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Embraer-Jet family E-170/E-175/E-190/E-195

Embraer-Jet family E-170/E-175/E-190/E-195 REFRESHER COURSE ! AMET LTD, FOR TRAINING ONLY Page 1 of 171

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Embraer-Jet family E-170/E-175/E-190/E-195 REFRESHER COURSE AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 1 of 171E-Jet familyE-170/E-175/E-190/E-195Embraer E-175 of Alitalia CityLiner at BCN (2015)RoleNarrow-body jet airlinerNational originBrazilManufacturerEmbraerFirst flightFebruary 19, 2002IntroductionMarch 17, 2004 with LOT PolishAirlinesStatusIn servicePrimary usersRepublic AirlinesAzul Brazilian AirlinesJetBlueCompass AirlinesSkyWest AirlinesProduced2001 presentNumber built1,158 as of September 30, 2015[1]Unit costE-170: US$ million;E-195: $ million[2]VariantsEmbraer Lineage 1000Developed intoEmbraer E-Jet E2 familyEmbraer E-Jet familyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-bodymedium-range twin-engine jet airliners produced byBrazilian aerospace conglomerate Embraer. Launched atthe Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in2002, the aircraft series has been a commercialsuccess.[3] The aircraft is used by mainline and regionalairlines around the world. As of 31 December 2014, thereis a backlog of 249 firm orders for the E-Jets, 502 optionsand 1090 units delivered.[1]Contents1 Design and E-Jets Second Generation2 Operational history3 E-170 and E-190 and Embraer Lineage Undeveloped E-195X4 Operators5 Orders and deliveries6 Accidents and incidents7 Specifications8 See also9 References10 External linksAMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 2 of 171An Embraer 170 in new livery oflaunch customer LOT Polish Airlineslanding at Amsterdam AirportSchiphol (2012).Interior of an Embraer E-170Design and developmentThe Embraer E-Jets line is composed of two main commercialfamilies and a business jet variant. The smaller E-170 and E-175make up the base model aircraft. The E-190 and E-195 are stretchedversions, with different engines and larger wing, horizontal stabilizerand landing gear structures. The 170 and 175 share 95%commonality, as do the 190 and 195. The two families share near89% commonality, with identical fuselage cross-sections andavionics, featuring the Honeywell Primus Epic Electronic flightinstrument system (EFIS) suite.[4] The E-jets also have winglets toimprove E-Jets use four-abreast seating (2+2) and have a "double-bubble"design, which Embraer developed for its commercial passenger jets,that provides stand-up headroom. The E-190/195 series of aircrafthave capacities similar to the initial versions of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 737, which havealways been considered mainline airliners. The E-Jets have jet engines that produce less noise, which allowsthem to operate in airports that have strict noise restrictions, such as London City Airport.[5]Embraer first disclosed that it was studying a new 70-seat aircraft,which it called the EMB 170, in 1997, concurrently with announcingthe development of its ERJ 135.[6] The EMB 170 was to feature anew wing and larger-diameter fuselage mated to the nose and cockpitof the ERJ 145.[7][8] In February 1999 Embraer announced it hadabandoned the derivative approach in favour of an all-newdesign.[9][10]The E-jet family was formally launched at the Paris Air Show in June1999. Launch customers for the aircraft were the French airlineR gional Compagnie A rienne Europ enne with ten orders and five options for the E-170; and the Swissairline Crossair with an order for 30 E-170s and 30 E-190s.[11] Production of parts to build the prototype andtest airframes began in July 2000.[12] Full production began in 2002, at a new factory built by Embraer at itsS o Jos dos Campos base.[13] After several delays in the certification process, the E-170 received typecertification from the aviation authorities of Brazil, Europe and the United States in February 2004.[14][15]E-Jets Second GenerationIn November 2011, Embraer announced that it would develop revamped versions of the E-Jets family withimproved engines, rather than an all-new aircraft.[16] The new variants are to be powered by new moreefficient engines with larger diameter fans, and include slightly taller landing gear, and possibly a newaluminum or carbon fiber-based wing. The new E-Jet variants are to be better-positioned to compete with theBombardier CSeries. The new variants are to enter service in 2018.[17]AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 3 of 171An Air Canada ERJ-175 on climb-outGE, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce were all possible engine suppliers.[18] Pratt & Whitney's gearedturbofan engine was selected in January 2013 for the new E-Jets versions.[19][20] The Honeywell PrimusEpic 2 was selected as the avionics package.[21]In February 2012, Embraer announced it was studying the development of a new variant with 130 seatingcapacity.[22] The study was expected to be completed by the end of 2012.[23]Operational historyThe first E-170s were delivered in the second week of March 2004 to LOT Polish Airlines, followed by USAirways subsidiary MidAtlantic Airways and Alitalia[14][24] (launch customer Crossair had in the meantimeceased to exist after its takeover of Swissair; and fellow launch customer R gional Compagnie A riennedeferred its order,[25] not receiving its first E-jet an E-190LR until 2006.[26]) LOT operated the firstcommercial flight of an E-jet on 17 March 2004, from Warsaw to Vienna.[27] The largest single order forany type of E-Jets has come from JetBlue for 100 E-190s, and options for 100 more.[4]The 400th E-jet was delivered in 2008, to Republic Airlines in the [28] On 6 November of that year,JetBlue set the record for the longest flight of the E-190 family when one of its aircraft made a non-stopflight from Anchorage, Alaska (Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport) to Buffalo, New York(Buffalo Niagara International Airport), a total of 2,694 nmi (4,989 km). This was an empty aircraft on anon-revenue flight. The aircraft eventually returned to JFK after a two-month-long charter service with VicePresidential candidate Sarah Palin.[29] In September 2009 the 600th E-jet built was delivered to LOT PolishAirlines.[30] Kenya Airways received its 12th Ejet from Embraer which was also the 900th Ejet everproduced on October 10, 2012.[31]On 13 September 2013 a ceremony was held at the Embraer factory in S o Jos dos Campos to mark thedelivery of the 1,000th E-jet family aircraft, an E-175, to Republic Airlines. The E-175 was delivered in anAmerican Eagle colour scheme with a special "1,000th E-Jet" decal above the cabin windows.[28][32]VariantsE-170 and 175The E-170/E-175 models in the 80-seat range are the smaller in theE-Jet family. They are powered with General Electric CF34-8Eengines of 14,200 pounds ( kN) thrust each. The E-170 and E-175 directly compete with the Bombardier CRJ-700 and BombardierCRJ-900, respectively, and loosely compete with the turbopropBombardier Q400. They also seek to replace the market segmentoccupied by earlier competing designs such as the BAe 146 andFokker LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 4 of 171Flybe E-195Flight deck of a 190 Lineage 1000The Embraer 170 was the first version produced. The prototype 170-001, registration PP-XJE, was rolled out on 29 October 2001, withfirst flight 119 days later on 19 February 2002. The aircraft wasdisplayed to the public in May 2002 at the Regional AirlineAssociation convention. After a positive response from the airlinecommunity, Embraer launched the E-175. First flight of the stretchedE-175 was on June 2003.[33] The launch customer For the EMB170 was US Airways, after FAA certification, the aircraft enteredinto revenue service on April 4, 2004 operated by the MidAtlanticdivision of US Airways, Inc. The first E-175 was delivered to AirCanada and entered service in July 2005.[33] The 170-001 prototypeperformed its last flight on April 11, 2012. Its destiny wasdisassembly in the US for spare and 195The E-190/195 models are a larger stretch of the E-170/175 modelsfitted with a new, larger wing, larger horizontal stabilizer and a newengine, the GE CF34-10E,[4] rated at 18,500 lb ( kN). Theseaircraft compete with the Bombardier CRJ-1000 and CS100, the Boeing 717-200 and 737-600, and theAirbus A318. It can carry up to 100 passengers in a two-class configuration or up to 124 in single-class highdensity configuration.[34]The first flight of the E-190 was on March 12, 2004 (PP-XMA),[35] with the first flight of the E-195 (PP-XMJ)[35] on December 7 of the same year. The launch customer of the E-190 was New York-based low-costcarrier JetBlue with 100 orders and 100 options. British low-cost carrier Flybe launched the E-195 with 14orders and 12 options.[36]As the 190/195 models are of mainline aircraft size, many airlines operate them as such, fitting them with abusiness class section and operating them themselves, instead of having them flown by a regional airlinepartner. For example, Air Canada operates 45 E-190 aircraft fitted with 9 business-class and 88 economy-class seats as part of its primary fleet. JetBlue and American Airlines also operate the E-190 as part of theirown fleet thus allowing airlines increased crewing flexibility by having the ability of air crews to workaboard narrow-body or widebody aircraft all the Lineage 1000On 2 May 2006, Embraer announced plans for the business jet variant of the E-190, type name ERJ190-100ECJ. It has the same structure as the E-190, but with an extended range of up to 4,200 nmi, and luxuryseating for up to 19. It was certified by the USA Federal Aviation Administration on 7 January 2009. Thefirst two production aircraft were delivered in December variantsE-195XAMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 5 of 171Embraer Lineage 1000 at the 2009Dubai AirshowEmbraer 190 from Azul BrazilianAirlinesLufthansa Cityline Airlines Embraer 195Embraer considered producing an aircraft which was known as the E-195X, a stretched version of the E-195. It would have seatedapproximately 130 passengers. The E-195X was apparently aresponse to an American Airlines request for an aircraft to replace itsMcDonnell Douglas MD-80s.[37] Embraer abandoned plans for the195X in May 2010, following concerns that its range would be tooshort.[38]OperatorsEmbraer 170 (or EMB 170-100) As of July 2015, 180Embraer 177 aircraft (all variants) are in airline service, with 5orders. Major operators include: Shuttle America (50),Republic Airlines (22), HOP! (16), Saudia (15), J-Air (15),EgyptAir Express (12), Aeromexico Connect (8), LOT PolishAirlines (7), Compass Airlines (North America) (6) and BACityFlyer (6). Nine other airlines operate the type in smallernumbers.[39]Embraer 175 (or EMB 170-200) As of July 2015, 285Embraer 175 aircraft are in airline service, with 165 furtherorders. Major operators include Republic Airlines (85),Compass Airlines (North America) (44), SkyWest Airlines(38), Mesa Airlines (30), Shuttle America (16), Sky RegionalAirlines (15), Alitalia CityLiner (15), LOT Polish Airlines (12)and Flybe (11). Major firm orders include 55 aircraft forShuttle America, and 40 aircraft for Envoy 190 (or EMB 190-100) As of July 2015, 506Embraer 190 aircraft (all variants) are in airline service, with47 orders. Major operators include JetBlue Airways (60), AirCanada (45), Tianjin Airlines (45), Aeromexico Connect (30),KLM cityhopper (28), Azul Brazilian Airlines (22), AustralLineas Aereas (22), China Southern Airlines (20), AmericanAirlines (19), Virgin Australia (18), Conviasa (15) and otheroperators with fewer aircraft.[39]Embraer 195 (or EMB 190-200) As of July 2015, 134Embraer 195 aircraft (all variants) are in airline service, with25 firm orders. Major operators are Azul Brazilian Airlines(61), Lufthansa CityLine (24), Air Europa (11), Air Dolomiti(10), Flybe (7), LOT Polish Airlines (6) and other operatorswith fewer aircraft. Azul Brazilian Airlines have ordered anadditional 5 aircraft of this type.[39]Orders and deliveriesList of Embraer's E-Jet family deliveries and orders:AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 6 of 171Page 6 of 11General Electric CF34 engine onJetBlue E-190ModelPhotoFirm Orders Options Deliveries Firm Order BacklogE-17019371885E-175477332311166E-1 905869251868E-195165214124Total142143311 58263Source: Embraer's order book on September 30, 2015.[40]Accidents and incidentsOn 24 August 2010, Henan Airlines Flight 8387, an Embraer E-190 that departed from Harbin,People's Republic of China, crash landed about 1 km short of the runway at Yichun Lindu Airport,resulting in 42 deaths.[41]29 November 2013: LAM Mozambique Airlines Flight 470, an Embraer 190, crashed in Namibia,killing all 33 aboard (27 passengers, 6 crew members).[42] The co-pilot reportedly left the cockpit touse the toilet. He was then locked out by the captain, who dramatically reduced the aircraft s altitudeand ignored various automated warnings ahead of the high-speed impact.[43]SpecificationsVariantE-170(ER J170-100)E-175(ERJ170-200)E-190(ERJ190-1 00)E-195(ERJ190-200)Flight deckcrew2 pilotsPassengercapacity80 (1-class,29 in/30 inpitch)78 (1-class,30 in/31in)70 (1-class,88 (1-class,30 in pitch)86 (1-class,31 in)78 (1-class,32 in)114 (1-class, 29in/30 inpitch)106 (1-class, 31 in)98 (1-class,122 (1-class, 30in/31 inpitch)118 (1-class, 31 in)108 (1-class, 32 in)AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 7 of 17132 in)70 (2-class,36 in/32in)[44]78 (2-class,standard)[45]32 in)94 (2-class,standard)[46]106 (2-class,standard)[47] m(98 ft 1 in) m(103 ft 11 in) m(118 ft 11in) m(126 ft 10in) m(85 ft 4 in) m(85 ft 4 in) m(94 ft 2 in)(EnhancedWing Tipversion) m (94 ft 3 in) m(32 ft 4 in) m(34 ft 7 in)EmptyWeight21,140 kg(46,610 lb)21,810 kg(48,080 lb)28,080 kg(61,910 lb)28,970 kg(63,870 lb)Maximumtakeoffweight35,990 kg(79,340 lb)(STD)37,200 kg(82,000 lb)(LR)38,600 kg(85,100 lb)(AR)37,500 kg(82,700 lb)(STD)38,790 kg(85,520 lb)(LR)40,370 kg(89,000 lb)(AR)47,790 kg(105,360 lb)(STD)50,300 kg(110,900 lb)(LR)51,800 kg(114,200 lb)(AR)48,790 kg(107,560 lb)(STD)50,790 kg(111,970 lb)(LR)52,290 kg(115,280 lb)(AR)Maxpayloadweight9,100 kg(20,100 lb)(STD&LR)9,840 kg(21,690 lb)(AR)10,080 kg(22,220 lb)(STD&LR)10,360 kg(22,840 lb)(AR)13,080 kg(28,840 lb)13,650 kg(30,090 lb)TakeoffRun atMTOW1,644 m(5,394 ft)2,244 m(7,362 ft)2,056 m(6,745 ft)2,179 m(7,149 ft)Powerplants2 GE CF34-8E kN (13,800 lbf) kN (14,200 lbf) APRthrust each2 GE kN (18,500 lbf)thrust each89 kN (20,000 lbf) APRthrust eachMaximumspeed890 km/h (481 kn, Mach )STD:AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 8 of 171Range3,334 km(1,800nmi)LR:3,889 km(2,100nmi)AR:3,892 km(2,102nmi)STD:3,334 km(1,800 nmi)LR: 3,889 km(2,100 nmi)AR:3,706 km(2,001 nmi)STD:3,334 km(1,800 nmi)LR:4,260 km(2,300 nmi)AR:4,448 km(2,402 nmi)STD:2,593 km(1,400 nmi)LR:3,334 km(1,800 nmi)AR:4,077 km(2,201 nmi)Maximumfuel load9,335 kg (20,580 lb)12,971 kg (28,596 lb)Serviceceiling12,500 m (41,000 ft) :1Fuselage and cabin cross-sectionOuter m (9 ft 11 in)Cabin m (9 ft 0 in) m (11 ft 0 in) m (6 ft 7 in)AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 9 of 171EMBRAER 190Flight ControlsAMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 10 of 171 INTRODUCTION The Flight Control System is comprised of the primary and the secondary flight control systems and their associated system components. The primary flight control system consists of: Ailerons and the multi function roll spoilers for roll axis control. Elevators for pitch axis control. Rudder for yaw axis control. The secondary flight control system consist of: Horizontal stabilizer. Flaps and Slats. The multi-function spoiler (when used as speed brakes or ground spoilers). Dedicated ground spoilers. Hydraulic actuators control the respective flight control surfaces. These are generally referred to as Power Control Units (PCUs). The ailerons are driven by conventional control cables that run from each control wheel back to a pair of hydro-mechanical actuators. Elevators, rudders and roll spoilers as well as all secondary flight control systems, including the horizontal stabilizer, flaps and slats, ground spoilers and speed brakes, are controlled electronically using Fly-by-Wire (FBW) technology. The primary flight control electronics are generally comprised of two complementary parts: The Primary Actuator Control Electronics (P-ACE). The Flight Control Module (FCM). Primary Actuator Control Electronics (P-ACE) and/or Flight Control Modules (FCM) are employed to operate the respective electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical actuators. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 1AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 11 of 171 AILERONMULTI FUNCTIONSPOILERSGROUNDSPOILERSFLAPSHORIZ ONTALSTABILIZERELEVATORRUDDERSLATSN CONTROL SURFACE LOCATION Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 2AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 12 of 171 CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS CONTROL WHEEL 12MIOFFOTPTTSAPAPSCCHRTOP RESETO 1 PITCH TRIM SWITCH (SPRING-LOADED TO NEUTRAL) Trims the airplane when the autopilot is not engaged. NOTE: Captain s pitch trim switch actuation has priority over the first officer s. 2 AP/TRIM DISCONNECT BUTTON (MOMENTARY ACTION) Disable both HS-ACE channels as long as the switches remain pressed, thus disconnecting the autopilot and stopping any active trim command. Releasing the switch will activate the channel again. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 3AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 13 of 171 2 SLAT/FLAP SELECTOR LEVER SLAT /FLAP015FULL015FULLDOWNUPCONTROLPEDESTAL Selects slat/flap position by unlatching the lever and lifting a trigger below the head. Intermediate positions are not enabled. If lever is left at an intermediate position, flaps/slats remain in the last selected position. Position 4 is gated for normal Go Around and Takeoff. Position 5 is used for landing. Lever position Slat position Flap Position Detent/Gated 0 0 0 Detent/Stop 1 15 7 Detent 2 15 10 Detent 3 15 20 Detent 4 25 20 Gated/Stop 5 25 20 Detent Full 25 37 Detent/Stop Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 4AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 14 of 171ASPEED BRAKE LEVER CLOSEOPEN01/2FULL0FULLCONTROLPEDESTAL Symmetrically deploys the multi-function panels. All multi function spoilers panels deploy the same angle as a response to the speed brake lever position. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 5AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 15 of 171AOM-1502 TRIM PANEL 12354PITCHBACKUPSWDNUPRWDROLLYAWRIGHTLEF TSYS1CUTOUTSYS2CUTOUTLWDTRIMCONTROLPEDES TALEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 6AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 16 of 171AOM-1502 1 YAW TRIM KNOB (SPRING-LOADED TO NEUTRAL) Actuates the yaw trim to left or right. 2 ROLL TRIM SWITCH (SPRING-LOADED TO NEUTRAL) Actuates the roll trim to left or right. 3 PITCH TRIM BACK-UP SWITCH (SPRING-LOADED TO NEUTRAL) Actuates the pitch trim through the back-up channel. Operation of the switch while the autopilot is engaged causes the autopilot to disengage. 4 PITCH TRIM SYS 1 CUTOUT BUTTON (GUARDED) PUSH IN: disables the HS-ACE channel 1. PUSH OUT: enables the HS-ACE channel 1. 5 PITCH TRIM SYS 2 CUTOUT BUTTON (GUARDED) PUSH IN: disables the HS-ACE channel 2. PUSH OUT: enables the HS-ACE channel 2. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 7AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 17 of 171AOM-1502 FLIGHT CONTROL MODE PANEL CONTROLPEDESTALELEVATORSRUDDERCONTROLSFL IGHTSPOILERSMODESHAKER 1 CUTOUTSHAKER 2 1 FLIGHT CONTROL MODE BUTTON (GUARDED) PUSH IN: turns the associated flight system into direct mode. PUSH OUT: turns the associated flight system into normal mode. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 8AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 18 of 171 14-08-05 AOM-1502 DISCONNECT HANDLE 1 ELEVATOR DISCONNECT HANDLE PULL: disconnects the elevator control system. 2 AILERON DISCONNECT HANDLE PULL: disconnects the aileron control system. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 9AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 19 of 171AOM-1502 FLIGHT CONTROLS SYNOPTIC PAGE ON MFD The flight controls synoptic page provides a visual representation of the flight control system operation and parameters, and can be selected by the flight crew for viewing on either MFD. 1264357SystemsPlanMapSTATUSMODEHYD SYSACTUATORSELEV LHELEV RHRUDDER1NORMAL3ONSTBYSTBYDIRECTFAILONFl t CtrlSURFACEELEC PBIT HYDR PBIT Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 10AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 20 of 171A1 AIRPLANE GRAPHIC A static display that shows the location of flight control surfaces, status of the flight control actuators and flight controls mode of operation. 2 SURFACE POSITION STATUS RETRACTED: a green line aligned with the wings, elevator or rudder. DEPLOYED: a green line and the surface with green stripes. A white dashed box is shown only for surface position greater than 50% of its deflection. FAILED RETRACTED: an amber line, a white dashed box and an amber cross. FAILED DEPLOYED: white dashed box, surface with amber stripes and amber cross. NOT AVAILABLE WITH NO FAIL INDICATION: shows a white dashed box for surfaces with deflection in one direction ( spoilers) and two white dashed box for surfaces with deflection in two directions ( ailerons). NOT AVAILABLE WITH FAILURE INDICATION: shows a white dashed box and an amber cross for surfaces with deflection in one direction ( spoilers) and two white dashed box and two amber crosses for surfaces with deflection in two directions ( rudder). DIRECT MODE: shows the surface with amber stripes. A white dashed box is shown only for surface position greater than 50% of its maximum deflection. As for flap zero the maximum surface deflection is about 50% of the full deflection, the white dashed box may not be shown, due to system tolerances. 3 FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM STATUS ANNUNCIATIONS The status annunciations are shown in a table format for three surfaces. Three surfaces are listed in a column labeled SURFACE: RUDDER, ELEV LH, and ELEV RH. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 11AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 21 of 171 AOM-1502 4 ACTUATOR STATUS ANNUNCIATION The rudder has two actuators, upper and lower. Each left and right elevator surfaces have two actuators, inboard and outboard. NORMAL/ACTIVE: a green ON annunciation inside a green rectangle box. NORMAL/STANDBY: a white STBY annunciation inside a white rectangle box. DIRECT/STANDBY: a white STBY annunciation inside a white rectangle box. DIRECT/ACTIVE: an ON annunciation presented in an amber rectangle box background. FAIL: a annunciation written in an amber rectangle box background. 5 AXES MODE ANNUNCIATION Axes mode annunciations are shown for the rudder, the left and the right elevator. It is presented as NORMAL, DIRECT, FAIL or - , which represents the axes mode annunciation invalid. 6 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM SOURCE ANNUNCIATION Hydraulic system source annunciations are shown for the rudder, the left and the right elevator. It is presented as 1, 2, 3 or - , which represents the source annunciation invalid. 7 PBIT REMAINING TIME READOUT For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 190-31-0007 (Primus Epic Load ) or an equivalent modification factory incorporated, a digital remaining time readout displays the hours until the electrical and hydraulic PBIT expire. If the value of the PBIT remaining time readout is higher or equal to 5, the numbers will be displayed in green, otherwise will be cyan. Invalid data will be represented by 2 dashes ( - - ) in amber. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 12AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 22 of 171EICAS INDICATIONS SLAT/FLAP/SPEEDBRAKE INDICATION ON EICAS 2S/FSPDBRKSFSLAT/ 1 SLAT/FLAP POSITION Displays the slat/flap position. If the information is invalid, the indication will be removed from the display. GREEN: real-time surface position. The pointer shows the slat/flap commanded position along the scale and moves up the scale for decreasing values of slat/flap angle. The flap scale has tic marks at each end, representing positions at 0 and 35 while the slat scale has tic marks at each end, representing positions at 0 and 25 . 2 SLAT/FLAP READOUT Displays the slat/flap surface position. If the information is invalid, the indication will be removed from the display. GREEN DASHES: slat/flap in transit. NOTE: In case of surface jamming, an additional box will be displayed in amber, as well as the readout. 3 SPEEDBRAKE INDICATION Displays a white SPDBRK annunciation when the speed brakes are open. AMBER BOXED: in case of 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 13AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 23 of 171AOM-1502 NOTE: An OPEN and GREEN speedbrake position indication and a white GND SPLR annunciation display on EICAS after airplane touchdown and below 50 knots of ground speed. SPLR NOTE: For SLAT/FLAP/SPDBRK position 0 the legend and arrows will be removed from the display as presented below: OS/FSLAT/ Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 14AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 24 of 171 OVERALL DISPLAY SITUATIONSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 15AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 25 of 171AOM-1502 ROLL/PITCH/YAW TRIM INDICATION ON EICAS 1 ROLL/PITCH/YAW TRIM SCALE Trim position configuration is indicated through a solid green pointer in the scale. There are five tic marks displayed along the roll and yaw scale, positioned at 100%, -50%, 0%, 50%, 100%. There are five tic marks displayed along the pitch trim scale, positioned at 4 , , , , and 11 . There is a green takeoff band on the scale extending from 2 to 4 , corresponding to the allowable pitch trim position for takeoff. 2 PITCH TRIM DIGITAL READOUT Digital indication of the horizontal stabilizer trim position in tenth degrees An UP or DN indication displays above or below the readout according to the trim set. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 16AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 26 of 171REVISION 6 code 02 Page 1 2 FLY BY WIRE Fly-by-wire is an electronic system designed to operate the flight controls replacing the control cables of a conventional airplane. The EMBRAER 190 FBW system is composed of a set of six Actuator Control Electronics (ACEs) and four Flight Control Modules (FCMs): Two Primary-ACEs (P-ACE) installed in the forward electronics bay. Two Slat/Flap ACEs (SF-ACE) installed in the middle electronics bay. One Horizontal Stabilizer ACE (HS-ACE) and one P-ACE installed in the aft electronics bay. FCM 1 and 2 are located in the Modular Avionics Units # 1 (MAU 1). FCM 3 and 4 are located in the Modular Avionics Unit # 3 (MAU 3). The three P-ACE units connect the control column directly to the respective control surface, providing direct analog control of the rudder and elevator surface actuators. The two SF-ACE units control the slat and flaps and the HS-ACE unit controls the horizontal stabilizer. The FCMs provide software-based assistance to the P-ACE and is required for normal-mode operation of the flight control system. The FCM units are connected to the P-ACE via the Controller Area Network Bus (CAN BUS), providing digital inputs to the P-ACE, which are combined with pilot inputs. This is used to augment pilot inputs for different airspeeds, and provides other high level functions such as Angle-of-attack (AOA) limiting to the P-ACE units. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 17AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 27 of 171 CONTROL ELECTRONICS (CONTROL LIMITS SET BY HARDWAREAND AUGMENTED SOFTWARE FROM FCM)ACECOCKPITCONTROLINPUTSANALOGSIGNALS ANALOGSIGNALSDIGITALSIGNALSFCMFLIGHT CONTROL MODULE (HIGH LEVEL CONTROL, INTERFACING ANDSIGNAL PROCESSING)AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS:ADS, IRS, FLAP & SLAT,FADEC, AFCS ...DIRECT MODENORMAL MODEFLIGHTCONTROLSURFACE FLY-BY-WIRE SCHEMATIC Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 18AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 28 of 171A MODES OF OPERATION The Flight Control System provide two basic modes of operation: NORMAL MODE: The Flight Control Mode (FCM) provides software based airspeed gain schedules and control limits to the P-ACE, as well as high level functions such as: - Elevator control laws scheduling with airspeed. - Auto-thrust compensation with elevator. - Angle-of-Attack (AOA) limiting with elevator offset. - Rudder airspeed gain scheduling and stroke limiting. - Yaw damper and turn coordination via AFCS. - Rudder ground/lift authority change. - Roll spoiler scheduling with airspeed and speedbrake deployment. - Configuration change compensation with Horizontal Stabilizer. - Mach Trim as a function of Mach number. - Configuration change compensation with Horizontal Stabilizer due to landing gear, flap/slat and speed brakes actuation. DIRECT MODE: The FCM is removed from the control loop (for instance, due to loss of airspeed data) and the control limits default to values set by hardware in the P-ACE. - Direct mode of operation is primarily the result of loss of data from all FCMs (no airspeed input) or; multiple ACE failures. - Operation is defaulted to fixed control laws configuration. - Control input provided by Captain and First Officer s sensors is sent directly to the surface. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 19AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 29 of 171Mode selection is automatic, when a channel failure is detected or manual, by using a Mode Select switch on the Flight Control Panel. The Mode Selection switch toggles the Normal Channel of the active P-ACE to the Direct Channel of the standby P-ACE and continues as shown: Pilot always has supreme control authority of the airplane since the FCMs cannot override a pilot input. FCM, P-ACE AND AIRPLANE LEVEL COMMUNICATION The Controller Area Network BUS (CAN BUS) is the communication link between the FCMs and the P-ACE units while the Avionics Standard Communication Bus (ASCB) provides data exchange between all FCMs, and with other components of the avionic system. The following systems provide data to the flight control system: Smart probes and the Air Data Application (ADA) modules provide air data for various airspeed augmentation commands. IRS provides aircraft attitude and accelerations to the FCMs used for AOA limiting function computation. The Proximity Sensor Electronic Module (PSEM) provides Weight-On-Wheels (WOW) and ground spoiler position data to the FCMs. Brake Control Modules (BCM) provide wheel speed signals used for ground spoiler deployment. The FADEC provide Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) to the FCMs used for elevator thrust compensation, and the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) provides autopilot commands. Data is shared for the EICAS to display warnings, cautions, advisory and system status and also provided to the central maintenance computer (CMC) for system diagnostics. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 20AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 30 of 171STATUSWARNINGSCAUTIONSADVISORYSSYSTEM SYNOPTICS ELECTRONIC ACTUATION MODESURFACEPOSITIONEICASMAUMAUCAN BUSCAN BUSFBWCONTROLSURFACES(ELEVATOR,RUDDER,MU LTI FUNCTIONSSPOILERS)PCUP ACEP ACEPCUASCB DATA BUSASCBCMCADC(SECONDARY NOT SHOWN)PRIMARY CANDATA BUSFLT AIRPLANE COMMUNICATION INTERFACEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 21AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 31 of 171AOM-1502 POWER UP BUILT IN TEST (PBIT) The Power Up Built in Test (PBIT) reduces the flight control system exposition to latent faults, ensuring that the system components remain capable of executing their functions. The PBIT expires after 20 hours (elapsed time) since the last successful PBIT and in this case the FLT CTRL BIT EXPIRED EICAS CAUTION message is displayed. These EICAS CAUTION message is related to the Electrical PBIT and Hydraulic PBIT. The message remains on EICAS until a new Electrical and Hydraulic PBIT is successful ran. No action is required if the PBIT expires in-flight, as the EICAS CAUTION message will only be displayed after landing. ELECTRICAL POWER UP BUILT IN TEST The Electrical PBIT provides detection of out-of-tolerance conditions and failures in the FCMs, P-ACEs and SF-ACEs. The Electrical PBIT is automatically performed during power up after the airplane is powered by any AC source and takes approximately 3 minutes to complete. In this point if the FLT CTRL BIT EXPIRED message is presented, the hydraulic built in test must be performed. For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 190-31-0007 (Primus Epic Load ) or an equivalent modification factory incorporated, FLT CTRL TEST IN PROG Status message is presented while electrical PBIT is in progress. If the airplane is already powered up, the crew may check the PBIT REMAINING TIME READOUT before staring the taxing out procedure. Hence, if the remaining time is sufficient for the taxing and taking off, the crew may elect to reset the PBIT on the next flight. The Electrical PBIT will be interrupted if any electric hydraulic pump is running or if the FCP switches are cycled or if AC power is interrupted while the test is running. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 22AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 32 of 171AOM-1502 HYDRAULIC POWER UP BUILT IN TEST The Hydraulic PBIT provides functional test of the flight control actuators. The Hydraulic PBIT is performed automatically, only on the ground, when the flight controls are not moved for one minute and all the three hydraulic systems are pressurized. The test takes one minute to complete. The Hydraulic PBIT will be interrupted if any flight control surface is moved while the test is running. FLY BY WIRE (FBW) BACKUP BATTERY In case of an extremely improbable failure that would render complete loss of normal and emergency electrical power to the FBW, the backup power system, with no pilot intervention, keeps the appropriate number of elevator and rudder actuators operating for at least 15 minutes. Besides that, there is no dedicated message to indicate the failure of this system; therefore there is no flight crew compensatory action if this happens. A dedicated and independent backup electrical power system is provided for some elevators and rudder Actuator Control Electronics (ACEs) that are considered essential for airplane controllability even in an utmost case of total loss of the normal and emergency electrical power sources. This backup system is comprised by a dedicated battery, distribution bus and circuit breakers. The backup battery, charged by the DC ESS 3 bus during normal operation, consists of sealed lead acid cells with built-in-test (BIT) capability and internal heater that guarantees the minimum battery temperature. Although the battery is connected to the airplane buses, the use of an internal rectifier keeps it from powering back the buses, assuring isolation in case of failure in the main electrical power 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 23AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 33 of 171PITCH CONTROL Pitch axis control is by means of electro-hydraulic commanded elevators and an electro-mechanical horizontal stabilizer. ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM Pilot s inputs to the elevators are through the forward and after movement of the cockpit control columns. Also, the elevators can be automatically controlled through the FCM via autopilot. A total of four P-ACE channels are used to independently control each of the four PCUs, providing the analog elevator control functions implemented in the P-ACE units. Four independent FCM units, located in the MAU 1 and 3, provide high-level system augmentation to the P-ACE units, such as gain scheduling as a function of airspeed, elevator thrust compensation and AOA limiting. The hydraulic systems responsible for actuating the actuators are: Hydraulic System 1: left outboard actuator. Hydraulic System 2: left & right inboard actuators. Hydraulic System 3: right outboard actuator. Since the actuators on each surface operate on active/standby mode, the P-ACE automatically alternates the active actuator every time the elevator system is powered up. The loss of hydraulic supply forces the standby PCU to become active. If a jam in one of the elevator actuator is detected, the respective elevator surface will remain fixed at the position where the jam occurred. The pilot will be able to control the airplane using the remaining elevator. With the elevator control system operating in normal mode, the elevator moves according to gain scheduling as a function of airspeed, reducing elevator movement with increasing airspeeds. In the event of loss of airspeed information, the FCM is removed from the control loop, and the associated P-ACE reverts to direct mode. FCM functions like elevator thrust compensator and AOA limiting are than no longer available. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 24AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 34 of 171A dedicated button on the Flight Control Mode panel provides the capability to the pilots to reset the elevator system to Normal Mode in case of the system defaulting to Direct Mode, or to manually default the elevator system to Direct Mode in case of wrong gain computed by the FCMs being transmitted to the P-ACEs. When the flight control panel elevator button is pushed in, it commands all four elevators channel to change from Normal to Direct mode. In addition, pushing the button also results in the active elevator channels transitioning to the standby state, and the channels that were previously in standby would become active. This feature is also included to allow the system to transition away from the present controlling channels. When the flight control panel elevator button is pushed out, the system recovers the Normal Mode. The Elevator Thrust Compensation Function (ETC) helps to reduce the pilot workload by applying elevator commands to reduce the pitching moment produced by increasing or decreasing engine thrust. The ETC function is computed in the FCM as a function of N1, mach and pressure altitude. Elevator command is limited to plus or minus 5 degrees, and is applied proportional to the amount of engine thrust above or below the reference thrust setting. If one or more sensors required to perform the ETC function fail, the function is no longer available and he respective message will be displayed on the EICAS. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 25AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 35 of 171AOM-1502 TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE (TSA) Tail Strike Avoidance (TSA) function is a fly-by-wire feature designed to avoid tail strikes occurrences during takeoffs and landings. TSA function controls airplane pitch angle by reducing control column authority in the nose up direction. The maximum pitch angle that can be achieved by the airplane is a function of height above ground level (HAGL), measured at the main landing gear wheel. HAGL calculation depends on: Landing: HAGL calculated via two radio altimeters. Takeoff: estimated HAGL by means of the vertical speed. The authority of TSA function depends on whether in takeoff or landing configuration. Go around is considered a landing configuration mode. In case of TSA function engagement during takeoff, the maximum pitch down elevator deflection in order to correct airplane attitude by reducing its pitch rate is limited to 8 . In case of a negative pitch rate, the maximum pitch up elevator deflection is limited o 0 . For TSA engagement during landing situations, the pitch down authority is also limited to 8 of elevator deflection, while pitch up is limited to Normal Mode commands generated by other fly-by-wire functionalities. TSA commands are limited to only 8 of elevator deflection. NOTE: In case of exceedance of the angle of attack threshold defined by the AOA limiter due to an TSA elevator command, the FBW system switches to AOA limiter operation, smoothly transitioning to pitch angle control to angle of attack control over 2 seconds. The TSA function and the AOA limiter function never operate simultaneously and AOA limiter has priority over TSA. TAKEOFF AND LANDING OPERATION TSA operation is limited up to 20 ft for takeoffs and 70 ft and below for landings. Also, there is no TSA operation for landing flap configuration other than 5 or 6. For GO AROUND scenarios, TSA operates as if it were in takeoff mode but using radio altimeter altitudes rather than estimated altitude as the source of HAGL computation. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 26AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 36 of 171ARTIFICIAL FEEL UNITS (AFU) With no mechanical connection between the control column and the elevator surfaces, two independent feel units provide artificial feel and centering to the control columns, which increase as a function of control column displacement. The feel units consist of a preloaded spring, which returns the columns to the neutral position. Hence there is one feel unit attached to each torque tube, in case of separation of the control column commands, the feel system is still active for the non-jammed column. With the columns disconnected or with a single AFU disconnected, the feel loads on the column are reduced to one half of the normal loads DISCONNECT MECHANISM (JAMMED COLUMN) A disconnect mechanism is provided in order to allow separation of the First Officer and Captain s control column. In the event of a jam in one of the control columns, the disconnect mechanism can be actuated by pilots through the disconnect handle in the cockpit. Following a disconnection the pilot of the non-jammed side retains pitch control by means of the on-side elevator. The system will remain disconnected for the remainder of the flight and ground maintenance is required to reset the disconnect unit. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 27AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 37 of 171 SYSTEMOTHERAIRCRAFTSYSTEMSP ACEFCMRIGHT ELEVATORSURFACEFCMP ACELEFT ELEVATORSURFACEPCUPCUCOCKPITCONTROL SYSTEM ELEVATOR SYSTEM SCHEMATICEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 28AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 38 of 171MODULAR AVIONICS UNITSMAU ASCBAIR DATASYSTEMFCM1FCM2FCM3FCM4AUTOMATICFLIGH T CONTROLSYSTEMCAN BUSP ACE 3 1P ACE 2 2RIGHTELEVATORSURFACERIGHTCOLUMMLVDTsLEF TCOLUMMLVDTsP ACE 2 1P ACE 1 1LEFTELEVATORSURFACE ELEVATOR SYSTEM INTERFACE Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 29AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 39 of 171HORIZONTAL STABILIZER CONTROL SYSTEM Control of the horizontal stabilizer is by means of an electromechanical system commanded by: Manual selection of the Captain or First Officer s wheel main trim switches or pedestal mounted backup trim switches which directly controls an electrical servo motor coupled to the Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA). Flight Controls Module (FCM) for autopilot trim and speed brake auto trim in order to actuate the electrical servomotor coupled to the Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA). Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator Control Electronics (HS-ACE) and one Horizontal Stabilizer Actuator (HSA) are used to move the control surface. The HSA is a single electrical-mechanical actuator. Two DC motors drive the actuator in an active/standby configuration. Stabilizer position is provided to the HS-ACE and is used for monitoring and EICAS indication. ACEACTIVESTANDBY STABILIZER TRIM MANUAL TRIM The manual trim is achieved trough switches installed on the control columns and standby switch located on the main pedestal. Signal from either the control columns switches or the main pedestal switch controls the electric trim 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 30AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 40 of 171The HS-ACE responds to all trim commands with the following priority: 1. Backup switches. 2. Captain. 3. First Officer. 4. FCM (auto-trim) commands. In order to avoid a possible pitch trim runaway condition, manual pilot trim commands are limited to 3 seconds. In case of stick shaker activation, the HS-ACE is prevented from responding to any pitch trim commands by a stick shaker signal from the AFCS. The backup trim switches and the control wheel trim switches are dual split switches, which have a 7 second time limitation when actuated separately. If only one half of the switch is actuated for more than 7 seconds, this switch is automatically deactivated. In the event of an electrical emergency, only the HS-ACE channel 2 is operational at low rate. A loss of airspeed data from the FCM also results in low rate operation of the horizontal stabilizer, providing structural protection of the surface. AUTOPILOT TRIM The autopilot can directly operate the electric trim motor when the autopilot is engaged. If the autopilot trim function is inoperative, the autopilot cannot be engaged. If this function is lost with autopilot operations, the autopilot will be disengaged. Autopilot trim function will be active only if: Autopilot is engaged. Configuration trim is operational. Manual electric trim is not active. On-side autopilot channel is priority. NOTE: In case of an electrical failure, followed by RAT deployment, the trim function will work at half speed operation, for either manual trim or autopilot trim. MACH TRIM Automatic Mach trim compensate pitch down tendency due to aft change in location of aerodynamic center for increasing Mach number. For further information about Mach trim operation refer to chapter 14-03 Automatic Flight. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 31AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 41 of 171AOM-1502 ROLL CONTROL Roll control is provided simultaneously by the ailerons and the multifunction spoilers. AILERONMULTIFUNCTIONSPOILERSFWD TORQUE TUBESAFT TORQUE TUBESMULTIFUNCTIONSPOILERSAILERONFBW SYSTEMCABLE AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM Aileron control is accomplished through a conventional cable system, which transmits pilot control wheel inputs to two hydro-mechanical actuators for each aileron. The hydraulic systems responsible for actuating the actuators are: Hydraulic System 2: left & right inboard PCU. Hydraulic System 3: left & right outboard PCU. Captain and First Officer aileron control system are connected via a disconnect mechanism. In the event of a jam, the disconnect mechanism can be actuated by the pilots by means of the disconnect handle in the cockpit. Following a disconnect, half of the system remains operational. If the jam occurs on the First Officer s half of the system, the Captain retains control of the left aileron with normal artificial 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 32AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 42 of 171If the jam occurs on the Captain s side, the First Officer remains in command of the right aileron without artificial feel and roll trim since the feel mechanism is attached to the pilot s half of the system. Only one pair of multifunction spoilers will remain available after the disconnection Following a disconnect, the system remains separated for the remainder of the flight. Maintenance action is required to reconnect the disconnect device. In the event of a disconnect of one aileron PCU from the surface or wing structure, the other PCU attached to the surface will operate normally, but the force authority will be halved. Hence the aileron PCUs normally share air-loads during flight, if the FCM detects a difference in load sharing from the actuators, a message will be displayed on the EICAS. MULTIFUNCTION SPOILER CONTROL SYSTEM The multifunction spoiler control system consists of 6 panels numbered from inboard to outboard as: L3, L4, L5 (left wing) and R3, R4, R5 (right wing). The roll spoiler function drives all six multifunction spoiler panel deployment asymmetrically as a function of control wheel position. As airspeed increases, less spoiler surface deflection is required and the spoiler system will limit the deployment of the surfaces for roll control. MULTI ROLL CONTROL SURFACES POSITION Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 33AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 43 of 171 In the event of a jam, the control wheel and the aileron on the jammed half of the system will be locked at the current position. The other half of the system can be separated from the jammed side through the aileron disconnect handle located at the control pedestal. In this case, the Captain controls the outboard spoilers, while the First Officer controls the middle spoilers. With disconnection due to jamming, the inboard spoilers become disabled. ROLL TRIM The aileron control system is manually trimmed by using the roll trim switch on the trim control panel, located in the cockpit on the center pedestal. The trim system is operated via the roll trim switch on the trim control panel, commanding the actuator to move, and repositioning neutral feel position of the aileron system. The actuator is equipped with a timer, limiting a single trim command to three seconds. A quick disconnect switch, located on the control wheels, disables the roll trim actuator by interrupting DC power to the trim motor, as long as the switch remain depressed. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 34AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 44 of 171AOM-1502 YAW CONTROL Yaw control is performed by means of an electronic control system that commands electrohydraulic actuators of the rudders. RUDDER CONTROL SYSTEM The rudder control system is controlled either by the pilots, FCM high-level functions and additionally, in airplanes equipped with Autoland, the Autopilot. The rudder control system moves a single rudder surface attached to the vertical stabilizer. Two actuators, or PCUs, electrically commanded and hydraulically powered, are connected to the rudder control surface, receiving signals from the rudder control s Fly By Wire system (FBW). Either the upper or the lower rudder actuator can control the rudder surface. The Captain commands only the upper actuator and the First Officer commands only the lower actuator. Two independent P-ACE modules drive the upper and lower PCU, providing the analog rudder control functions implemented in the P-ACE hardware, such as pedal shaping to vary the pedal-to-surface gearing as a function of pilots input. Four independent FCM units, located in MAU 1 and 3, provide high-level system augmentation on the P-ACE units, such as yaw damping, turn coordination, as well as gain scheduling as a function of airspeed. The rudder actuators operate in an active/standby configuration, hence the P-ACEs alternate between the active PCU every time the rudder system is powered-up. The hydraulic systems responsible for actuating the actuators are: Hydraulic System 1: upper actuator, or PCU. Hydraulic System 3: lower actuator, or PCU. In the normal mode, the FCMs add further high-level functions to the pilot pedal inputs. With increasing airspeed, rudder gain is reduce by the FCM in order to compensate for the increase in rudder effectiveness, and providing structural protection to the rudder surface. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 35AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 45 of 171 AOM-1502 A dedicated button on the Flight Control Mode panel provides the capability to the pilots to reset the rudder system to Normal Mode in case of the system defaulting to Direct Mode, or to manually default the rudder system to Direct Mode in case of wrong gain computed by the FCMs being transmitted to the P-ACEs. When the flight control panel rudder button is pushed in, it commands both rudder channels to change from Normal to Direct mode. In addition, pushing the button also results in the active rudder channels transitioning to the standby state, and the channels that were previously in standby would become active. This feature is also included to allow the system to transition away from the present controlling channels. When the flight control panel rudder button is pushed out, the system recovers the Normal Mode. The two pedals assemblies (Captain and First Officer) are connected by an interconnect rod, in such a way that the movement made by the pilot flying (PF) assembly will be transmitted to the pilot not flying. In the event of a jam in the Captain s rudder pedal assemblies, the rudder remains active and will be actuated by high-level functions (yaw dumping and turn coordination). In case of a jammed PCU actuator the rudder will be hydraulically locked at the current position. Aircraft control will be established through the ailerons and roll 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 36AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 46 of 171AOM-1502 RUDDER TRIM SYSTEM Rudder trim function is limited to three seconds. If further displacement of the trim system is required the command must be released and reapplied. Position indication of the trim actuator is provided on the EICAS. MAU ASCBAIR DATASYSTEMAUTOMATICFLIGHT CONTROLSYSTEMFCM sMODULAR AVIONICS UNITSP ACE 1 2P ACE 3 2RIGHTPEDALLVDT SLEFTPEDALLVDT SAIR RUDDER SYSTEM INTERFACEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 37AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 47 of 171SLAT/FLAP SYSTEM The high lift control system consists of flaps and slats. The slat system controls eight slat surfaces on the leading edge of the wing (four per wing) and the flap system controls four double slotted flap surfaces on the trailing edge (two per wing). SLATINBOARDSLATOUTBOARDFLAPINBOARDFLAPOU TBOARD SLAT/FLAP PANEL LOCATION Surface position commands are given to the Slat/Flap-ACE (SF-ACE) via a Slat/Flap control lever installed on the center pedestal in the cockpit. Each SF-ACE is a dual channel unit, with one channel for flap control and one channel for slat control. There are seven slat/flap control lever positions. Slat and flap motion is sequenced such that slats extend first and flap retracts first when the motion command requires both surfaces to move. The system uses electrical power to move the surfaces. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 38AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 48 of 171Deployment of both slats and flaps surfaces is commanded by two SF-ACEs and electrically operated using Power Driver Units (PDUs). A total of four flap actuators per side provide the actuation force to extend and retract the flap panels mounted on the trailing edge of each wing. The double-slotted flap consists of a main flap panel and an aft flap panel for both inboard and outboard flaps. SF ACE 2SF ACE /FLAPSLAT/FLAPSELECTORLEVER SLAT/FLAP SYSTEM SCHEMATIC Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 39AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 49 of 171SLAT/FLAP PROTECTION LOGIC SKEW PROTECTION Electronic skew sensors monitor differential movement between neighboring panels of flap (slat). If differential movement of a panel exceeds acceptable limits, the SF-ACES shuts down the flap (slat) system and the FLAP (SLAT) FAIL message displays on EICAS. The SLAT-FLAP LEVER DISAG may appear, as the affected surface has not reached the position selected on the Slat/Flap Lever. The affected surface is inoperative for the remainder of the flight whereas the non-affected surface operates normally ( , in case of FLAP FAIL the Slats operates normally and vice-versa). STRIKE PROTECTION The SF-ACE monitors PDU load and if an excessive load is detected it stops the electrical power to the respective PDU for further movement to the selected direction. The FLAP (SLAT) FAIL message displays and the SLAT-FLAP LEVER DISAG also displays, as the affected surface has not reached the selected position. In such cases, the affected surface can be commanded in the opposite direction ( , for FLAP FAIL during retraction, the Flap can be commanded for extension and vice-versa). When the strike protection actuates, the affected surface accepts to be commanded in both directions if it is returned to the previously selected position. After three unsuccessful attempts to select a position, the strike protection cuts the PDU power for both directions. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 40AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 50 of 171SLAT/FLAP SYSTEM INTERLOCKS The SF-ACE has two independent channels that are powered by different electrical power sources. If the Ram Air Turbine (RAT) is the only source of electric power, the flap and slat operate in half speed, as only one channel remains available. Additionally, when RAT is the only source of electrical power, the SF-ACE prevents deployment of slats and flaps beyond position three to assure adequate airspeed for the RAT. In case of a Flap or Slat failure, when the affected surface is deenergized, the SF-ACE still commands the non-affected surface upon S/F Lever movement. That permits to improve the landing performance even in the event of failure by selecting a more appropriate position of the non-affected surface. However, there are some combinations of Slat and Flap that are automatically protected by the system, as they would induce poor airplane controllability. Thus, the SF-ACE does not command the Flap beyond 10 (S/F Lever on position 2) with the Slat below 15 . In this failure scenario, if the S/F Lever is commanded beyond the position 2, the SF-ACE limits the Flap deflection to 10 and the SLAT-FLAP LEVER DISAG message displays. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 41AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 51 of 171SPOILER SYSTEM The spoiler control system consists of ten spoiler panels numbered inboard to outboard as: L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 (left wing) and R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 (right wing). Panels L3, R3, L4, R4, L5 and R5 are called multifunction spoilers and have three modes of operation: Roll Control: deployed asymmetrically for roll augmentation as commanded by the pilots control wheel. Displacement angle is proportional to control wheel displacement. Speed Brakes: deployed symmetrically during flight by speed brake handle to increase aerodynamic drag to reduce airspeed or increase rate of descent. Panel displacement is proportional to speed brake handle position. Ground Spoilers: deployed symmetrically during landing roll to increase wheel braking efficiency and aerodynamic drag to reduce the stopping distance. Panels are fully and automatically extended when ground spoiler deployment conditions are met. SPOILERS LOCATION Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 42AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 52 of 171The hydraulic systems responsible for actuating the multi function PCUs are: Hydraulic System 1: left and right inboard and middle PCUs (L3, R3, L4, R4). Hydraulic System 2: left and right outboard PCUs (L5, R5). The hydraulic systems responsible for actuating the dedicated ground spoilers PCUs are: Hydraulic System 1: left and right outboard PCUs (R2, L2). Hydraulic System 2: left and right inboard PCUs (R1, L1). GROUND OPERATION The spoiler control system provides automatic ground spoiler deployment to increase wheel-braking efficiency reducing the lift generated by each wing and to reduce the stopping distance producing aerodynamic drag. During ground operation, all spoiler panels function as ground spoilers and are commanded to the fully extended or fully retracted positions. The ground spoiler function drives all ten spoiler s panels to the limit deflection of the actuators. MULTI-FUNCTION AND GROUND SPOILERS DEPLOYMENT After touchdown the FCM will command all multifunction spoiler surfaces to the 40 degrees extended position and the ground spoiler surfaces to 60 degrees when the following conditions are simultaneously met: Weight on wheels on ground. Wheel speed is above 45 kts or airspeed is above 60 KIAS. Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) below 26 degrees Following rollout, the spoilers will automatically retract when wheel speed is below 45 kts for at least 5 seconds. If the throttles are moved beyond 35 degrees (TLA) after landing, the spoiler panels will automatically retract. NOTE: In the direct mode, ground spoilers are not available. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 43AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 53 of 171IN-FLIGHT OPERATION ROLL SPOILERS The roll spoiler function drives the multifunction spoiler panels asymmetrically as a function of control wheel position. In normal mode, the roll spoilers are also gain scheduled as a function of airspeed. A roll spoiler augmentation command, computed in the FCM, is added to the normal pilot input in order to modify the roll inputs for changes in airspeed results or different flaps settings. In case of loss of airspeed data, the respective FCM is removed from the control loop, and the system reverts to direct mode. A fixed gain is then applied to the respective roll spoiler system for the entire flight, independent of airspeed or flap setting. SPEED BRAKES When actuating as speed brakes, the spoiler control system deploys all six multi function spoiler panels symmetrically up to the in-flight limit of 30 degrees following speed brake handle position. If extended during approach, the speed brakes will automatically retract upon selection of slat/flap 2 or above. Speed brakes will not be deployed if airspeed is below 180 KIAS, and will also automatically retract if airspeed decreases below this threshold. In order to prevent inadvertent operation during a go-around maneuver the speed brakes will automatically retract anytime the thrust levers are advanced beyond Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) 70 degrees. In the event of a disagreement of the speed brake handle position with actual surface position, the EICAS advisory message SPDBRK LEVER DISAG is displayed on the EICAS. NOTE: In the direct mode, speed brakes are not available. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 44AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 54 of 171EICAS MESSAGES TYPE MESSAGE MEANING ELEV (RUDDER) (SPOILER) NML MODE FAIL Normal mode of the associated system is no longer operative. WARNING GROUND SPOILERS FAIL One of the ground spoiler surfaces has extended inadvertently or has failed to extend when commanded. AOA LIMIT FAIL Stall protection function has failed. ELEV THR COMP FAIL One or more sensors required to perform Elevator Thrust Compensation function have failed and the function is no longer available. ELEVATOR FAULT Left and right elevator control system has reverted to direct mode. ELEVATOR LH (RH) FAIL Left (right) elevator control system is no longer available. FLAP FAIL Both flaps electronic control channels are inoperative and the flaps system is no longer available or there is a jam in the mechanical portion that precludes the flaps from moving. FLT CTRL BIT EXPIRED 20 hours or more has passed since the last time PBIT was activated. CAUTION FLT CTRL NO DISPATCH One of the components associated with the flight control system has failed to a No-Go condition. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 45AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 55 of 171TYPE MESSAGE MEANING PITCH TRIM FAIL Pitch trim function is no longer available. RUDDER FAIL Active and standby rudder channels have failed or rudder has jammed. RUDDER FAULT Indicates that the rudder control system has reverted to direct mode. RUDDER LIMITER FAIL Indicates that rudder ground authority is retained after take-off. SLAT FAIL Both slats electronic control channels are inoperative and the slats system is no longer available or there is a jam in the mechanical portion that precludes the slats from moving. SLAT-FLAP LEVER DISAG Flaps were commanded above VFE. SPOILER FAULT Airspeed gain scheduling has failed in one or more pairs of multifunction spoilers, and the system(s) has defaulted to a fixed gain. CAUTION STAB LOCK FAULT The mechanical device, which locks the horizontal stabilizer, has failed. Direct mode is not allowed. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 46AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 56 of 171TYPE MESSAGE MEANING AILERON LH (RH) FAIL Indicates that the left (right) aileron is no longer available or there is a mechanical disconnection in the left (right) aileron surface. AUTO CONFIG TRIM FAIL Pitch Trim Auto Configuration function is inoperative. FLAP LO RATE One of the flaps electronic control channels is inoperative and the flap system is still available but running at low speed. FLT CTRL FAULT One of the components associated with the flight control system has failed. PITCH CONTROL DISC Control columns are disconnected. PITCH TRIM BKUP FAIL Backup pitch trim switch is inoperative. PITCH TRIM SW 1 FAIL Captain s pitch trim switch is inoperative. PITCH TRIM SW 2 FAIL First Officer s pitch trim switch is inoperative. PITCH TRIM LO RATE Pitch trim system can only operate at a low rate. ROLL CONTROL DISC Control wheels are disconnected. ADVISORY SLAT LO RATE One of the Slats electronic control channels is inoperative and the slat system is still available but in low speed. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 47AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 57 of 171TYPE MESSAGE MEANING SPDBRK LEVER DISAG A mismatch exists between the speedbrake handle position and the multifunction spoiler surfaces or the ventral speed brake. ADVISORY TAILSTRIKE PROT FAIL TSA function is no longer available. STATUS FLT CTRL TEST IN PROG Electrical PBIT in progress. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Flight Controls]Page 48AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 58 of 171 EMBRAER 190 Automatic FlightSystemAMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 59 of 171Partie BThe Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) is an integrated system that processes inputs fromseveral airplane systems and sensors, applying the processed data to the Flight Guidance ControlSystem (FGCS) and Thrust Management System (TMS), thus enabling their operation and producingvisual and aural B - dition 1 du 21/08/2006Manuel d Exploitation R GIONAL - COMPAGNIE A RIENNE EUROP ENNE1. GUIDANCE PANELThe Guidance Panel (GP) provides means for selecting functions and modes as follows : Lateral Guidance Control, AFCS Management Control, Vertical Guidance GP contains two independent channels (A and B), each one providing independentcommunication to the SYNCFDNAVHDGAPAPPBANKYDSRCMANSPEEDALT SELPUSH FT MFPA SELA/TVNAVALTVSDNVSFPAFLCHUPCRSPUSH DIRFDGLARESHIELD PANELPUSH IAS MACHFMSGUIDANCE PANELEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 1AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 60 of 1712. LATERAL GUIDANCE CONTROLSN DESCRIPTIONcNAV BUTTON :- Enables and disables the LNAV mode (FMS selected lateral modes). The FMA lateralmode annunciation displays BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the heading select mode,- The FMA lateral mode annunciation displays SELECTOR KNOB :- Manually selects the desired heading. Pressing this knob synchronizes the heading selectto the current BUTTON :- Selects a bank angle limit of 17 used by the FGCS,- A white arc is automatically displayed on the PFD when above 25000 ft. The white arc ismanually indicated whenever the Bank Button is pushed and HDG is the active roll BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the mode for interception of an The FMA lateral mode annunciation displays the following : LOC : ILS approach The FMA vertical mode annunciation displays the following : GS :ILS approach The Autopilot Approach Status Annunciator displays the following : APPR 2 :CAT II ILS approach capable. APPR 1 :CAT I ILS approach capable. APPR 1 ONLY : CAT I ILS approach capable. Requirements for CAT II ILS approachmode not :When the APP mode is intercepted, the heading mode (HDG) is 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 2AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 61 of 1713. VERTICAL GUIDANCE CONTROLSN DESCRIPTIONcFLCH BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the Flight Level Change mode,- The FLCH mode is associated to Climb or Descend depending on the selected altitude,- The Flight Mode Annunciation (FMA) vertical mode displays BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the VNAV mode (FMS vertical navigation).eALT BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the altitude holding mode (ALT),- The FMA vertical mode annunciation displays SELECTOR KNOB :- Selects the desired altitude,- Clockwise rotation: increases the altitude target,- Counter clockwise rotation: decreases the altitude :A pushbutton in the center of the ALT SEL selector knob provides the selectedaltitude in meters to be displayed on the meters window (metric altitude) readoutand above the ALT pre-selected window on the BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the Flight Path Angle mode,- This is the basic vertical mode,- The FMA vertical mode annunciation displays :Engaging the autopilot when no FD mode is active causes FPA mode tobecome the active mode, and the FD guidance cue to come into SELECTOR KNOB :- Manually selects the desired Flight Path Angle,- The flight path angle is limited to degrees nose up or nose BUTTON :- Activates and deactivates the Vertical Speed mode,- The FMA vertical mode annunciation displays THUMB WHEEL SELECTOR :- The thumb wheel selector manually selects the desired vertical speed :The VS mode must be active for the thumb wheel selector to become 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 3AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 62 of 17112356784ALT SELPUSH FT MFPA SELVNAVALTVSDNVSFPAFLCHUPMAIN PANELVERTICAL GUIDANCE CONTROLSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 4AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 63 of 171 R GIONAL - COMPAGNIE A RIENNE EUROP ENNEManuel d Exploitation Partie B - dition 1 du 21/08/20064. AFCS GUIDANCE CONTROLSN DESCRIPTIONcFD BUTTON :- Declutters the FD cue presentation on the PFD. With the FD decluttered, the FD is stillactive and the FD modes are still selectable in the If the AP is engaged, the FD can not be removed from the PFD in the side selected to bethe AFCS BUTTON :- Commands the autopilot engagement or BUTTON :- Commands the autothrottle engagement or BUTTON :- Engages or disengages the Yaw Damper/Turn Coordination BUTTON :- Alternates the Captain or First Officer AFCS side as data source. A green arrowhead onthe FMA indicates the respective source PANELAFCS GUIDANCE CONTROLSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 5AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 64 of 171Partie B - dition 1 du 21/08/2006Manuel d Exploitation R GIONAL - COMPAGNIE A RIENNE EUROP ENNE5. SPEED AND MODE CONTROLSN DESCRIPTIONcSPEED SELECTOR KNOB :-FMS: FMS speed control,-MAN: The desired speed is controlled manually, displayed in cyan on the :The alternate speed selection (IAS or Mach) can be selected by pressing thespeed selector PANELPUSH IAS MACHFMSSPEED AND MODE CONTROLSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 6AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 65 of 171 R GIONAL - COMPAGNIE A RIENNE EUROP ENNEManuel d Exploitation Partie B - dition 1 du 21/08/20066. AUTO PILOT/FD TCS BUTTONN DESCRIPTIONcTOUCH CONTROL STEERING BUTTON (TCS) :- The TCS button allows manual airplane maneuvering (primary servos) to any desiredpitch, overriding autopilot function. Release of the button cause : Primary servos reengage, The airplane maintains the new attitude requested, Lateral control returns to previous selected lateral :After glide slope capture in APP mode with the autopilot engaged, if the TCSbutton is pressed and released, the autopilot regains the control and turns theairplane back towards the ILS center PILOT/FD TCS BUTTONEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 7AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 66 of 1717. AUTOPILOT QUICK DISCONNECT BUTTONN DESCRIPTIONcAP DISCONNECT BUTTON :- Provides the means to disengage the :Captain and first Officer's buttons are interconnected to allow autopilotcancellation from either QUICK DISCONNECCT BUTTONEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 8AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 67 of 1718. AUTOTHROTTLE DISCONNECT AND GO-AROUND BUTTONSN DESCRIPTIONcAUTOTHROTTLE DISCONNECT BUTTON :- Manually disengages the AND GO AROUND BUTTON :- Selects the TO or GA modes according to the airplane The FMA lateral mode annunciation displays the following : TRK :go-around lateral mode. ROLL :take-off lateral The FMA vertical mode annunciation displays the following : TO :take-off vertical mode. GA :go-around vertical mode. WSHR : vertical mode in windshear DISCONNECCT AND GO-AROUND BUTTONSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 9AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 68 of 1719. AUTOTHROTTLE INDICATIONS ON FLIGHT MODE ANNUNCIATION (FMA)The AT mode labels displayed on FMA are the following :-SPDT,-SPDE,-TO,-GA,-HOLD,-LIM,- DESCRIPTIONcAUTOTHROTTLE ENGAGEMENT ANNUNCIATION :- Color : Green : Autothrottle engaged, Amber : Autothrottle ARMED MODE :- Color : ACTIVE MODE :- Color : Green : Autothrottle active mode, Amber : The LIM label is displayed to indicate that vertical speed and target speedare incompatible with thrust rating DPFD123AUTOTHROTTLE INDICATIONS ON FLIGHT MODE ANNUNCIATION (FMA)Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 10AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 69 of 17110. AUTOPILOT INDICATIONS ON FMAN DESCRIPTIONcAUTOPILOT ENGAGED ANNUNCIATION :-Color: GREEN : Autopilot engaged. AMBER : Autopilot DIRECTOR SOURCE ANNUNCIATOR :- A green arrow indicated the selected AFCS :Mode annunciation is removed if Flight Director INDICATIONS ON FMAEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 11AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 70 of 17111. LATERAL MODE INDICATIONS ON FMAThe lateral mode labels displayed on FMA are the following : ROLL, HDG, LNAV, LOC, BC, DESCRIPTIONcFGCS LATERAL ACTIVE MODE :- Color : GREEN :manually commanded on the GP. MAGENTA : FMS LATERAL ARMED MODE :- Color : LLATERAL MODE INDICATIONS ON FMAEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 12AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 71 of 17112. VERTICAL MODE INDICATIONS ON FMAThe vertical mode labels displayed on FMA are the following : FPA, TO, ASEL, FLCH, ALT, VS, OVSP, GS, DESCRIPTIONcFGCS VERTICAL ACTIVE MODE :-Color: GREEN :manually commanded on the GP. MAGENTA : FMS VERTICAL ARMED MODE :- Color : :In event of AFCS fails the respective mode annunciation is TGSVERTICAL MODE INDICATIONS ON FMAEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 13AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 72 of 17113. AUTOPILOT APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATORThe autopilot approach labels displayed are the following : APPR 2, APPR 1, APPR 1 DESCRIPTIONcARMED STATUS :- Color : WHITE : Armed approach mode. AMBER : Alert STATUS :- Color : GREEN : Engaged approach APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOREmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 14AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 73 of 171FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROL SYSTEM (FGCS)The FGCS is the AFCS functionality that indirectly drives the primary flight controls, through either thecockpit control column or through other AFCS processing FGCS function includes : Flight Director (FD) guidance, Autopilot (AP) with coupled Go-Around (GA), Windshear modes and Automatic Pitch Trim, Yaw Damper (YD) with the Turn Coordination DIRECTOR (FD)A magenta diamond displayed on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) represents the FD. It provideslateral and vertical guidance integrated with the Flight Management System (FMS) or FD engagement or disengagement is commanded via FD button on the guidance FD automatically turns on as follows : TO/GA button actuation, Autopilot activation, Windshear FD is released when the Touch Control Steering (TCS) button is pressed and it resynchronizes thereferences when TCS is released (deactivated).Selecting FD OFF on the GP removes the flight director information from the non-coupled side on thePFD, if AP is engaged. Flight director information is removed from both PFDs if AP is disengaged andFD is selected OFF. FD declutter does not deactivates the current lateral and vertical power-up causes both flight directors to become active, regardless of the last FD 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 15AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 74 of 171AUTOPILOT (AP)The autopilot provides automatic pitch and roll control of the airplane commanding dedicated elevator AP servo is mechanically linked to the control column. The aileron AP servo ismechanically linked to the aileron control cables and AP ENGAGEMENT/DISENGAGEMENTAutopilot is engaged pushing the AP button on the guidance panel. The automatic pitch trim is ONwhen AP is engaged. The yaw damper automatically engages on AP engagement, although the yawdamper can be engaged or disengaged independently of the AP engagement is inhibited on the Autopilot has two channels. One channel works as a hot spare channel. The system alternates thechannel automatically if the active channel fails. The pilot can alternate the AP channel manually onthe SETUP MCDU page. SETUP1 / 1PILOTWINDCOPILOTXYVECT ORXYVECT ORYD/ AP/ FDBAT / TRIMBT RS CHANNELBPF D RADI OSET UPMI SC MENUAAASETUP MCDU PAGEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 16AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 75 of 171The autopilot disengages when any of the following conditions occur : The AP button is pressed on the guidance panel, The manual pitch trim switches are activated, Either quick disconnect switches are activated, Column shakers are activated, Reversion of fly-by-wire system to direct mode, Either the aileron or elevator control system disconnects, A column and control wheel force monitor sensors trips, Various internal monitors autopilot commands the servos to disengage when TCS button is pressed. The autopilotautomatically reengages the servos and resynchronizes the flight director when TCS button the autopilot is disengaged, an aural alarm "AUTOPILOT" is triggered and the FMA displays aflashing red "AP" indication for at least 5 EICAS message is also displayed for abnormal disengagement of AP. Pressing once either APdisconnect button cancels the flashing "AP" on FMA and the aural alarm. The EICAS messageremains :AP disengagement by application of force on control column and control wheel is indicatedin red on FMA. The AP disengagement by application of force only on control wheel maybe indicated in red on FMA and AP FAIL message may be displayed on the the AP disconnect button manually disengages the AP. If the pitch trim is being commandedby the elevator thrust compensation (ETC) or auto configuration trim, the EICAS CAUTION messageAP FAIL momentarily displays, and the FMA AP disengagement indication will be green. The secondpress in the AP disconnect button cancels the aural alarm, which sounds at least 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 17AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 76 of 171XYZ0AGMHNBSIJKOPQCDETUVLRFW123/+ 654/789RADI O123 . 200COM1118 . 6 0 0NAV1114 . 8DME H PXR115 . 6TCAS/ XPDRSTBYTA/ RA123 . 200COM21 / 2118 . 6 0 0NAV2SQFMSA UT O117 . 4116 . 8N 12 3 XPDR1471IDENTXYZ0AGMHNBSIJKOPQCDETUVLRFW 123/+ 654/789RADI O123 . 200COM1118 . 6 0 0NAV1114 . 8DME H PXR115 . 6TCAS/ XPDRSTBYTA/ RA123 . 200COM21 / 2118 . 6 0 0NAV2SQFMSA UT O117 . 4116 . 8N 12 3 XPDR1471IDENTBARO SETPUSH STDINhPaMINIMUMSRABAROCRSPUSH DIRHDGPUSH SYNCBRGBARO SETPUSH STDINhPaMINIMUMSRAPUSH TESTBAROHSIWXPREVFPRV/LFMSFDNAVHDGAPAPPB ANKYDSRCHSIWXPREVFPRFMSV/LBRGPUSH TESTMANSPEEDAUTOPUSH CHGALT SELPUSH FT/MFPA SELA/TVNAVALTVSDNVSFPAFLCHUPCRSPUSH DIRFD255OO26O24O2OO19 O18 O5WEATHERP ROGRE S SWP TD I S TE T EF U E LNEXTDESTTCASTA ONLYFLT + 3 2O2 + 5 211. 41O. 415253OOTASSATTATKTS^C^C5Syst e msFuelPl a nMa p23NMMI NChecklistWeat herTCASZUN55. 6L1OOZUNGUPGUP 4 4PUMPSLX Cl earFSBY OVRDLXSECTVAR Ga i nTGTACTSTAB Of fRCTT URBGa i n92GMA PSTBYOf fWXLX/ OFFSTABTGTWX/ 5119O2 5NAV1118119O3O3VHF1118O2 5119O2 55GS P DKT3OOHDG33OFMS1KPHX55 .6NM23MI NVOR1VOR2DT KO2 4CHRO8 : 12O7 91236KFL GKL VSKPHXO. 2R1OOL ANDI NG GEARAPUCABI NTRIMS1OO1O2 O%^CAL TRAT EFPMPSILFE12 FSPDBRKSFROL LPI T ^ ^ EX TO- 239^REV1OO7FQ9OO3OO12 OOLBPRESSOI LPSI6425^81^12VI B3343255OO26O24O2OO19 O18 : 12FMS1HDG33OGS P D1O3OOKTDT KOO5KPHXNM5OO23MI NHVOR1VOR2VHF1118O2 5NAV1118O3APPWP TVPT HMSGO7 [ 1OO ][ 1OO ]FMS1O. O5 LWX/R/T SSTAB/ TGTLX/ OFFWEATHERP ROGRE S SWP TD I S TE T EF U E LNEXTDESTTCASTA ONLYFLT + 3 2O2 + 5 211. 41O. 4F L 118ZUNFLO9OGUP 4 41OOFL13O5OPUM15253OOTASSATTATKTS^C^C5Sy st e msFuelPl a nMa pO. OONMMI N[ ]AChecklistWeat herTCASF L 11OGUP119O2 5119O3HDGI NTCAPTAINCONTROLWHEELFIRSTOFFICERCONTROL WHEELFIRSTOFFICERLOADFEELCAPTAINLOADFEEL AILERONSSMARTSERVOELEVATORSSMARTSERVOCAP TAINLOADFEELFIRSTOFFICERLOADFEELRUDDERSM ARTSERVOFIRST OFFICERRUDDERPEDALSCAPTAINRUDDERPEDALSMC DU 1GUIDANCE PANEL GP 750MCDU 2ASCB DCHANNEL ACHANNEL BTCSTOGATCSTOGAAP DISCONNECTEDSWITCHESMAU 1MAU 2MAU 3ASCB DROLL CONTROL FEEDBACKAUTOPILOT/FLIGHT DIRECTOR SCHEMATICEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 18AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 77 of 171AFCS INDICATIONS ON PFD1. FLIGHT MODE ANNUNCIATION (FMA)The FMA is displayed on the top of PFD. The FMA displays indications of autothrottle, autopilot, activeAFCS channel, lateral mode and vertical FMA color code for normal operation is the following : Magenta: FMS commanded active/engaged mode, Green: Non-FMS commanded active/engaged mode, White: Armed mode, Amber: Alert condition, Red: Abnormal MODE ANNUNCIATION (FMA)2. AUTOPILOT APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATORAutopilot Approach Status Annunciator is displayed on top of FMA upon pressing of APP button, usingfull line to clearly describe to flight crew current approach status, and some alert levels, side of the annunciator displays either the armed status (white) or the discrepancy betweensystem capability and flight crew intention (amber). Alert function associated to amber flashing invitesfor correction of RA Minimums, which has a digital read-out on PFD. Right side of annunciator displays current engaged terminology used for the two system capability levels are : APPROACH 2 (APPR 2) - ILS CAT II capable, APPROACH 1 (APPR 1) - ILS CAT I 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 19AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 78 of 171Only one lateral mode can be activated and only one can be armed at a time. The FGCS providesLateral navigation as follows :The FGCS pilot selectable lateral navigation modes are : Roll Hold - Basic Lateral Mode (ROLL), Heading Select (HDG), Lateral Navigation (LNAV), Localizer (LOC), Back-course (BC).Pilot non-selectable mode is : Track Hold (TRACK).1. ROLL HOLD (ROLL)Roll hold is the basic lateral mode and it is activated when : The active lateral mode is deactivated, The TO mode is selected on ground by pressing TOGA AP takes different actions considering the different airplane bank angles at the moment of ROLLactivation. Bank angle at 6 or below: AP levels the wings, Bank angle above 6 and below 35 : AP holds present bank angle, Bank angle at 35 or above: AP maintains bank angle at 35 .The TCS button can be used to adjust the bank angle between 6 and 35 .2. HEADING SELECT (HDG)The heading select mode activates when one of following conditions occur : The HDG pushbutton on the GP is pressed, LNAV, LOC or BC modes are Heading Select mode is deselected when : HDG pushbutton is pressed a second time, Selecting a different lateral mode, LNAV, LOC or BC modes are the HDG selector knob synchronizes the heading bug to the current heading. The FD follows the selected heading and respects the side to which the turn was commanded,regardless of turn being greater than 180 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 20AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 79 of 171FGCS LATERAL MODES3. LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV)The FD provides flight director lateral guidance commands for interception, capture, and guidance and automatic transitions are computed based on PFD data. The LNAV mode isselected when NAV button is pressed on the guidance panel. The FMS is the navigation source. The flight director shall be capable of performing an automatic transition from LNAV to LOC mode orfrom LNAV to Back-Course mode (BC) via the approach preview LOCALIZER (LOC)Localizer mode guidance is computed based on PFD LOC mode is selected via the APP button on the GP. The FD Localizer mode is selected whenthere is no GS signal FD automatically manages the LOC and Back-Course according to Localizer frequency, PFDinformation and airplane's BACK-COURSE (BC)The FD will automatically select a BC approach on the PFD. The FGCS provides commands for capture and tracking of BC localizer indicated on the selected TRACK HOLD (TRACK)The track select mode is used to intercept and maintain an inertial derived airplane track from the mode is engaged automatically