium plate joints[F] ER70S-6Stable short-circuiting arc. All-position or Ar+CO2[F] MG-50T-Stable short-circuiting arc. All-position or Ar+CO2[F] ER70S-3Stable arc with lower +CO2[F] ER70S-GStable spray arc with higher +CO2Thick plate joints[F] ER70S-GStable arc with higher [F] ER70S-GSuperior usability and mechanical +CO2ApplicationsBrand name*11.[F] designates FAMILIARC .AWS classificationFeaturesShielding gasThin to thick plate joints[F] ER70S-6Superior properties after long time [F] ER70S-GSuitable for Al-killed steels for low pass in pipe joints[F] ER70S-2More resistible to rusty name*11.[F] designates FAMILIARC .AWS classificationFeaturesThin plate joints[F] G-50 / [F] F7A2-EH14Suitable for high speed to medium plate joints[F] G-60 / [F] F7A2-EH14Suitable for high speed welding.[F] PF-H45 / [F] F6A4-EL8Suitable for single or 4-5 multi-pass to thick plate joints[F] G-80 / [F] F7A2-EH14F6P2-EH14Good performance in multi-pass welding.[F] MF-38 / [F] F7A6-EH14F7P6-EH14Better porosity resistance and X-ray soundness.[F] MF-300 / [F] F7A6-EH14F7P6-EH14Better slag detachability.[F] PF-H55E / [F] F7A4-EH14Double-sided two-pass or multi-pass and flat fillets[F] MF-53 / [F] F7A0-EH14Better bead appearance and slag detachability. KOBELCO WELDING TODAY3PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTAn unsurpassed rutile flux-cored wire for mild steeland 490MPa high tensile strength steel, which ishighly reputed for solid ultimate performance. Inception of DW-100DW-100 was developed for welding mild steel and490MPa high tensile strength steel and launchedinto the world of arc welding nearly 30 years prefix of the trade designation, DW, wascoined from the words, Dual Wire, because thewire consists of steel sheath and cored flux. Thisdevelopment provided the momentum for ship-builders and bridge constructors in particular toemploy semiautomatic and automatic welding withDW-100 instead of shielded metal arc weldingwith covered electrodes. This is why DW-100 iscalled an epoch-making flux-cored wire. Outstanding featuresThe most remarkable features of DW-100 whenused with CO2 gas shielding are the following.(1) Adjusting once a certain proper welding cur-rent within a wide range of amperage and volt-age for each size of wire shown in Figure 1,there is no need to re-adjust the current posi-tion by position in all-position 1: Proper ranges of welding current and arc voltage foreach size of DW-100.(2) Much less spattering improves the weldingenvironment and reduce downtime for remov-ing spatter on the weld Figure 2: A comparison between DW-100 flux cored wire(FCW) and conventional solid wire (SW) on the amount ofspatter in CO2 gas arc welding.(3) Convenient self-peeling slag removal andglossy bead appearance reduce postweldcleaning time Figure 3: Convenient self-peeling slag removal and glossybead appearance with DW-100 in horizontal fillet welding.(4) Regular bead profiles and smooth fusion withbase metal Figure 4: Regular bead appearance and smooth fusion withthe base metal in horizontal fillet welding with DW-100.(5) High deposition rates can save labor costs byreducing welding time Figure 5.(6) Consistent mechanical properties of tensilestrength and Charpy impact toughness of theweld metal Table 1.': $:6 $ ( 7 & PP PP PP :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS $UF YROWDJH 9ROW PP PP :HOGLQJ DPSHUDJH DQG YROWDJH4XDQWLW\ RI VSDWWHU RI RYHU PHVK VL]H J PLQ KOBELCO WELDING TODAY4PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTFigure 5: A comparison on deposition rates between DW-100(FCW), conventional solid wire (SW) and covered electrode(CE) wire extension: 25 mm, shielding gas: leader of flux-cored wireSince DW-100 was launched into the market, pro-duction of flux-core wires has ever increased. Thisis because of ever increasing consumption of flux-cored wires not only in shipbuilders and bridgeconstructors but also in other various industriesthroughout the world. Nowadays annual produc-tion of flux-cored wires in Japan has reached over125,000 metric tons, accounting for about shown in Figure 6. Among flux-cored wires,DW-100 is one of the leaders. Figure 6: Annual production ratios of welding consumables inJapan in 2007 (Developed with data from Ref. 1)A variety of applications Nowadays DW-100 is used in various applicationsin such industries as shipbuilding, architecturalstructures, machinery, and bridges. Due to excel-lent usability, even an inexperienced welder canuse DW-100 with satisfactory results. This usabil-ity includes stable wire feeding and tracking ontowelding lines. DW-100 continually earns a highreputation from users in worldwide marketsbecause of the services supported by the slogan, QTQ (Quality Products, Technical Support, andQuick Delivery) launched by Kobe Steel and theKobelco group shines in various applications in such industries asshipbuilding, architectural structures, bridges and things in the traditional During these three decades, DW-100 has seen its features refined, and applications expanded. Inorder to maintain the outstanding features of DW-100, the quality control in production is the verymatter Kobe Steel stresses. DW-100 is a traditionalflux-cored wire, but, at the same time, highlyadvanced in that the quality of DW-100 has beenmaintained through advanced research and produc-tion engineering. Reference [1] Statistic News. Welding Technology, Vol. 56, 4/2008,Sanpo Publications 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of DW-100 weld metal tested per AWS OS(MPa)TS(MPa)El (%)IV(J) 51057030 18 C: 85:HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS 'HSRVLWLRQ UDWH J PLQ &( PP &( PP &( PP )&: PP 6: PP )&: PP 6: PP )&$: IOX[ FRUHG ZLUHV 6$: IOX[HVDQG ZLUHV *0$: VROLG ZLUHV 60$: HOHFWURGHV 2WKHUV *7$: ZLUHV KOBELCO WELDING TODAY5PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHT MX-200 can release you from the headache ofporosity in the fillet welding of shop-primer-paint-coated steel plates in horizontal and flat positionsBasic characteristicsMX-200 is a metal type flux cored wire suited forfillet welding of mild steel and 