25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 6 4. PROCESSING CONDITIONS Operation Procedure Pre-dry the base plastic at manufacturer’s recommended conditions.
Text of Joncryl ADR-4368C TDS - BASF USA - Home
JONCRYL ADR-4368C Key Features & Benefits Increases melt strength for biodegradeable plastics Upgrades virgin and recycled PET Stabilizes Faster production rates in extrusion and polymerization JONCRYL ADR-4368-C (FLAKE) JONCRYL ADR-4368-CS (POWDER) POLYMERIC CHAIN EXTENDER FORFOOD APPLICATIONS General Information Typical Physical Characteristics Appearance Solid flake and powderSpecific gravity, 25 C 6800Tg ( C) 54Non-volatile by GC (%) >99Epoxy equivalent weight (g/mol) 285 These typical values should not be interpreted as specifications 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 1 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 2 JONCRYL ADR-4368-C is a patented, multi-functional reactive polymer specifically formulated with reduced residual content for specific food applications in PLA and PET It is a polymeric chain extender that reacts to increase melt viscosity and (intrinsic viscosity). JONCRYL ADR-4368-C can be used during processing to increase the melt strength of PLA and polyesters. This is useful in extrusion applications such as film, sheet, foam and blow molding. It can also be used directly in the polymerization process. JONCRYL ADR-4368-C has clearance under FDA Food Contact Notifications 429 and 545. See BASF regulatory bulletin. JONCRYL ADR-4368-C has clearance under the European Economic Community s food contact rule, Commission Directive 2002/72/EC or Plastic Directive. JONCRYL ADR-4368-C contains glycidyl methacrylate GMA which is subject to a QMT of 5 mg/kg for the final product. For more detailed information on national level, please contact your BASF representative. 1. PRODUCT FORM Joncryl ADR-4368-C is a solid oligomeric chain extender. It is offered as a flake or a sugar size powder. Joncryl ADR-4368-C can also be melted and handled as a hot liquid. Form Particle Size 1/ Physical Characteristics Description Flake ADR-4368-C mm mean <2% (w/w) smaller than mm Efficient for dry blending with cold plastics pellets of flake, or for separate feed operations Sugar size ADR-4368-CS mean <10% (w/w) smaller than mm Recommended for dry-blending operations with cold or hot (post dryer) solid plastic. Requires proper dust handling equipment. Liquid 2, melted form of ADR-4368-C Temp C Viscosity Poise 100 18600 150 100 200 250 The liquid may be pumped directly into feed zone or downstream liquid port. 1. Particle size distribution may shift toward smaller particle sizes with handling due to the brittle nature of this additive. 2. Joncryl ADR-4368-C can be melted on-site to form a medium viscosity liquid in conventional steam or hot oil heated tanks. 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 3 2. RECOMMENDED DOSAGE FOR JONCRYL ADR-4368-C With deep understanding that every chain extension problem is unique, our Technical Service experts will help you define the right dosage for your specific system. The guide below may be used as a reference for typical ranges of dosage of Joncryl chain extenders. Plastic Application Recommended Dosage (% w/w) Fiber (staple & filament) to Injection/blow molding bottle to Sheet, tape & profile to Film & bottle blow molding to Strapping to Compatibilization PET/PA-nylon to Polyesters (PET) Foam to Injection Molding to Fibers to Profile extrusion to Sheet & film to Branching to Polyesters (PETG, PBT,PLA, others) Foam to Injection molding to Profile extrusion to Sheet, film & tape to Branching to Polyamides (nylon, PA 6 & 6,6, other) Compatibilization polyester/PA-nylon to Injection molding to Hydrolytic stabilization to Sheet & film to Polycarbonates (PC) Branching to Melt strength to Other condensation thermoplastics (TPU, POM) Stabilization to 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 4 3. METHODS OF DOSAGE Operation Procedure a) Flake or sugar size can be dry-blended with pre-dried and cold (<40 C) plastic pellets or flakes with the aid of low shear mixer such as tumble mixer or conical mixer. 1. Dry-blending b) All solid forms of Joncryl ADR-4368-C can be mixed with other materials in a high shear mixer such as a Henschell mixer below 50 C. Cold mixing may be aided with of Joncryl ADP-1200, acrylic plasticizer. a) Dry-blends prepared as in (1) can be volumetrically, gravimetrically or flood fed directly into the mixing zone of the extruder (see temperature recommendations in the Processing Conditions in Section 4.) b) Gravimetric feed metering systems can be used to feed any solid product form in a parallel stream with the plastic directly into the feeding zone of the extruder. Belt and disc feeders are particularly recommended for the flake form. Single Screw Feeders Clearance of 3 to 5 mm ( in) between the screw and the tube recommended. Twin-Screw