when GA or TO is selected by the TOGA. The automatic transition from ROLL to TRACK occurs when : IAS is greater than 100 kt, Bank angle is at 3 or below for more than 10 another lateral flight director mode disengages track the vertical mode of GA does not disengage the TRACK lateral mode 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 21AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 80 of 171FGCS VERTICAL MODESOne vertical mode can be active and up to two vertical modes can be armed at a FGCS vertical navigation modes are : Flight Path Angle (FPA) - basic vertical mode, Takeoff (TO), Altitude Select (ASEL), Flight Level Change (FLCH), Altitude Hold (ALT), Vertical Speed (VS), Vertical Navigation (VNAV), Overspeed (OVSP), Glide Slope (GS), Go around (GA).1. FLIGHT PATH ANGLE (FPA)The FPA is the basic vertical mode (except for the TO).FPA mode becomes the active FD mode when : FPA pushbutton in the guidance panel is pressed, Engaging the autopilot when no FD mode is active, When a lateral mode is activated and there is no vertical flight director guidance mode active, Deselecting the current vertical flight path reference line (FPR) is displayed when the FPA is active. Pressing the FPR button inthe display controller panel displays the FPR line, regardless of vertical mode path angle ( ) is selected in the FPA SEL selector knob on the guidance 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 22AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 81 of 1712. TAKEOFF (TO)The takeoff mode is a FD only mode and is represented by crossbars on PFD. TO mode commandsthe airplane to maintain a pitch attitude reference. In takeoff the autopilot engagement is not acceptand FPA mode is inhibited. Lateral mode changes are indication is inhibited for 30 seconds after lift-off when taking off using raw-data information (noactive mode on the FD).Pressing the TOGA button activates the TO mode. Following a landing, the TO mode can be enabledafter 5 seconds on ground (main gear weight on wheels).The TO mode is deactivated when : Another vertical mode is selected, AP/FD TCS button is pressed, AP is TAKEOFF MODE CROSSBAREmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 23AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 82 of 171The TO mode first guidance is the flap-pitch based guidance : FLAP 1 - pitch 11 , FLAP 2 - pitch 11 , FLAP 3 - pitch 9 , FLAP 4 - pitch 12 .When airborne and IAS is greater than speed target, the guidance will be speed target according to thefollowing : All engines operating: V2 + 10 kt. One engine inoperative :- Engine failure below V2: guides V2,- Engine failure between V2 and V2 + 10 kt: guides present speed,- Engine failure above V2 + 10 kt: guides V2 + 10 V2 is inserted on the MCDU (PERF > PERF INDEX > PERF DATA > TAKEOFF 3/3).If speed target is not valid, the airplane guides to a fixed pitch according to the flaps in TO mode the pitch is limited to a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 18 . The maximum speed targetis Vfe - 5 kt and minimum speed target is Vshaker + 10 kt for all engines operating. For one engineinoperative the minimum speed target is Vshaker + 3 ALTITUDE SELECT (ASEL)The altitude select mode captures and levels off at the selected altitude. A green ASEL is displayed onthe FMA while altitude select mode captures the pre-selected altitude, then a green ALT takes placewhen leveled off at the selected :Altitude select is armed automatically whenever any vertical FD mode is FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE (FLCH)The FLCH provides flight path command to Climb or Descend according to the speed selected in theSpeed Selector knob. FLCH guidance is associated to selected speed is displayed in the box on the top of speed tape and when the altitude is close to29000 ft it switches from IAS to Mach readout during climb and from Mach to IAS readout FLCH button on the GP activates the FLCH mode. The FLCH mode deactivates when : Another vertical mode is selected, TCS button is FLCH mode guides to the altitude selected via ALT SEL a FLCH descent, selecting an altitude above the current airplane altitude will guide the airplaneto climb. The airplane will not reach the altitude selected if AT is disengaged and sufficient thrust is 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 24AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 83 of 1715. ALTITUDE HOLD (ALT)Pressing the ALT button on the GP enables the altitude hold mode. The altitude hold mode maintains aselected barometric altitude. The altitude can be selected via the ALT SEL ALT mode engagement, change to another vertical mode is possible only selecting a differentaltitude via ALT SEL knob, otherwise the ALT indication on the FMA and the altitude digital readout inthe PFD flash for 5 seconds. This logic is valid for all vertical modes, except for Glide Slope (GS).Switching from ALT mode to GS mode occurs without change in ALT SEL the ALT Button is pressed while the altitude is varying, the altitude in the moment the ALT Button ispressed will be the new target VERTICAL SPEED (VS)The VS mode maintains a vertical speed rate. The VS mode is activated pressing the VS button on theGP. Vertical speed is selected rotating the vertical speed thumbwheel on the GP. The vertical speed command range goes from -8000 ft/min to +6000 increments of the Vertical Speed target value are: 50 ft/min (below 1000 ft) and 100 ft/min (above1000 ft).7. OVERSPEED PROTECTION (OVSP)Flight Director provides overspeed protection during the following active vertical modes: ASEL,VASEL, FPA, FLCH, VS, VFLCH, and VPATH. Overspeed protection (OVSP) provides detection andprevention of airspeeds beyond the Vmo/Mmo flight envelope curve. When the FGCS detects that anoverspeed condition is imminent, the FD generates guidance commands to maintain airspeed belowthe VLE or within +/- 5 knots or + Mach of VMO or MMO, whichever is the OVSP protection activates, an amber OVSP indication displays on the FMA. The previousactive mode is displayed as armed (white) and becomes active again when OVSP protection is nolonger GLIDE SLOPE (GS)The GS approach mode allows the ILS approach mode functions. The GS mode arms when the APPbutton is pressed and activates when the glide slope is GO-AROUND (GA)The go-around mode automatically provides go-around guidance and thrust by pressing the TOGAswitch. The flight path angle and flight director symbols are displayed when GA mode is GA mode deactivates when : Another vertical mode is selected, TCS button is GA mode first guidance determines pitch 8 :Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 25AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 84 of 171When IAS is greater than the speed target, the guidance will be the speed target according to thefollowing : All engines operating: VREF + 20 kt, One engine inoperative: VAC (approach climb).The VREF and VAC are inserted on the MCDU (PERF > LANDING 3/3).If speed target is not valid, the airplane guides to pitch 8 .In GA mode the pitch is limited to a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 18 . The maximum speed targetis Vfe - 5 kt and minimum speed target is Vshaker + 10 kt for all engines operating. For one engineinoperative the minimum speed target is Vshaker + 3 WINDSHEAR (WSHR)Although it is not pilot selectable, Windshear protection will display the label "WSHR" as the verticalactive mode in the FMA. The Windshear guidance is activated when any of following conditions is met : Windshear Caution or Windshear Warning condition is detected and Takeoff and Go-around buttonis pressed at the thrust lever, Windshear Warning condition is detected and thrust lever is set to TO/GA position, Automatically when Windshear Warning condition is detected and AFCS flight director mode is inTO or green WSHR annunciation is displayed on the FMA when the Windshear guidance is system provides flight path guidance angle, limited to stick shaker, wings level and aural autopilot is disengaged when windshear guidance mode becomes active. After exit windshearconditions, lateral and vertical modes are selected pressing the respective buttons in the protection is disabled above 1500 ft VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV)The VNAV engages when : Upon crossing 400 ft during climb with the VNAV mode previously armed. In this case the systemautomatically engages, The airplane is above 400 ft and the VNAV button is VNAV mode automatically selects the appropriate FGCS mode in order to accomplish the verticalprofile. However, the logics for the vertical modes reside within the FGCS. When the vertical mode isselected by the VNAV function, it is said to be a VNAV VARM SUB-MODEWhen VNAV is selected on the GP, the initial mode is VARM. The FMS keeps the mode VARM up tothe moment that it is possible to determine which vertical mode should be used. If the FMS cannotdetermine which mode to use or cannot determine whether to climb or descend, it stays in VARMuntil the conflict is resolved. An example of conflict is to set the altitude selector to a higher altitudewhen the next waypoint constraint is below the current altitude. While in the VARM mode theprevious AFCS vertical mode remains engaged. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 26AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 85 of 171VFLCH SUB-MODEThe VFLCH is the VNAV Flight Level Change that can be automatically selected by the FMS ormanually by the flight crew. The manual selection of the VFLCH mode occurs when the active modeis VALT and the FLCH button is pressed in the GP. If the Alt Selector is set to an altitude differentthen the current airplane altitude, the VFLCH mode VASEL SUB-MODEThis is the VNAV altitude capture mode. It captures the Alt Selector altitude or the FMS waypointaltitude VALT SUB-MODEMaintains the altitude commanded by the FMS or the Alt Selector. If the VNAV is disengaged whilein VALT, the active mode becomes FPA. VPATH SUB-MODEThis is the VNAV FPA mode. In this mode the FMS flies a constant descent angle between twowaypoints. The descent angle is defined with following priority: Manually entered by the flight crew, Defined by a procedure retrieved from the database, If no higher priority entry is made, the FMS automatically selects the descent path angle can vary from 1 to 6 and it can be seen in the ACTIVE FLT PLAN FMS maintains a required geometric path sending a vertical speed command to the AFCS. Ifthe descent angle is too steep, the system might not be able to maintain the speed command shownon PFD and on the ACTIVE FLT PLAN speed command is displayed in the ACTIVE FLT PLAN page 1/3 in CAS and MACH. VNAVselects the value, which results in the lower speed. This value is shown in bigger characters in FLIGHT DIRECTOR OFF MODEWhen there are no lateral and vertical modes active, the FD is in the OFF mode. The conditions whenthe FD can be turned off are: The AP is not coupled, The lateral modes are either HDG or those conditions are verified, the FD is turned OFF when: FPA is the active vertical mode and is deselected pressing the FPA Button on the guidance panel. VS is the active vertical mode and is deselected by pressing the VS button on the guidance :Removal of the FD cue depressing FD Button on the Guidance Panel does not turn off theFlight the next waypoint constraint is below the current altitude. While in the VARM mode theprevious AFCS vertical mode remains Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 27AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 86 of 17113. SPEED CONTROLSpeed control can be manual or automatic (FMS position) depending on the selection on the SpeedSelector Knob. The FMS selection allows the FMS to send its internally defined speeds as targetspeeds for MANUAL SPEED CONTROLIf the Speed Selector Knob is set to MANUAL the pilot is responsible for controlling the speed duringall flight FMS SPEED CONTROLIn this mode the speed command is sent to the AFCS by the departure, climb, cruise, descent, approach and go-around speeds are set in thePERFORMANCE INTIALIZATION page 1/3. If a new schedule is desired these settings can bemodified in SPEED PROTECTIONThe FMS incorporates speed reversion (transition from VPATH to VFLCH) and latched to VFLCH Transition: Speed reversion is active when the descent is too steep and it is notpossible to maintain the selected speed. In this case, the FMS transitions to VFLCH, whichmaintains the speed within limits. The transition from VPATH to VFLCH automatically occurs if : The speed exceeds VMO/MMO + 10 kt during VPATH descents ; FMS passes through a speed/altitude limit with a speed greater than 5 kt. In this case, thecommand is to level off until the speed deviation is below + 2 kt. Afterwards, the FMS commandsVFLCH down to the Alt Selector altitude ; Landing Gear/Flap speed limit is exceeded by more than 10 kt ; In VPATH and the speed is less than VREF - 10 :If the Auto Throttle is not engaged the pilot is responsible for maintaining the speed. Latched speed: It might occur when the FMS transitions from one VNAV sub-mode to another andthere is a significant difference between those modes speed targets. It might also occur if there is asignificant difference between the speed target and the current 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 28AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 87 of 171ILS APPROACHDuring execution of the ILS approach, Autopilot Approach Status Annunciator displays the currentstatus of the system and alerts whether the intended approach matches system RA/BARO selector and RA Minimums setting inform the system what is the intended ILS modes are requested via APP button, system arms for the highest capability all necessary requirements are not accomplished, an EICAS message is presented during flight andinforms that category II ILS approach mode is not intended approach is informed to the system setting the barometric correction via control knobs onDisplay Controller panel (guidance panel). CAT1 - set RA/BARO selector to BARO (both sides), CAT2 - set RA/BARO selector to RA and adjust Minimums to 80 ft or operational conditions to accomplish a CAT II approach are : RA/BARO set to RA and Minimums set at 80 ft or above, Both NAV set to correct LOC frequency, Both PFDs set to correct LOC inbound course (V/L or Preview), Flap 5, All described conditions established at or above 800 ft the flap setting is the only remaining condition to be satisfied for CAT II, the armed status will remaindisplayed down to 800 ft RA, suggesting there is still one pilot's action ILS approach check points are the following : 1500 ft RA - system starts trying to engage highest capability available, 800 ft RA - system "freezes" highest capability available, not allowing approach "upgrades" 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 29AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 88 of 1711. APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT IIATAPHDGSPDTATAPSPDTATAPLOCSPDTGS1500 ftAP/AT ENGAGED IN HDG/ALT. AP HOLDING SELECTED HEADINGAND ALTITUDE. AUTOTHROTTLE HOLDING SELECTED PUSHBUTTON ON GP PRESSED ARMING LOC/GS APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR2 BELOW 1500 ft WITH RA MINIMUMS SET TO CAT2, AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR2 IN TAPPR2APPR 2 AVAILABLEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 30AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 89 of 1712. APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT IATAPLOCSPDTGSATAPLOCAPPR1SPDTGSGLIDESLO PE CAPTURE1500 ftAPPR1 BELOW 1500 ft WITH RA/BARO SET TO BARO, AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR1, ALLOWING CAT1 2 NOT AVAILABLEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 31AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 90 of 1713. APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT I (RA/BARO SET RA)ATAPLOCSPDTGSATAPLOCAPPR1SPDTGSATAPLO CAPPR1SPDTGSAPPR1 ONL YAPPR1 ONL YGLIDESLOPE CAPTURE BELOW 1500 ft SINCE APPR2 IS NOT AVAILABLE AND RA/BARO INCORRECTLY SET TO RA, AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS BOTH APPR1 ONLY IN AMBER (ASSOCIATED WITH RA MIN. DIGITAL READ OUT AT PFD S) AND APPR1, IN SELECTION OF RA/BARO TO BARO,AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATORCHANGES TO NORMAL CAT1 ftAPPR 2 NOT AVAILABLE - RA/BARO INCORRECTLY SET TO RAEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 32AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 91 of 171YAW DAMPERThe Yaw Damper provides command to the rudder control surface and actuates independently of theautopilot and flight director YD function engages following successful AFCS on-ground power-up, assuming that valid data forcalculating yaw damping is available. The YD remains engaged regardless of autopilot engagement ordisengagement or even the loss of turn coordination yaw damper disengagement occurs as the following : The corresponding pushbutton on the GP is pressed, The fly-by-wire system turns to direct mode, The fly-by-wire system engagement status indicates that control of the rudder surface has TRIMThe mach trim (MT) function positions the horizontal stabilizer surface as function of Mach MT function is computed in the AFCS and the