490 Mpa high ten-sile strength steel painted with shop primer. The Mof the trade designation stands for Metal, while Xreflects the expectation excellence. MX-200 wasdeveloped as an exclusive-use flux-cored wire forfillet welding in the horizontal and flat positionswith CO2 gas shop primer causes porosityShop primer is a coat of paint applied to the sur-face of steel plates in order to protect them fromrusting during a long fabrication period. Shopprimer is often used in shipbuilding and bridgeconstruction. Shop primer can be a predominantcause of porosity in fillet welds. Porosity isbelieved to occur because the arc heat decomposesshop primer into several gases and metallic vapors,which form pores in the weld metal. The degree ofporosity depends on the type and coating thicknessof the shop primer, the type of welding wire andwelding characteristicsA typical flux-cored wire can overcome the poros-ity problem caused by shop primer if the weldingspeed is reduced or if the shop primer is partlyremoved from where the fillet welds will be laidon. However, if you need to do fillet welding muchmore effectively, using higher welding speeds andwithout removing shop primer, you will encounterthe porosity 1 shows the results of testing different typesof welding wires and a wide range of weldingspeeds for porosity in fillet welding. It clearlyshows that MX-200 is far more resistant to shopprimer than conventional rutile-type flux-coredwire and solid wire at a wide range of 1: The results of testing the porosity resistance of MX-200 in comparison with conventional rutile-type flux-coredwire and solid wire in the fillet welding of shop-primer coatedsteel better resistance to shop primer, MX-200provides the following advantages:(1) Glossy, smooth bead appearance due to thin,regular slag covering.(2) Regular bead profile at a wide range of weldingspeeds due to excellent fusion at the toe of thefillet weld.(3) Less spatters due to smooth droplet transfer.(4) Smaller leg length (approx. 4mm) can be mademore easily due to a stable arc at lower 2 shows an example of bead appearanceand a cross sectional profile of a fillet weld usingMX-200. It shows smooth, regular bead appear-ance and regular leg length with proper penetrationat the root of the fillet weld. 0; $:6 $ ( 7 & :HOGLQJ VSHHG FP PLQ 1XPEHU RI SLWV SFV PP EHDG OHQJWK &RQYHQWLRQDOVROLG ZLUH0; &RQYHQWLRQDO IOX[ FRUHG ZLUH 5XWLOH W\SH 7\SH RI SULPHU ,QRUJDQLF ]LQF SULPHU &RDWLQJ WKLFNQHVV P /HJ OHQJWK PP FP PLQ KOBELCO WELDING TODAY6PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTIn addition to excellent resistance against shopprimer and unsurpassed usability, MX-200 is well-suited for high speed welding. Figure 3 shows therelationship between welding speed and leg lengthof fillet welds. You can determine the requiredwelding speed for different leg lengths using 3: The relationship between welding speed and filletleg length as a function of welding for automatic weldingMX-200 persistently earns a good reputationamong users in shipbuilding, bridge construction,machinery fabrication, railway-car fabrication,steel structure fabrication due to the outstandingfeatures:(1) Excellent resistant to shop primer(2) Excellent usability(3) Excellent high speed weldabilityMX-200 can be used in automatic welding as wellas semi-automatic welding. Figure 4 shows anexample of an automatic welding process in whicha portable fillet-welding carriage and MX-200 areused in fillet welding of longitudinal componentsin 4: Fillet welding of longitudinal components by using aportable fillet welding carriage and MX-200 in shipbuilding(Photo courtesy of Tuneishi Shipyard, Japan).Kobe Steel is sure MX-200 will provide you withefficient fillet welding at higher welding speedsand with increased mechanization in your 2: Bead appearance and cross-sectional macrograph of a fillet weld(MX-200, , 280Amp., 28-32volt, 50cm/min.) 0; PP $ $ :HOGLQJ VSHHG FP PLQ /HJ OHQJWK RI KRUL]RQWDO ILOOHW ZHOG PP KOBELCO WELDING TODAY7PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTMX-100, the prototype of metal flux-cored wire,offers a softer arc, lower spatter, higher depositionrates, less slag, and of MX-100MX-100 was developed in 1985 as a metal flux-cored wire for CO2 shielded butt and fillet weldingin the flat and horizontal positions. With its highdeposition rate, low spatter and less slag, thisdevelopment greatly improved the welding perfor-mance in semi-automatic, automatic and roboticwelding of steel structures, industrial machineryand construction featuresWith the unique metal-rich cored flux, MX-100 ischaracterized by the following outstanding perfor-mance.(1) HIGH DEPOSITION RATE: 10-30% higherwhen compared with solid wire (Figure 1),which is beneficial to increase the weldingspeed and thus reduce the total welding cost assuch.(2) LOW SPATTER EMISSION: about one-halfas low as that with solid wire (Figure 2) due tobetter arc stability and softer arc, therebyreducing postweld cleaning work on theweldments and the nozzle of the welding torch.(3) LOW SLAG GENERATION: comparable tothat with solid wire, which enables continuousmultipass welding without removing slag oneach pass in thick plates of up to 1: A comparison between MX-100 and conventionalsolid wire on deposition 2: A comparison of amounts of spatter deposited onthe welding nozzle in robotic welding of one connection core(16t 350 sq. mm).