Feeders Non-intermeshing spiral screw with 6 mm ( in) clearance between the screw and the tube recommended. Eliminate agglomeration at the throat or feed zone by maintaining tube temperature below 80 C. c) Volumetric Feeders: Well calibrated feeders with variation of less than are recommended. Clearance of 3 to 5 mm ( in) between the screw and tube is also required to reduce fines. Eliminate agglomeration at the throat or feed zone by maintaining tube temperature below 80 C. d) Side feed systems and other types of forced dosing extruders may be employed with all solid product forms, except for fine powder, to feed the products downstream. Residence time recommendations are given below in reference to downstream feeds. e) Direct gravimetric/volumetric addition of the chain extender in any form to the plastic melt may be carried out through any suitable downstream venting or degassing port. 2. Addition of Joncryl ADR-4368-C on a single-screw extruder, twin-screw extruder or kneader. f) With the aid of a melting tank, Joncryl ADR-4368-C becomes pumpable at temperatures about 120 - 140 C. Jacketed melt tank with stirrer and temperature control up 145 C with nitrogen purge recommended. Feed between 120 - 140 C. Use continuous and positive displacement pump. Close Vent Delivery: Use pump that can deliver pressure up to 2000 psi. Injection valve with variable pressure control to deliver the additive at pressure higher than in the extruder. Pressure gauges are recommended. 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 5 3. METHODS OF DOSAGE - Continued Operation Procedure a) Dry-blends prepared as in (1) can be volumetrically, gravimetrically or flood fed directly into the mixing zone of the injection molder (see temperature recommendations in the Operating Conditions in Section 4.) b) Flakes not recommended for direct addition to injection molding equipment. c) Volumetric Feeders: Well calibrated feeders with variation of less than are recommended. Clearance of 3 to 5 mm ( in) between the screw and tube is also required to reduce fines. Eliminate agglomeration at the throat or feed zone by maintaining temperature below 100 C for MB polymer carriers or 80 C for wax Addition during injection molding and combined injection-blow molding operations. d) With the aid of a melting tank, Joncryl ADR-4368-C becomes pumpable at temperatures about 120 - 140 C. Jacketed melt tank with stirrer and temperature control up 145 C with nitrogen purge recommended. Feed between 120 - 140 C. Use continuous and positive displacement pump. Close Vent Delivery: Use pump that can deliver pressure up to 2000 psi. Injection valve with variable pressure control to deliver the additive at pressure higher than in the extruder. Pressure gauges are recommended. a) Additions of Joncryl-ADR-4368-C directly into polymerization reactors are feasible for some systems. Prior to any work including the use of Joncryl ADR-4368-C in polymerization, we encourage you to discuss your system with our technical representatives. 4. Addition during polymerization and in other chemical reactors See our separate In Reactor Chain Extension Processing Guide. 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 6 4. PROCESSING CONDITIONS Operation Procedure Pre-dry the base plastic at manufacturer s recommended conditions. In some instances small amounts of Joncryl chain extenders can compensate for poor/incomplete drying, thus bringing robustness and savings to your operations. For example in polyesters, degradation brought about by 100 ppm of moisture can be compensated by % of Joncryl ADR-4368-C. Hygroscopicity: there is no evidence of bulk absorption of moisture over extended periods of time for ADR-4368-C. - At normal conditions of temperature and relative humidity ( 77 F and 50% RH) its surface reaches equilibrium saturation through adsorption at less than moisture. - At extreme conditions ( fine powder at 95 F and 100 % RH) its surface reaches equilibrium saturation at less than % of moisture. - This means that Joncryl ADR-4368-C can generally be processed without any drying, even after long exposure to drastic conditions bringing no more than 5 ppm moisture per every used. Pre-drying In systems where moisture sensitivity is extreme, Joncryl ADR-4368-C can be dried in a desiccant dryer at 30 C for 1 hour, prior to use. When feeding solid Joncryl ADR-4368-C into the 1st zone of the extruder or injection molder, we recommend to operate this zone at 20 C to 40 C lower temperature than normal. This will prevent early melting and agglomeration of the additive. Extruder/injection molder temperature profile All other zones should employ normal processing conditions as recommended by the plastic s manufacturer. Additive thermal stability Neat ADR-4368-C is thermally stable up to 300 C (< evolution in TGA @ 10 C/min in N2). Above this temperature additive decomposition may occur. PET compounded