command is transmitted to HS-ACE via of Mach number moves aft the wing aerodynamic center of pressure, causing an pitch downmoment. Horizontal stabilizer mach trim up command is required to compensate the pitch function automatically engages when the conditions below are satisfied : Autopilot is not engaged, Indicated airspeed is above Mach, Manual trim of horizontal stabilizer is not in progress, Neither of the quick disconnect switches are pressed, Any other trim function is not MT function disengages if at least one of conditions above is not satisfied. It also disengages if MTmonitor detects a fault in trim rate trim is disabled with AP engagement due to AP trim Mach Trim schedule stabilizer position reference will synchronize to the current stabilizer positionupon a transition to engage FEATUREThe preview feature allows the capture of an ILS course while still using the FMS as the basic system automatically selects the ILS frequency and course if the PREV function is used withAUTO tuning enabled on the MCDU radio page. An ILS or BC procedure has to be part of the activeflight plan on the FMS to allow automatic PFD displays the CDI associated to the selected NAV frequency (LOC or VOR) with FMS selectedon the PFD as the primary navigation AP will intercept the LOC while still displaying the FMS as the primary NAV source. Uponinterception, the primary navigation source becomes LOC or BC, instead of 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 33AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 92 of 171LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONSThe system uses an ILS to generate flight guidance to the crew where the environment does not haveenough visibility during approach. CAT I, CAT II or CAT III flight guidance is given by the APPROCHES - AUTOLAND DISABLEDDuring execution of the ILS approach, Autopilot Approach Status Annunciator displays the currentstatus of the system and alerts whether the intended approach matches system intended approach is informed to the system setting the barometric correction via control knobs onDisplay Controller panel (guidance panel). CAT I - set RA/BARO selector to BARO, CAT II - set RA/BARO selector to APP button is pressed, system tries to arm the highest capability available (APPR2 or APPR1respectively) as follows : 1500 ft RA - system starts trying to engage highest capability available, 800 ft RA - system freezes highest capability available, not allowing approach CAT I APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT IATAPLOCSPDTGSATAPLOCAPPR1SPDTGSGLIDESLO PE CAPTURE1500 ftAPPR1 BELOW 1500 ft WITH RA/BARO SET TO BARO, AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR1, ALLOWING CAT1 2 NOT AVAILABLEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 34AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 93 of APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT I (RA/BARO SET RA)2. CAT II CONDITIONS TO ARM/ENGAGEThe operational conditions to arm a CAT II approach are: RA/BARO set to RA. For CAT II, the minimums can be set to a value of 80 ft or higher, in order toset the EGPWS call outs. The minimums can also set to OFF in order to disable the EGPWS callouts, Both NAV radios set to correct ILS frequency, Both PFDs set to correct LOC inbound course (V/L or Preview).The operational conditions to engage a CAT II approach are: Flap 5, Radio altimeters height below 1500 2 NOT AVAILABLE - RA/BARO INCORRECTLY SET TO RAEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 35AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 94 of 171If the flap setting is the only remaining condition to be satisfied for CAT II, the armed status willremain displayed down to 800 ft RA, suggesting there is still one pilot's action all necessary requirements are not accomplished, an EICAS message is presented during flightand informs that category II ILS approach mode is not available. APPROACH SEQUENCE - CAT II3. FAIL PASSIVE CAT IIIA OPERATIONA fail passive system is one that in the event of a failure causes no significant deviation of airplaneflight path or attitude. The capability to continue the operation is lost and an alternate course of actionis fail passive CAT IIIa operation is conducted automatically using an Autoland system, with a decisionhigh not less than 50 ft and a runway visual range not less than 600 ftAP/AT ENGAGED IN HDG/ALT. AP HOLDING SELECTED HEADINGAND ALTITUDE. AUTOTHROTTLE HOLDING SELECTED PUSHBUTTON ON GP PRESSED ARMING LOC/GS APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR2 BELOW 1500 ft WITH RA MINIMUMS SET TO CAT2, AP APPROACH STATUS ANNUNCIATOR SHOWS APPR2 IN 2 AVAILABLEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 36AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 95 of 171AUTOLANDAutoland 1 consists of approach, touchdown and 5 seconds of roll out with the autopilot engaged. Thisis accomplished under the capture of localizer and glideslope during an ILS approach (CAT I, II or IIIbeams). Autoland can be performed with or without CONDITIONS TO ARM/ENGAGEThe operational conditions to arm autoland are : Autoland is enabled (MCDU), Autopilot and yaw damper engaged, RA/BARO set to RA and Minimums set at 50 ft or above, LOC 1 on left PFD and LOC 2 on right PFD, Both NAV set to correct LOC frequency. Both PFDs set to correct LOC inbound course (V/L), No miscompares on operational conditions to engage autoland are : Flap 5, Both radio altimeters indicating less than 1500 the flap setting is the only remaining condition to be satisfied for CAT II, the armed status will remaindisplayed down to 800 ft RA, suggesting there is still one pilot's action MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIREDTo satisfy the system logic and arm/engage the Autoland 1 Mode, the following equipment arenecessary : 2 Inertial Reference Systems, 1 Flight Director Channel, 2 Primary Flight Displays (PFD), 2 NAV Radios, 2 Radio Altimeter, 2 Air Data System (ADS), 1 Autopilot System 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 37AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 96 of 1713. AUTOLAND DISABLE/ENABLEWhen airplane is powered up the autoland default is ENABLE. Autoland can be disable/enable via theSETUP MCDU page. To disable/enable autoland proceed as follows : Press MENU button on MCDU to go to MENU PAGE : Press line select key 1L to go to MISC MENU page 1 MENU PAGE 1/1 : Press line select key 2L to go to SETUP page 1 PAGE 1/1 : To disable/enable autoland press line select key MCDU PAGEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 38AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 97 of 1714. AUTOLAND MODESFive modes are related specifically to Autoland : Align (ALIGN): engages at 150 ft and maintains the lateral guidance while the airplane aligns withthe runway centerline by means of aileron and rudder control, Flare (FLARE): engages at 50 ft and provides vertical guidance for the transition from glideslope tomain gear touchdown, Retard (RETD): if the autothrottle is engaged, retard engages at 30 ft and commands throttle to idle, De-rotation (D-ROT): engages at main gear touchdown and commands a nose pitch down, touchingnose gear down, Roll out (RLOUT): engages at main gear touchdown and provides lateral guidance to maintainairplane on the runway AUTOMATIC PITCH TRIM LOGICTwo automatic pitch trim logics are related to Autoland operations : A pre-trim up is commanded at 800 ft radio altitude in order to prevent a nose down transient in anevent of an autopilot disconnection. In case of autopilot disconnection a pitch up is expected due tothe pre-trim, requiring pilot manual trimming, Automatic pitch trim inhibition below 50 PARALLEL RUDDERIn Autoland-equipped airplanes, yaw axis control is provided also through a rudder parallel rudder servo engages at Autoland engagement and at go-around with AP engaged. Whenrudder servo is engaged a self-test is accomplished by a small and slow movement of pedals in bothdirections, but not causing any rudder final approach (AEO or OEI) the system logic applies the crab technique in case of crosswindlanding until 150 ft, below 150 ft sideslip is applied. Loss of rudder servo during Autoland disengages the autopilot causing the loss of Autoland autopilot also disengages if it occurs in a go around following an Autoland rudder servo failures during the attempt to engage the servo cause the AP RUDDER SERVO FAILto latch. The failure is only reset on ground by a successful electrical power 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 39AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 98 of 1717. ILS APPROACHES - AUTOLAND ENABLEDDuring execution of the ILS approach, Autopilot Approach Status Annunciator displays the currentstatus of the system and alerts whether the intended approach matches system capabilities. Theintended approach is informed to the system setting the barometric correction via control knobs onDisplay Controller panel (guidance panel). AUTOLAND/CAT I - set RA/BARO selector to RA. In order to disable the EGPWS call outs, theminimums can be set to OFF. After the capture of autoland, setting the selector knob to BARO willenable the callouts, AUTOLAND/CAT II - set RA/BARO selector to RA. The EGPWS minimums call outs can be set to avalue of 80 ft or above. If a specific CAT II procedure chart does not authorize the use of RA, theEGPWS call outs can be disable setting the RA to OFF, AUTOLAND/CAT III - set RA/BARO selector to RA. The EGPWS minimums call outs can be set to avalue of 50 ft or APP button is pressed, system tries to arm the highest capability available (AUTOLAND 1,APPR2 or APPR1 respectively) as follows : 1500 ft RA - system starts trying to engage highest capability available, 800 ft RA - system freezes highest capability available, not allowing approach APPROACH SEQUENCEAbove 1500 ft : Pressing APP button on glareshield panel and with all conditions to arm Autoland satisfied makesthe white "AUTOLAND 1" annunciation to display on the left side of FMA. The LOC lateral mode andthe GS vertical modes arm. When the Autoland engages, the "AUTOLAND 1" annunciation displaysin green on the right side of FMA, Localizer and glideslope engage when 1500 ft and 800 ft : When flap is set to 5 satisfying all conditions to engage Autoland, "AUTOLAND 1" changes placefrom the right to the left side of FMA. ALIGN and FLARE arm. The following buttons are inhibited when Autoland is engaged: TCS, SRC, NAV, APP, BANK, HDG,VNAV, FLC, ALT, FPA and VS,NOTE :Pressing the IAS/MACH button adjusts the target speed to VFE improperly. Do not use thisbutton during autoland operations. At 800 ft a pre-trim up is 150 ft : ALIGN engages. RLOUT and RETD (if autothrottle is engaged) 50 ft : FLARE engages, Automatic pitch prim is 30 ft : RETD engages (if autothrottle is engaged).At main gear touchdown : RLOUT and D-ROT engage. Autothrottle seconds after touchdown : AP 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 40AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 99 of 171AUTOLAND APPROACH SEQUENCE WITH AUTOTHROTTLE ENGAGEDEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 41AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 100 of 171NOTE :The Autoland approach sequences are identical both for AEO and OEI APPROACH SEQUENCE WITH AUTOTHROTTLE DISENGAGEDEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 42AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 101 of 171THRUST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMThe TMS is a dual channel system comprised of the following dual components : Auto Throttle (AT), Thrust Rating Selection (TRS), Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) one channel is operating at any given time. The priority channel can be selected via the 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 43AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 102 of 171AUTOTHROTTLEThe AT uses data from the FADEC, Thrust Control Quadrant, MCDU, AFCS Flight Director and FlightManagement system to provide automatic, full flight regime energy management with a minimum ofpilot AT system provides means to maintain the airplane within its thrust and speed envelopes. Thrustlimiting is based on the active N1 rating, while speed limiting is based on the low speed and maximumspeed limits (Vmo/Mmo, Gear and Flaps placard).Gust compensation is provided to increase the lower speed limit above Vs up to 5 kts in gustyconditions, with slat/flap position greater than 0 (zero).The AT is engaged on the ground when : All parameters required are valid and AT is capable, AT TO mode armed (AT button in the GP is pressed), Both thrust levers above 50 flight, the AT engages when : All parameters required are valid and AT is capable, AT button in the GP is pressed, The airplane is 400 ft AGL or of AT occurs when : Either AT Disconnect Button on the thrust levers is pressed, AT button on the GP is pressed, TLA difference greater than 8 , AT monitor tripped, The required system parameters become invalid, Transition to on-ground condition (weight-on-wheels or wheels spinning), and thrust levers at Idleand AT in Retard the auto Throttle is deactivated, an aural alarm "THROTLLE" is the AT Disconnect Button manually disengages the AT. The second press in the ATDisconnect Button cancels the aural alarm, which sounds at least single press in the AT Disconnect Button cancels the aural warning after the system automaticdisengagement of AT."AT" flashes on the FMA anytime the Auto Throttle is disengaged. Pressing the AT disconnect buttononce cancels the alarm. The visual information will always flash for at least 5 seconds."AT" flashes green on the FMA for normal AT disengagement. For abnormal disengagement "AT"flashes red and an EICAS message is displayed. Pressing the AT disconnect button cancels the FMAvisual warning but the EICAS message remains :When the autothrottle is engaged, the thrust levers may have a misalignment of up to halfof thrust lever handle 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 44AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 103 of 171The AT modes is described as follows : Speed Control Mode - Speed on Thrust (SPDT), Flight Level Change Thrust Control Mode - Speed on Elevator (SPDE), Takeoff Thrust Control Mode (TO), Go-Around Thrust Control Mode (GA), Takeoff Thrust Hold Mode (HOLD), Retard SPEED CONTROL MODE - SPEED ON THRUST (SPDT)The thrust levers are commanded to provide thrust rate as programmed to maintain the desired selected speed is controlled by engine thrust during climb, descend and cruise vertical modes related to SPDT mode are : Flight Path Angle (FPA) - basic vertical mode, Vertical Speed (VS), Glide Slope (GS), Altitude Hold (ALT), Altitude Select (ASEL).The SPDT is also the Auto Throttle mode when the FD is turned :With the AT in the SPDT mode and the AP off, excessive deviations from the FD guidancemay cause AT degraded speed FLIGHT LEVEL CHANGE THRUST CONTROL MODE - SPEED ON ELEVATOR (SPDE)The AT maintains a fixed thrust setting, and the AP maintains the selected speed using the small flight level changes (FLCH mode), the Auto Throttle commands only the necessary thrust inorder to maintain a comfortable predetermined schedule based on vertical large flight level changes (FLCH mode), the Auto Throttle commands climb setting CLIMB ratingand descent in IDLE vertical modes related to SPDE mode are : Flight Level Change (FLCH), Overspeed (OVSP).3. TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL MODE (TO)Takeoff thrust mode (TO) advances the thrust levers to the TO/GA position when AT is engaged on thetakeoff phase pressing the Takeoff and Go Around button on thrust GO-AROUND THRUST CONTROL MODE (GA)The Go-Around thrust mode (GA) advances the thrust levers to the TO/GA 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 45AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 104 of 1715. TAKEOFF THRUST HOLD CONTROL MODE (HOLD)The HOLD mode prevents movements on the thrust levers that could cause undesirable thrustreductions during TO phase. HOLD mode activates when TO mode is active and IAS is greater than 60 kt. The AT servos aredeenergized and thrust lever movements are not commanded up to 400 ft EICAS message is displayed if HOLD mode engages with TLA position below RETARD MODEThe Retard mode provides the retard of thrust levers to the idle thrust position during airplane flare mode is armed (white) based on the following conditions : Autothrottle engaged ; Flap at 5 or FULL position and landing gear down ; Radio Altitude below 150 ft AGL ; Radio Altimeter with valid mode activates based on a Radio Altitude valid and less than 30 ft and airplane is in a landingconfiguration. Once the airplane touches down (weight-on-wheels or wheel spin-up) the auto throttleautomatically :Landing with RAT deployed requires selection of flap/slat 3, which not comply with thecondition to arm and activate the Retard LIMITED THRUST (LIM)Limited Thrust (LIM) is set when the selected vertical mode requires more or less engine thrust thanthat available for the thrust rating selected. In these cases the AT will not be able to maintain theselected speed for climbing or descending and an amber LIM displays on is associated to Speed on Thrust mode (SPDT). 