(4) CONSISTENT CHEMICAL AND MECHAN-ICAL PROPERTIES: suitable for mild steeland 490MPa high tensile strength steel (Table1).0; $:6 $ ( 7 &MX-100 is an epoch-making metal flux-cored wire suitable for steel structures, industrial machinery and con-struction 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of MX-100 weld metal tested per AWS metalMX-100AWS OS (MPa)510400 (MPa)580490 (%)3022 (J) 18 C: 5027 gasCO2CO2PolarityDCEPDCEP 'HSRVLWLRQ UDWH J PLQ 0; &RQY VROLG ZLUH:HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS 'LD PP([W PP'LD PP([W PP'LD PP([W PP&RQY VROLG ZLUH PP 0; PP 7KH DPRXQW RI VSDWWHU GHSRVLWHGRQ WKH ZHOGLQJ QR]]OH J QR]]OH KOBELCO WELDING TODAY8PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTMX-A100, a highly efficient metal-cored wire, offershigh deposition rates and low spatter emissions ingas metal arc welding with an Ar-CO2 gas mixtureshield in the flat and horizontal positions. Typicalapplications are butt and fillet welding of mild steeland 490 MPa high tensile strength steel in indus-trial machinery and chemical engineering machin-ery. Fundamental propertiesThe AWS classification for MX-A100 is E70C-6M as per (Specification for Carbon SteelElectrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Weld-ing). This metal cored wire is intended for bothsingle- and multiple-pass applications. It is charac-terized by a spray arc and excellent bead washcharacteristics. The second designator 70 indicatesthe minimum tensile strength (70,000 psi or 483MPa) of the weld metal tested according to specification. The third designator C standsfor composite (including metal cored) wire. Thesuffix 6 indicates the chemical composition of theweld metal produced by the wire. The final suffixM indicates the type of shielding gas (75-80%Ar/balance CO2) used for classification of the wire. MX-A100 is also classified as EN ISO 17632-A-T42 4 M M 3 H5 in accordance with the EuropeanStandard EN ISO 17632 (Tubular Cored Elec-trodes for Gas Shielded and Non-Gas ShieldedMetal Arc Welding of Non-Alloyed and Fine-Grain Steels). T designates tubular cored elec-trodes, 42 is the code number associated with thetensile properties of the weld metal. The next 4 is also the code number related to the weld metalimpact toughness. The first M indicates the typeof cored flux: metal powder. The second M des-ignates the type of shielding gas suitable for thewire: gas mixture. 3 is the code number for theproper welding positions: flat butt, flat fillet andhorizontal fillet. H5 designates the maximumdiffusible hydrogen content of the weld metal: 5ml/100g. Table 1 shows the typical chemical compositionand mechanical properties of MX-A100 weldmetal tested in accordance with the AWS productivity weldingMX-A100 runs with a stable and low spatter slag produced is of a very low level, similar tothat from a solid wire, and thus inter-run slagremoval is not necessary. Combined with a highlyreliable arc start, these characteristics make MX-A100 an ideal choice for robotic or mechanizedwelding. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, this wire offers awide range of welding currents and high deposi-tion rates, providing high welding 1: Recommended welding parameter 2: Deposition rates as a function of welding ; $ $:6 $ ( & 0Table 1: Typical chemical composition and mechanical prop-erties of MX-A100 weld metal with 80%Ar+20%CO2C%Si%Mn%P%S% OS (MPa)TS(MPa)El(%)IV (J) 45055033 40 C: 71 PP PP PP :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS $UF YROWDJH 9ROW :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS PP PP PP ([W PP ([W PP ([W PP 'HSRVLWLRQ UDWH NJ KU KOBELCO WELDING TODAY9PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTThe high performance metal cored wire MX-100T isan excellent choice for all-position welding of thinsections of mild steel and 490 MPa high tensilestrength steel. It can use either a CO2 gas or anAr+CO2 gas mixture for shielding. No more burn-through with a wide tolerance of welding currentsand resistant to burn-throughBurn-through, which results in a discontinuity inweldments, is caused when the current is too highand welding speed too slow. In burn-through, amolten metal drops to the opposite side of thegroove through the root of the welding joint. Burn-through is a common problem in sheet metal weld-ing. In general, to solve this problem, the weldermay have to use smaller-size wires with lowerwelding currents and higher welding speeds. How-ever, higher welding speeds tend to cause an irreg-ular weld profile. By contrast, as shown in Figure1, MX-100T allows to use higher welding currentsor slower welding speeds than solid wires do,thereby resulting in superior weld bead appearancewithout burn-through. Figure 1: A comparison between MX-100T and solid wires onthe welding current and speed limits in terms of burn-through. Wider toleration of welding currentsMX-100T offers excellent arc stability at the lowerwelding currents (50-150A) needed for weldingsheet metals ( mm) by using the short-circuiting droplet transfer mode. MX-100T canalso use higher welding currents, covering a widerange of welding currents as shown in Figure 2: MX-100T features a wide welding parameter rangecovering those of and diameter solid bead profilesMX-100T offers smooth, regular bead profileswithout undercut and overlap in all-position weld-ing as shown in Figures 3 and 3: An MX-100T ( ) lap fillet weld made on 2-mm thick steel sheets in horizontal welding (80 Amp.)In addition to sheetmetal welding in theauto, railroad vehi-cle and electricalappliance industries,MX-100T providessuperior weld pro-files in the one-sideroot pass welding ofpipe joints fixed inthe horizontal ; 7$:6 $ ( & & 0 6ROLG ZLUH PP %XUQ WKURXJK1R EXUQ WKURXJK0; 7 PP 6ROLG ZLUH PP :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $ :HOGLQJ VSHHG P PLQ 6ROLG ZLUH (5 6 PP 6ROLG ZLUH (5 6 PP 0; 7 PP :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $ $UF YROWDJH 9 Figure 4: An MX-100T ( ) weld made on a 2-mm thick fillet joint in vertical downward weld-ing with an 80 amp current. KOBELCO WELDING TODAY10PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTMG-51T: solid wire for gas metal arc welding inautos, motorcycles, containers and other sheetmetal products. MG-51T uses either a CO2 or anAr+CO2 gas mixture shield in all position short-circuiting at low currentsSteady short-circuiting at low currents is the mostvaluable feature of MG-51T. If a general solid wireis used at low currents it may generate much spat-ter, undercut and irregular bead appearance due tounsteady short-circuiting in the molten metal trans-fer. In contrast, MG-51T offers low spatter andundercut generation with uniform bead appearancebecause of stable short-circuiting transfer of mol-ten droplets between the tip of the wire