with 1% of ADR-4368-C showed identical thermal behavior as PET (TGA, 10 C/min. in N2). Therefore, melt temperature should not exceed 320 C. Joncryl ADR-4368-C reacts quickly. Its reaction will be over 99% complete if at least 120 sec residence time is provided at 200 C in a well mixed system. Alternatively, 30 sec residence time at 280 C will provide 99% completion. These limits accommodate most extrusion and injection molding processes for the recommended thermoplastics and applications. Residence time For use in polymerization reactors where residence time is over 5 minutes, see Recommendations in Section 3. Maximum Use Temperature: JONCRYL ADR-4368-C should not be processed at temperatures higher than 320 C (see Thermal Stability in Section 4. 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 7 5. EXTRUDER PRESSURE EFFECTS The use of Joncryl ADR-4368-C in reactive extrusion or reactive injection molding operations produces significant increases in molecular weight of the plastic being modified. This increase in molecular weight raises the melt viscosity, which in turn raises the pressure observed in the equipment. The table below exemplifies the large increases in die pressure that are observed in PET as Joncryl ADR-4368-C is added to a large extruder. Similar increases are expected in other plastics. It is important that operators be aware of these expected pressure changes. Alarms, automatic shut-offs, screen purging set-points, and other operation variables should be adjusted to accommodate these normal and expected pressure increases. Extruder Variable PET Control Joncryl ADR-4368-C Joncryl ADR-4368-C Joncryl ADR-4368-C Pressure @ die 1 Pressure @ screen 1 Motor power draw 1 As shown, pressure increases both at the die and in front of the screen system may be 50% to 160% higher than typical operating pressure for higher usage levels. Instantaneous pressure variations and spikes are due to large instantaneous changes in melt viscosity. At constant temperature, changes in melt viscosity are often due to variable feed rate and/or poor mixing To illustrate the effect of variable feed rate, the pressure and power draw changes with fluctuations in feed rate are calculated on the table below. For example, a variation of 20% in the feed rate causes a 9% increase or decrease in pressure, which is a variability range of 18%. Extruder Variable Steady feed within 5% of target value Unsteady feed within 10% of target value Unsteady feed within 20% of target value Pressure @ die +/- +/- +/- Pressure @ screen +/- +/- +/- Power draw +/- +/- +/- Fluctuations in the feed rate of Joncryl ADR-4368-C larger than 10% of the target value may cause large instantaneous extruder pressure spikes. To attain steady and consistent pressure, homogenous dry blends or robust co-feed systems are essential. 25-Jan-08 JONCRYL ADR-4368C Page 8 The selection of the screen pack can influence the pressure. Finer screen mesh will produce even higher pressures when used with Joncryl ADR-4368-C. 6. TROUBLESHOOTING In Case of Unexpectedly High Pressure: 1. Decrease the feed rate of Joncryl ADR-4368-C 2. Decrease the RPM. This decreases pressure on single screw extruders and flood-fed twin-screw extruders, and will decrease heating on starve-fed twin- screw extruders 3. Slowly increase the temperature, starting from the die and then from the last to the zone. In a typical extruder with an L/D > 24 normally most of the extension reaction takes place in the first half of the extruder length. Increasing the temperature in the zones of the final half of the extruder will generally result in lower viscosity and pressure. 4. With pressure under control, increase the Joncryl ADR-4368-C feed slowly. 5. For steady operation follow recommendations given in the section 5 above. Keep in mind that chain extension will always result in higher pressure at constant extruder settings The statements in the product literature and label are guidelines only. Users should test this product in advance to verify suitability for particular uses. BASF Corporation neither makes nor authorizes to be made any express or implied representation or warranty with regard to this product concerning the performance, use, fitness for particular purpose, suitability for use on any surface or merchantability of this product, whether used alone or in combination with other products. The furnishing by us of information and products either as experimental samples or by sales, contains no recommendations respecting the use of these products or the lack of infringement of any patent nor does it grant a license under any patent owned by our company. BASF assumes no liability for any damage of any kind regardless of cause, including negligence. JONCRYL is a registered trademark of BASF Corporation. 2006 BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ 07932. 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