and themolten pool. This outstanding feature is derivedfrom the sophisticated design of chemical compo-sition and consistent quality surface of to create steady short-circuitingSelection of proper welding current and arc volt-age is essential for creating a steady shortcircuiting arc, thereby facilitating all-positionwelding with MG-51T Figure 1: Proper ranges of welding currents and arc voltagesfor MG-51T ( and ).How to adjust weld penetrationIt is important to control weld penetration in weld-ing sheet metals, because burn-through (excessivemelt-through) often results in damaged an excessive root opening and joint mis-alignment can also cause burn-through, an exces-sive welding current is more often the case. Figure2 shows how to control weld penetration in rela-tion to welding 2: Weld penetration of MG-51T as a function of weld-ing current with a short circuiting wire-feeding andseam-tracking for higher welding efficiencyThe smooth surface and consistent cast and helixof MG-51T wire provides steady wire-feedingthrough conduit liners and contact tips and enablesexact seam-tracking along welding lines. This per-formance is good for decreasing downtime toimprove welding efficiency in semi-automatic andautomatic welding. Due to such benefits, MG-51Thas seen the market expanded in the auto, motorcy-cle, container and other sheet metal * 7$:6 $ (5 6 100 200 30040302010 0Welding current (A)Arc voltage (V)654321050 100 150 200 250 300 350Welding current (A)Weld penetration (mm) Weld beadWeld penetrationBase metalMG-51T is one of themost popular solid wiresin the motorcycle indus-try. KOBELCO WELDING TODAY11PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTMG-51T shines in auto parts fabricationTypical applications in auto parts for MG-51T are frame assembly, lower and upper arm, axle beam, axlehousing, torque converter, impact beam, bumper reinforcement, suspension member (cross member),instrument panel reinforcement, and seat frame, as included in Figure 4: Varieties of auto parts where gas metal arc welding is applied.(MG-51T is used for welding parts of mild steel and 490 MPa high tensile strength steel) Suspension memberSeat railSeat frameAxle housingRear suspension Steering rodInstrument panelreinforcementRadiatorBumperLower armFront suspensionTrailing armFrameassembly Torque converterAxle beamWheel ExhaustsystemMuffler systemManifold systemArm KOBELCO WELDING TODAY12PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTRB-26 is the traditional and advanced covered elec-trode for all-position welding (including verticaldownward position) of mild steel sheets. Inception of RB-26RB-26 is a high titania type covered electrode forwelding mild steel. It was developed in 1951. TheR in RB stands for rutile, which is the majoringredient in the coating flux, while B symbol-izes a slag-shield covered electrode. 26 repre-sents the 26th year of the Showa era of Japan,corresponding to 1951 when it was RB-26 old-fashioned?You may believe that RB-26 is old-fashioned dueto its inception. RB-26, however, is commonlyused worldwide for welding light sheet metals andlight-gauge formed steel in light-duty steel struc-tures, and for surfacing thick-section welds toimprove rough surfaces (the surface dressing tech-nique). The consumption of RB-26 differs countryby country. In Southeast Asia and the Middle East,RB-26 is one of the most commonly used, contem-porary electrodes. RB-26 is superior to other E6013 electrodes on performanceRB-26 persistently earns a good reputation amongusers due to the following outstanding features inout-of-position welding including the vertical-down position: (1) Smoother arc transfer (2) Less spatter(3) Self-peeling slag removal (Figure 1)(4) Smoother bead surfaces with fine ripples (5) Excellent fusion with base metals provides alonger bead per one electrode advantageousin welding sheet metals(6) Consistent chemical composition and mechani-cal properties (Table 1)Figure 1: Convenient self-peeling slag removal with RB-26assures a glossy bead appearance without postweld RB-26 is of internationalKobe Steel has established a worldwide productionand sales network in order to assure quicker deliv-ery and technical services matching local demandsfor RB-26. This electrode is now mainly producedby Thai-Kobe Welding Co., Ltd. in Thailand inaccordance with the Kobe Steel quality standard,and is sold not only in the Thai domestic market,but also exported to other countries includingSaudi Arabia, Vietnam, and Singapore. RB-26,among all the various brands classified as E6013,has persistently earned high reputation for thequality, delivery and technical service in theseinternational to quality and customer satisfactionThe high quality of RB-26 produced in both Japanand overseas is approved and certified by the shipclassification societies of Nippon Kaiji Kyokai(NK), American Bureau of Shipping (AB) andLloyd's Resister of Shipping (LR) Table approvals and certificates will be reliable tousers on the quality of RB-26. 5% $:6 $ ( Table 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of RB-26 weld metal tested per AWS (MPa)TS (MPa)El (%)45051025Table 2: Ship classification approvals for RB-26ABLRNK22mKMW2 KOBELCO WELDING TODAY13PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTFurther, the emphasis on quality pervades the fac-tories in Japan and overseas with nearly all ofour employees involved in quality control ensure RB-26 is defect-free, we inspect it pieceby piece (Figure 2) and lot by lot of production byusing Kobe Steel s proprietary inspection pro-cesses and procedures (Figure 3).Figure 2: To ensure the appearance quality of RB-26, elec-trodes are inspected piece by piece in accordance with KobeSteel s standard (at Thai-Kobe Welding).Figure 3: In order to ensure the quality of RB-26, the dimen-sions of the electrodes are inspected lot by lot by using KobeSteel's proprietary inspection procedures (at Thai-Kobe Weld-ing).In 1999, Thai-Kobe Welding became the firstwelding consumables manufacturer in Thailand toachieve JQA ISO 9002 certification for customersatisfaction. Further the latest precise inspectionequipment (Figure 4) has strengthened the qualitycontrol activities to maintain the traditional 4: Computerized system strengthens quality controlactivities (at Thai-Kobe Welding). To ensure customer satisfaction, the marketingstaffs work closely with customers and end users,providing technical services that include trainingin welding techniques. Unsurpassed quality of RB-26 and customer satisfaction remain our new in the traditionalSince its inception, RB-26 has seen its featuresrefined and its markets expanded. Kobe Steel pur-sues keen quality control in order to maintain theoutstanding features of RB-26 produced in Japanand overseas. RB-26 is a traditional covered elec-trode, but, at the same time, highly advanced inthat the quality of RB-26 has been maintainedthrough advanced research and production engi-neering. Kobe Steel hopes RB-26 will be an indis-pensable electrode for your tanks with a thin section are often fabricated with RB-26 in Thailand. KOBELCO WELDING TODAY14PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTLB-52U (E7016) is an unsurpassed covered elec-trode for melt-through root-pass welding, or one-sided root pass welding with penetration LB-52U your welding will be easier andfaster, and you will have confidence in the qualityof your welds in any kind of pipe welding of mildsteel and 490MPa high tensile strength here are the characteristics that havemade LB-52U the best for one-sided pipe welding.(1) EXCELLENT USABILITY IN ALL-POSI-TION WELDINGLB-52U features a very stable arc and low spatterover a wide range of welding currents. In particu-lar, it really shines in the melt-through root-passwelding of horizontally fixed pipes due to thesmooth, glossy penetration beads that protrude onthe reverse side of the groove (Figure 1) and thewider tolerance of the root opening an advan-tage in site welding. Figure 1: The surface and macrosectional profiles of a pene-tration bead protruding on the reverse side of a single-V-groove weld.(2) SUPERIOR CRACK RESISTANCE ANDMECHANICAL PROPERTIESLB-52U offers superior crack resistibility due to alower amount of diffusible hydrogen in the weldmetal. In addition, it excels in mechanical proper-ties, particularly in impact strength at low tempera-tures (Table 1). Therefore, it can be used for low-temperature applications as well as moderate high-temperature applications. (3) FIELD-PROVEN ELECTRODE IN WORLD-WIDE MARKETSThe outstanding usability of LB-52U in the melt-through root-pass welding of pipe joints has satis-fied users around the world. LB-52U has been pop-ular for a variety of piping jobs across Russia, Asiaand the pacific region. Particularly in Russia, LB-52U, with its extraordinary reliability, has made agreat contribution to the construction of long, oiland gas pipelines in freezing weather. Since 1982,more than 33,000 metric tons of LB-52U havebeen consumed in the construction of the Russianpipelines (Figure 2).Figure 2: A pipeline-welding site in Russia where LB-52U isused for joining the girth joints in freezing weather. Excels in Melt-Through Root-Pass Welding Excels in Melt-Through Root-Pass Welding/% 8$:6 $ ( Table 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of LB-52U weld metalC%Si%Mn%P%S% OS (MPa)TS(MPa)EL(%)IV(J)[H]d*1(ml/100g)480 56031 29 C: Diffusible hydrogen in the weld metal made in the welding atmo-sphere of 21 C 10%RH (Gas-chromatographic method) KOBELCO WELDING TODAY15PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTLB-52-18 is a low-hydrogen electrode with a highdeposition rate for mild steel and 490 MPa hightensile steel. It is an excellent choice for a variety of LB-52-18LB-52-18 was developed around 1962. L standsfor low hydrogen, while B symbolizes a slag-shielding covered electrode. 52 refers to the typ-ical tensile strength of deposited metal at the timethe electrode was developed. 1 shows that it canbe used in all positions, while 8 is the designa-tion for iron powder, low hydrogen as in theAWS E7018 deposition rateThe deposition rate is the weight of metal depos-ited per unit of time. Typical deposition rates ofLB-52-18 and an ordinary E7016 electrode, as afunction of welding current, are shown in Figure the deposition rates are dependent onwelding current, and LB-52-18 provides approxi-mately 20% higher deposition rates when com-pared with the conventional E7016 1: A comparison between LB-52-18 and conventionalE7016 electrode in terms of deposition deposition rate is an important variable inwelding economics. A higher deposition rate nec-essarily results in a faster welding speed or shortertime for welding a certain mass of groove. Shorterwelding time can reduce labor costs. LB-52-18,therefore, can provide savings by up to 20% overordinary E7016 electrodes when the costs formaterial and overhead are kept featuresThe features that help LB-52-18 stand apart fromordinary E7018 electrodes are:(1) Superior welding performance with eitherDCEP or AC currents(2) Superior mechanical properties with consistenttensile strength and high impact toughness(Table 1)(3) Superior crack resistibilityHighly reputed for 45 yearsSince it was launched, LB-52-18 has seen its fea-tures refined and its markets expanded. Kobe Steelpursues keen quality control in order to maintainthe excellency of LB-52-18 produced in Japan andoverseas. The maintenance of quality is an impor-tant factor in the high reputation LB-52-18 has per-sistently earned in such diverse fields asmachinery, steel structures, bridge constructionand high deposition rate with LB-52-18 is variable for themaintenance welding of heavy-duty machinery in $:6 $ ( /% ( :HOGLQJ FXUUHQW $PS 'HSRVLWLRQ UDWH J PLQ Table 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of LB-52-18 weld metal tested per AWS OS (MPa)TS (MPa)El (%)IV (J)PWHT( C x h)50056031 29 C: 110As weld42052032 29 C: 140620x1 KOBELCO WELDING TODAY16PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTThe low-hydrogen type electrode for both mildsteel and 490 MPa high tensile strength steel suitedfor almost limitless of LB-52LB-52 was developed around 1958. L stands forlow hydrogen, while B symbolizes a slag-shield-ing covered electrode. 52 refers to the level ofapproximate tensile strength of the deposited metalwhen it was developed. Outstanding featuresThe outstanding features of LB-52 among otherE7016 electrodes are:(1) Excellent usability in out-of-position weldingwith better arc concentration, easier slagremoval and smoother bead appearance(2) Excellent mechanical properties with consis-tent tensile strength and high impact toughness (3) Excellent X-ray soundnessFigure 1: Charpy impact energy transition curves of LB-52weld metals in the as-welded and postweld heat treated 1 shows the Charpy impact energy transi-tion curves of LB-52 weld metals tested with2mm-V-notch specimens at a wide range of tem-peratures. Due to high impact toughness in both as-welded and postweld heat treated conditions, LB-52 is used for low-temperature applications downto 20 C, in addition to room temperature and ele-vated temperature applications. Table 1 shows thetypical chemical and mechanical properties of LB-52 weld metal tested in accordance with reputed for 50 yearsSince it was launched, LB-52 has seen its featuresrefined and its markets expanded. Kobe Steel pur-sues keen quality control in order to maintain theoutstanding features of LB-52 produced in Japanand overseas. The maintenance of quality is animportant factor in persistently earning a high rep-utation for LB-52 in almost limitless applicationsin such various fields as pressure vessels, storagetanks, pipelines, machinery, offshore structures,ships, bridges, and steel structures. Kobe Steel issure LB-52 will be a reliable electrode for shines in such applications as structures, pipes andvessels in the construction of chemical plants and oil $:6 $ ( $EVRUEHG HQHUJ\ - 7HVW WHPSHUDWXUH & $V ZHOG & [ K 65Table 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of LB-52weld metal tested in accordance with AWS OS (MPa)TS(MPa)El(%)IV(J)PWHT( C x h)50057032 29 C:120As weld42052033 29 C:150620 x 1 KOBELCO WELDING TODAY17PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTB-14 is a versatile ilmenite type covered electrodefor mild steel, offering unsurpassed usability andweldability in all-position butt and fillet welding andin welding sheet metals and medium-thick (up to 20mm) history of ilmenite type electrodesKobe Steel developed, in 1942, an epoch-makingilmenite type covered electrode: B-17, whichused ilmenite (a composition of iron oxide and tita-nium oxide) as the raw material for the major partof the coating flux. After a period of years, KobeSteel developed other ilmenite type covered elec-trodes, B-10 and B-14, so as to satisfy the require-ments of a variety of users. The consumption of ilmenite type covered elec-trodes increased sharply, particularly in the ship-building industry (Figure 1) as the construction ofships increased through the 1960s and 1970s. Theannual production of ilmenite type covered elec-trodes in Japan increased year by year up to132,000 MT in 1973, comprising a major portionof the market for mild steel covered 1: Ilmenite type electrodes shined in shipbuildingthroughout the 1960s and 1970s due to excellent usabilityand , starting in 1975, right after the first glo-bal oil crisis, ship construction began to dry up,after which the consumption of covered electrodes,including the ilmenite type, rapidly then this trend has accelerated, with coveredelectrodes being superseded by gas metal arc weld-ing wires in order to save welding the consumption ratio of ilmenite type coveredelectrodes was kept high until recent years. In1995, the annual production of ilmenite type cov-ered electrodes was approximately 17,000 MT,which was approximately 30% of all 56,000 MT ofmild steel covered electrode produced in type covered electrodes classified asD4301 in the JIS standard have been also classifiedas E6019 (iron oxide, titania potassium type) in theAWS standard since 1991. This standardizationper AWS is due to Kobe Steel s active work in theJapan Welding Engineering Society and the Amer-ican Welding Society. Nowadays, ilmenite type covered electrodes areused for welding general steel structures, pipes,and ships in Japan and overseas. Among theseilmenite type covered electrodes B-14 is one of theleading brands, which is produced by Kobe Steeland overseas subsidiary companies: TKW in Thai-land, KWS in Singapore, and INTIWI in characteristics highlight B-14Compared with conventional E6013 electrodes, B-14 features the following characteristics.(1) Suitable for welding heavy-duty structures dueto superior X-ray soundness, higher ductility,higher notch toughness (Figure 2), deeper pen-etration (Figure 3), and consistent tensile prop-erties (Table 1). (2) Suitable for welding thicker steel plates with athickness of up to about 20 mm due to superiorhot crack resistance.(3) Higher welding efficiency due to longer unitelectrode length and higher proper currents(Table 2).% $:6 $ ( KOBELCO WELDING TODAY18PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTFigure 2: Charpy impact test results of B-14 and conventionalE6013 weld 3: A comparison between B-14 and E6013 coveredelectrodes ( mm ,175 A) in fillet weld penetration; P1, P2,and P3 show sizes of for better weld results with B-14The electrode s performance depends greatly onhow it is used. In order to get the better weldingresults, the following key points should be noted.(1) Use B-14 with welding currents within theproper ranges, because excessive welding cur-rents may degrade X-ray soundness, increasespatter, and cause undercut and irregular beadappearance.(2) Redry B-14 at 70-100 C for 30-60 minutes, ifthe electrode picked up excessive is because excessive moisture in the coat-ing may degrade electrode s usability andcause the occurrence of pits in the weld metal.(3) Avoid excessively high temperatures and longtime in redrying B-14, because the excessiveredrying may damage the coating, causing lesspenetration, poor X-ray soundness, and elec-trode burn.(4) Because B-14 is a non-low-hydrogen type elec-trode, medium to thick mild steel work shouldbe preheated at an appropriated temperatureand kept during welding at a proper interpasstemperature. 120100 80 60 40 20 0-40 -20 0 +20B-14E6013Testing temperature ( C)Absorbed impact energy (J)Table 1: Typical mechanical properties of B-14 weld metaltested in accordance with AWS (MPa)TS (MPa)El (%)IV (J)41046032 18 C: 82Table 2: A comparison between B-14 and E6013 coveredelectrodes on unit length and proper welding current rangesTrade (mm ) unit length (mm)400450450Proper welding current in flat position (Amp.)85-140130-190180-260Conv. E6013Electrode unit length (mm)350400400Proper welding current in flat position (Amp.)60-125105-170150-220 KOBELCO WELDING TODAY19PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTTG-S50 is a versatile TIG welding solid wire withexcellent usability and mechanical properties usedfor mild steel, 490 MPa high tensile strength steeland low-temperature Al-killed steel. Users will alsofind the mechanical properties approved by the shipclassification societies to be characteristicsTG-S50 is a solid wire designed specifically forTIG welding. It is classified as AWS As seen in the classification the mini-mum tensile strength of the deposited metal is 70kilo-pound per square inch or 480 MPa. TG-S50uses the DCEN (DC Electrode Negative) polarityand pure argon gas for qualities(1) TG-S50 offers less slag generation and betterfusion in the root pass welding of pipes in allpositions, providing very smooth penetrationbeads with regular weld ripples. This usabilityis advantageous in the welding of process pipes(Figure 1) where stricter X-ray soundness 1: TG-S50 is very advantageous in the root pass weld-ing of the process piping in all positions due to unsurpassedusability.(2) TG-S50 offers consistent tensile strength inboth as-welded and PWHT (postweld heattreatment) conditions. TG-S50 weld metal fea-tures high tensile strengths even after long-hour PWHT as shown in Figure 2. This is whyTG-S50 is suitable for multi-pass welding ofpressure components with thick sections byusing a mechanized welding 2: Typical tensile strength of TG-S50 weld metal as afunction of PWHT conditions.(3) TG-S50 provides a quite high level of absorbedenergy in Charpy impact tests over a range oftesting temperatures as shown in Figure 3. Thisis why TG-S50 is also used for low-tempera-ture applications at down to 40 3: Charpy impact test results of TG-S50 weld metal inas-welded and PWHT * 6 $:6 $ (5 6 *600550500450As W eld625 Cx1hr625 Cx4hr625 Cx8hrTensile Strength (MPa)Postweld heat treatment$V ZHOG & K3:+7 7HVWLQJ WHPSHUDWXUH & $EVRUEHG HQHUJ\ - KOBELCO WELDING TODAY20PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTTG-S51T resembles TG-S50 in terms of applicationsof mild steel, 490 MPa high tensile strength steel,and Al-killed steel for low temperature services butis superior in tensile strength under extendedpostweld heat treatment propertiesTG-S51T is classified as ER70S-6 in accordancewith AWS (Specification for Carbon SteelElectrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Weld-ing). The typical chemical composition of the wireand the typical mechanical properties of the weldmetal are shown in Table 1 with the AWS for extended PWHT applicationsThe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processmay partly be used ( for root pass welding) onthick-wall work such as pressure vessels and pro-cess pipes that are subject to postweld heat treat-ment (PWHT), although the major part of thewelding joints in such equipment are welded gen-erally by more efficient processes such as shieldedmetal arc welding (SMAW), submerged arc weld-ing (SAW), and gas metal arc welding (GMAW).In addition, the pipe-to-nozzle joints on a thick,large pressure vessel may be welded by a mecha-nized GTAW for better quality and efficiency. Inthese cases, the PWHT may have to be conductedfor long hours according to the thickness of thework: 4 hours for 100-mm thick work. Whenthe work is too big to conduct PWHT at one timein a particular furnace, the PWHT should necessar-ily be conducted several times thus the totalPWHT hours for some weld joints may be 8 to 16depending on the number of PWHT times. This iswhy the GTAW weld metal may also be requiredto satisfy the mechanical properties after long-hourPWHT. Table 2 shows the typical mechanical properties ofTG-S51T weld metal after long-hour PWHT. Fig-ure 1 illustrates the effects of PWHT temperparameter on offset strength and tensilestrength. Clearly, TG-S51T weld metal can satisfy490 MPa under an extended PWHT 1: Tensile strength and offset strength of TG-S51T weld metal as a function of temper parameter (T: PWHTtemperature by Kelvin; t: PWHT hours).Table 1 Typical chemical and mechanical properties of TG-S51T in comparison with the AWS requirements*11. Chemical compositions are for solid wire, and mechanical proper-ties are for weld metal in the as-welded condition. Other chemical elements are specified Ni, Cr, Mo: max. each; V: max. Cu% includes that of wireTG-S51TAWS OS (MPa)510400 (MPa)610480 (%)3222 (J) 29 C: 21027 * 6 7$:6 $ (5 6 Table 2: Typical mechanical properties of TG-S51T weld metal after long-hour PWHTPWHT( C h) OS (MPa)TS(MPa)El(%)IV (J)at 30 C625 844056034170625 2442055035160 3 7 ORJ W 26 DQG 76 03D $V ZHOG7HQVLOH VWUHQJWK RIIVHW VWUHQJWK & K & K KOBELCO WELDING TODAY21PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTThe NO65G filler wire is the best choice when theAWS ER70S-2 classification is a must for your weld-ing procedures for the root pass welding of pipejoints in characteristicsNO65G is a TIG welding solid wire suitable formild steel and 490 MPa high tensile strength classification, ER70S-2, contains the follow-ing useful information. The number 70 indicatesthe required minimum tensile strength as a multi-ple of 1000 psi (70,000 psi = 480 MPa) of the weldmetal made using the wire in accordance with thewelding conditions specified in AWS Theletter S designates a solid wire. The suffix 2 indi-cates the chemical composition of the wire. As shown in Table 1, NO65G contains smallamounts of such deoxidizers as Al (aluminum), Ti(titanium) and Zr (zirconium) in addition to thecommon elements of C (carbon), Si (silicon) andMn (manganese). Due to the added deoxidizers,NO65G can be more resistant against the rustformed on the surfaces of the welding groove. Therust should be removed as much as possible beforewelding to get better points in TIG welding of pipes(1) Use proper welding currents for each diameterof the wire: 60-90A for mm , 80-110A mm , and 100-130A for mm .(2) Use proper flow rates of pure argon gas fortorch shielding: 8-15 liter/min. when there isno apparent ambient wind. No back shieldingis needed in root pass welding with the pene-tration beads, unless otherwise specified.(3) Remove such dirt attached on the surfaces ofthe groove as mill scale, rust, oil and grease,because it can cause porosity in the weldmetal. (4) Control the weld penetration in the root of thegroove by controlling the arc exposure spot orthe torch placement and the torch oscillationwidth as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Penetration (top) relates to the torch placement(middle) and the torch oscillation width (bottom), respectively.(5) The weld crater should be terminated on thegroove face to prevent the occurrence of a cra-ter crack (Figure 2). Figure 2: Proper crater treatment to prevent a crater 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties ofNO65G tested in accordance with AWS *11. Chemical compositions are for solid wire, and mechanical proper-ties are for weld metal. Copper includes that of Cu-coating. Electric polarity is DCEN. Shielding gas is pure Ar (MPa)TS(MPa)El(%)IV(J)PWHT( C h)56062028 29 C: 200As weld52060030 29 C: 160625 812 *$:6 $ (5 6 PenetrationA: ExcessiveB: ProperC: InadequateTorchplacementA: Too muchforw ardB: ProperC: Too muchbackwardTorchoscillationA: ToonarrowB: ProperA: ToowideRoot pass welding directionChange the welding modeto crater treatmentTurn the crater onto the groove faceto terminate KOBELCO WELDING TODAY22PRODUCTS SPOTLIGHTMF-38/US-36 is a versatile filler metal combinationof fused flux and solid wire for submerged arc weld-ing (SAW) of butt and fillet joints in ships, industrialmachinery, vessels, steel frames, and propertiesMF-38 is a fused type flux classified as F7A6-EH14 and F7P6-EH14 when combined with US-36 solid wire classified as EH-14 in accordancewith AWS (Specification for Carbon SteelElectrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Weld-ing). According to the classification system eachdesignator is given for the particular informationas follows: F for virgin flux, 7 for the mini-mum tensile strength of weld metal (70,000 psi or480 MPa), A for as-welded condition, P forpostweld heat treated condition, 6 for the Charpyimpact testing temperature of 60 F ( 51 C), E for electrode, H for high manganese content, and 14 for the nominal carbon content of wire( ). Table 1 shows the typical chemical andmechanical properties of MF-38/US-36 tested asper AWS featuresMF-38/US-36 is more resistible to the rust and dirtof the base metal and thus offers excellent porosityresistance and X-ray soundness. The mechanicalproperties of multiple pass welds are consistentwith approvals of ship classification societies asshown in Table 2. Figure 1 shows typical Charpyimpact test results of the multi-pass weld 1: Consistent results in Charpy impact testing of MF-38/US-36 multi-pass weld metal (Welding current: AC).Tips for successful welding results(1) MF-38 has varieties of flux mesh sizes: 12 65,20 200, and 20 D. The proper flux size shouldbe selected according to welding current to beused for better usability. In general, coarse par-ticle flux uses lower currents and fine particleflux is suitable for higher currents: 12 65 for600A max., 20 200 for 600-1000A, and 20 Dfor 800A or higher. The most appropriate sizeof US-36 should be selected from among , , , , , , and according tothe thickness of the work and welding currentto be used.(2) MF-38 is a fused flux with glassy appearanceand thus is more resistible to moisture pick , the flux should be redried before useby 150-350 C for 60 minutes to remove depos-ited moisture on the surfaces of the flux parti-cles, thereby preventing welding 1: Typical chemical and mechanical properties of MF-38/US-36 tested in accordance with AWS *11. Welding current: ACWireC%Si%Mn%P%S%Cu% metalC%Si%Mn%P%S%Cu% OS (MPa)TS (MPa)El(%)IV(J)PWHT( C h)49057030 51 C: 59As weld42053031 51 C: 64620 10) 86 $:6 $ ) $ (+ ) 3 (+ Table 2: Approvals of ship classification societies*11. AB: American Bureau of Shipping; LR: Lloyd's Register of Ship-ping; NV: Det Norske Veritas; BV: Bureau Veritas; NK: Nippon Kaiji Kyokai; GL: Germanischer Lloyd; CR: Central Research of Ships ; KR: Korean Register of ,2YT3M,3YM2T,2YT3YMIIYT(IIIYM)A2,2YTA3,3 YMKAW52TKAW53MGL,CRKR$V ZHOG & K 65 $EVRUEHG HQHUJ\ - 7HVW WHPSHUDWXUH & THE WORLDWIDE MANUFACTURERGLOBAL MANUFACTURING AND SALES BASESASIAASIAJAPAN:KOBE STEEL, LTD., Welding BusinessMarketing Dept., International Sales & Marketing (81) 3 5739 6331 Fax. (81) 3 5739 6960KOREA:KOBE WELDING OF KOREA CO., (82) 55 292 6886 Fax. (82) 55 292 7786KOBELCO WELDING MARKETING OF KOREA CO., (82) 51 329 8950 to 8952 Fax. (82) 51 329 8949CHINA:KOBE WELDING OF SHANGHAI CO., (86) 21 6191 7850 Fax. (86) 21 6191 7851KOBE WELDING OF TANGSHAN CO., (86) 315 385 2806 Fax. (86) 315 385 2829KOBE WELDING OF QINGDAO CO., (86) 532 8098 5005 Fax. (86) 532 8098 5008SINGAPORE:KOBELCO WELDING ASIA PACIFIC PTE. (65) 6268 2711 Fax. (65) 6264 1751USA:KOBELCO WELDING OF AMERICA (1) 281 240 5600 Fax. (1) 281 240 5625NETHERLANDS:KOBELCO WELDING OF EUROPE (31) 45 547 1111 Fax. (31) 45 547 1100THAILAND:THAI-KOBE WELDING CO., (66) 2 636 8650 to 8652 Fax. (66) 2 636 8653KOBE MIG WIRE (THAILAND) CO., (66) 2 324 0588 to 0591 Fax. (66) 2 324 0797MALAYSIA:KOBE WELDING (MALAYSIA) SDN. (60) 4 3905792 Fax. (60) 4 3905827 INTAN PERTIWI INDUSTRI(Technically Collaborated Company)Tel. (62) 21 639 2608 Fax. (62) 21 649 6081INDIA:KOBELCO WELDING INDIA PVT. (91) 124 4010063 Fax. (91) 124 4010068EUROPEAMERICA

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