8. OVERRIDE (OVRD)The AT can be overridden by moving the thrust levers, causing no AT disengagement. In this case agreen "OVRD" is displayed on the FMA. The thrust levers return to the AT commanded position afteroverride is discontinued. The Auto Throttle is disengaged when : Thrust lever is moved beyond TO/GA position, TLA is reduced below 40 (aborted TO case) during TO HOLD AT SINGLE ENGINE OPERATIONThe AT deactivates the respective thrust lever when FADEC detects an engine failure or engineshutdown. The operating engine's thrust lever remains active for AT the thrust lever to simulate an engine failure will cause AT disengagement due to thrust leverposition 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 46AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 105 of 171TLA TRIMThe TLA trim functions are the following : Perform small thrust adjustments, with limited authority, Reduce excessive thrust lever movements, Synchronize N1 rotation speed, increasing TLA Trim is set ON whenever AT is engaged. TLA Trim works even if AT is disengaged, if TLATrim is set to ON on the MCDU TRS TRS page on the MCDU is available to set either TLA Trim ON or OFF manually whenever AT isnot 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 47AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 106 of 171THRUST RATING SELECTION (TRS)The TRS automatically determines the appropriated engine thrust rating according to the flight phase. The thrust rating can also be manually selected via TRS page on the MCDU, pressing TRS FADEC transmits the thrust rating and N1 values provided by TRS for display on the EICAS. The thrust ratings transmitted by the TRS are as the following : Take-off (TO), Go-Around (GA), Climb-1 : (CLB-1), Climb-2 : (CLB-2), Cruise (CRZ), Continuous (CON).The Automatic Flight System has an Auto Rating Type Transition Logic that controls the engine ratingchanges according to flight phase, airplane configuration and number of engines + TRS AUTOTRS MANUALRATINGSELECTIONTRS KEYTHRUST RATE SELECT PAGEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 48AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 107 of 171THRUST RATING SELECTION (TRS)TO is the engine thrust rating selection on ground, and it remains in TO mode while airplane is below400 ft change of engine thrust rating from TO to CLB is set when the following conditions occurssimultaneously : Any change in vertical mode is detected, Airplane altitude is above 400 ft AGL, Both engines are running, Landing gears are no change in vertical mode is detected, the engine thrust rating switches from TO to CLB at 3000 ftpressure altitude active TRS flight phase is set to CLB when the airplane is in air and the Altitude Pre-selector isabove the current Baro one engine inoperative condition, the engine thrust rating changes from TO to CON at 3000 ftpressure altitude active TRS flight phase is set to CRZ when the airplane is in air and Baro Altitude is between 100ft above and 100 ft below of Pre-selected Altitude for more than 90 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 49AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 108 of 171EICAS MESSAGESTYPEMESSAGEMEANINGCAUTIONAP FAILAutopilot function is no longer PITCH MISTRIMPitch trim and autopilot commanding pitch trim control inopposite PITCH TRIM FAILAutopilot stabilizer trim is no longer ROLL MISTRIMRoll trim and autopilot commanding roll trim control inopposite FAILBoth AT have failed. Selected AT function is NOT IN HOLDAT not in TO Hold following the transition above 60knots during TO roll and until the aircraft transitions 400ft AGL and Go TLA NOT TOGATLA not at TO/GA position during takeoff and/or go-around LATERAL MODE OFFDisconnection of the lateral mode due to VERT MODE OFFDisconnection of the vertical mode due to ANTICIPATEDIndication that Shaker activation angles have beenadvanced to conservative PROT FAILStall Warning function and Stall Protection functions areno longer FAULTLatent fault to AFCS functions. AFCS PANEL FAILBoth channels of the GP have PANEL FAULTA single channel of the GP has FAULTThe AP has one channel PITCH TRIM FAULTThe AP pitch trim has one channel 2 NOT AVAILThe AP is not capable to perform a CAT 2 FAULTThe A/T has one channel TLA TRIM FAILSelected Sync function is unavailable due to an internalfailure or a required input failure. AT function FAILFD is no longer FAULTA single FD channel is no longer 1 (2) FAILStall warning function has 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 50AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 109 of 171TYPEMESSAGEMEANINGADVISORYSTALL PROT FAULTAOA Miscompare Monitor (Stall Warning Subsystem)has PROT ICE SPEEDThe reference speed has changed. Set reference speedto ice speed. Once the ice condition is detected, thesystem latches the ice condition active until 30 secondsafter WOW becomes FAILYaw damper function is no longer FAULTThe yaw damper has one channel OFFYaw damper function is 190 - Systems Summary [Automatic Flight Control System]Page 51AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 110 of 171 EMBRAER 190 Communications AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 111 of 171The EMBRAER 190 provides a complete set of Communication functions. The main interface for thesystem is done through the Audio Control Panel (ACP).The audio system is controlled via three individual ACPs available to the captain, first officer andobserver, and also provides interface with the Passenger Address (PA), Aural Warning, and DigitalVoice and Data Recorder (DVDR) communications equipment includes a third VHF COM, HF and Selcal AND INDICATIONS1. CONTROL WHEELN DESCRIPTIONcCONTROL WHEEL COMMUNICATIONS SWITCH :-PTT (momentary) :allows VHF transmissions, as well as voice communications :allows communication between crewmembers and betweencrewmembers and ramp :allows only audio RESETO1CONTROL WHEELEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 1AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 112 of 1712. GLARESHIELD COMMUNICATIONN DESCRIPTIONcGLARESHIELD PTT BUTTON :- Allows VHF transmissions and voice communications to ADDRESS PTT BUTTON :- Allows voice communications to passengers, regardless of any selection in the audiocontrol PANELCONTROLPEDESTALPAGLARESHIELD COMMUNICATIONEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 2AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 113 of 1713. HAND MICROPHONE CONTROLSN DESCRIPTIONcHAND MIC PTT BUTTON :- Allows transmission through the ACP, as well as communication to MICROPHONE CONTROLSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 3AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 114 of 1714. CAPTAIN AND FIRST OFFICER JACK PANELSN DESCRIPTIONcCAPTAIN AND FIRST OFFICER JACKS :- Allows plugging in headphone (PHONE), headset (ANR HDST), hand microphone(HAND MIC) and boom microphone (BOOM MIC).1PHONEBOOM MICANR HDST1MICCAPTAIN AND FIRST OFFICER JACK PANELSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 4AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 115 of 1715. OBSERVER JACK PANELN DESCRIPTIONcOBSERVER JACKS :- Allows plugging in headphone (HDPH), headset (ANR HDST) and boom microphone(BOOM).dOBSERVER COMMUNICATIONS SWITCH :-PTT (momentary) :allows VHF and voice communications with :allows communication between crewmembers and betweencrewmembers and ramp :allows only audio reception. HOTOBSERVER JACKSMICROPHONEBOOMOFFPTTHDPHANRHDSTOBSE RVERSTATION12OBSERVER JACK PANELEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 5AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 116 of 1716. RAMP STATIONN DESCRIPTIONcCOCKPIT CALL BUTTON (momentary action) :- When pressed, generates a single HI/LO tone chime and the RAMP annunciator buttonflashes on the audio control JACK :- Allow ground personnel to plug in a headphone and a microphone equipped with a :Ground personnel panel is linked to the hot mic once the ramp button is 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 6AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 117 of GPURAMP INPHMIC/PHONERAMPIPHCKPT CALLDC1MIC/PHONE12GPUNPWRO/ V RLYAVAILIN USELANRAMPIPHCKPT CALLMIC/PHONENMAINTENANCE PANELGCU / EPMLAN12GROUNDSERVICE SWCKPT CALLRAMP STATIONEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 7AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 118 of 1717. AUDIO CONTROL PANEL (ACP)N DESCRIPTIONcMICROPHONE SELECTOR BUTTONS :- Related communication channel is enabled for transmission and When selected, a green bar illuminates inside the CONTROL BUTTONS :- Related audio channel is enabled for Automatically activated when a transmission channel is More than one audio channel may be selected at the same When selected, a green dot illuminates inside the CONTROL BUTTON (UNAVAILABLE)fPASSENGER ADDRESS CONTROL BUTTON :- Enables PA When selected, a green bar illuminates on the transmission button and a green dotilluminate on the reception INTERPHONE CONTROL BUTTONS :-EMER: sounds a triple HI/LO tone chime through the PA system and illuminates a redlight at ceiling of the flight attendant station. When selected, a green bar flasheson button until the flight attendant picks up the call. Once the flight attendantpicks up the call the green bar flashes faster. Pressing the button again, the lightbecomes steady and the communication with the flight attendant is : enables communication with the ground personnel. For an incoming call, theramp annunciator flashes and remains steady on when active. A single HI/LOtone : sounds a single HI/LO tone chime through the PA system and illuminates agreen light at ceiling of the flight attendant station. When selected, a green barflashes on button until the flight attendant picks up the call. Once the flightattendant picks up the call the green bar flashes faster. Pressing the buttonagain, the light becomes steady and the communication with the flight attendantis VOLUME CONTROL KNOB :- Allows adjustment of the most recently selected FILTER BUTTON :- Activates a filter that eliminates voice on VOR and ADF audio so the identification can SELECTION BUTTONS :- Enables the respective audio to be summed into the output on the headphone (HDPH),interphone (INPH) or cockpit speaker (SPKR).- When selected, a green dot illuminates inside the DISPLAY :- Displays the selected transmission channel and digital volume 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 8AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 119 of 171lAUTO/MASK MICROPHONE SWITCH :-AUTO (PUSH IN) :allows audio communication via oxygen (PUSH OUT) :activates oxygen masks microphone when auto mode Oxygen mask stowage box doors must be closed and reset in order to enable hand orheadset microphone booms after using the oxygen mask VOLUME CONTROL BUTTON/KNOB :-NORM (PUSH IN) : normal operation (PUSH OUT) : activates backup operation when audio panel power fails or bothdigital audio buses Minimum volume is at the extreme counterclockwise position and the maximum volume isat the extreme clockwise The VHF 1 is the radio available for Captain ACP and VHF 2 is the radio available for theFirst Officer ANNUNCIATOR BUTTON :- Flashes when an incoming call is Pressing shows the code on the ACP Remains steady when active for DESCRIPTION1112Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 9AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 120 of 171EMERVOLSATHFVHF3VHF2VHF1MICPANAV1NAV2 NAV3ADF1ADF2IDDME1DME2MKRSPKRSELCALINPHH DPHMICVHF1: 47NORM BKUPAUTOMASK356781011121249OBSERVER CONTROL PANEL (ACP)Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 10AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 121 of 1718. DIGITAL VOICE-DATA RECORDERN DESCRIPTIONcSELECTOR SWITCH :-FWD: enables test functions of DVDR 1, which is located in the forward electronic : enables test functions of DVDR 2, which is located in the aft electronic JACK :- Monitors tone transmission during test or to monitor playback of voice BUTTON :- Simultaneously tests all CVR and FDR functions on each DVDR. The DVDR on which thetest will be performed is selected on the Selector An aural tone is heard through the headset if the unit passes the test. NOTE :An aural tone is heard only for airplanes equipped with Honeywell DVDR. Forairplanes equipped with L3 DVDR, observe that there are no FAIL messages ERASE BUTTON :- Erases the recorded audio information, provided that the airplane is on the ground andparking brake is CONTROL PANEL3DIDITAL VOICE-DATA RECORDEREmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 11AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 122 of 1719. PRINTERN DESCRIPTIONcPPR ADV :- Continuously advances paper while pushbutton is PPR :- Illuminates when the printer senses the last remaining 10 feet of paper on the papersupply BUTTON :- Illuminates all indicators followed by a printout of test results and a test "TEST" button indicator bar will remain lit in conjunction with the "FAULT" indicator toreport a self test RST BUTTON :- Not functional. gFAULT BUTTON :- Illuminates when senses no paper or printer door Illuminates in conjunction with test button in case of self-test BUTTON :- Alternatively turns the printer off and on. When power is applied to the printer, itautomatically is in the on TO CLOSEOFFRSTADVPPRFAULTALRTTESTLOWPPRPRIN TEREmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 12AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 123 of 171COMMUNICATION SYSTEMThe communication system comprises the radio communication (VHF), interphone, audio controlpanels and digital data voice RADIO COMMUNICATION VERY HIGH FREQUENCYThe VHF digital radios (VDR) 1 and 2 are located in the Modular Radio Cabinets (MRC). VDR 1 and2 interfaces with the audio system through the audio/microphone busses, and with the MCDU/PFDthrough the ASCB. VDR channels 1 and 2 are for voice communication 3 interfaces with audio system and MCDU/PFD indirectly via MRC 2 and directly to MAU 1 todata transmission. The VHF radio 3 is located on a separated radio Mini Cabinet. VDR 3 providesvoice communication as well as data communications through ACARS (Aircraft CommunicationAddressing and Reporting System) VHF frequency is tuned/activated through the MCDU (primary mean) or CCD (PFD).A tuning backup is available in MCDU 2 in case of loss of both MAUs. In the same way, if the audiobus is lost there are audio flight crew may tune the VHF frequency on the MCDU as follows : Press RADIO button on the MCDU to go to RADIO page 1 PAGE 1/2 : On RADIO page 1/2 is possible to tune and activate the VHF 1 and 2 frequencies. The tuning canbe accomplished using the tuning knob or the numeric buttons. If the tuning knob is used thestandby frequency must prior be boxed pressing its respective line select key. In case of thenumeric keys, enter the standby frequency and press the respective line select key. To activatethe standby frequency press the respective active frequency, Press the respective standby frequency twice if not boxed, otherwise press once, to go to COMpage 1 1 (2) PAGE 1/1 : On the COM page is possible to capture a frequency tuned in memory. Press 3L to box thememory tune and use the tuning knob to cycle the stored frequencies. Press the active frequencyto capture the selected memory tune, Press line select key 1R to cycle to the squelch on or off, Press line select key 3R to cycle to the frequency spacing :- : frequency has three decimal places,- 25: frequency has two decimal places. Press line select key 6L to go to COM MEMORY page 1 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 13AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 124 of 171COM MEMORY PAGE 1/2 : On the COM MEMORY page is possible to capture a frequency tuned in memory or store afrequency/identification. To capture a frequency press the respective memory frequency to box itand press 1L to activate the frequency. To store a frequency or its identification use thealphanumeric keys and press the respective memory line select key. Additionally the frequencycan also be stored pressing the receptive memory line select key and rotating the tuning VHF frequency selection through the CCD is as follows : Select the PFD through the CCD. The left and right format location buttons select respectivelypilot's and copilot's PFDs, Tune the standby frequency through the tuning the standby frequency by pressing the enter . 200COM1118 . 6 0 0NAV1114 . 8DME H PXR115 . 6TCAS/ XPDRSTBYTA/ RA123 . 200COM2118 . 6 0 0NAV2SQFMSA UT O117 . 4116 . 8N 12 3 XPDR1471IDENTRADI O1 / 2RADIO PAGE 1/2Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 14AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 125 of 171PRADIO PAGE 2/2 : To bring up the RADIO PAGE 2/2, with the radio PAGE 1/2 displayed, press NEXT button, On RADIO page 2/2 is possible to tune and activate the VHF 3 frequencies for voice line select key 6L twice to go to COM 3 page 1/1, and then press line select key 2R tocycle the operational mode (data or voice). It is possible to tune a radio frequency in the samemanner as VHF 1 and 2, The frequencies to data transmission are selected in a specific ACARS page. With data modeselected, the indication 'DATA' displays, otherwise VHF 3 active and stand by O2 / . 0365 . 0COM3DAT A2L3L4L5L6L1L1R2R3R4R5R6RRADIO PAGE 2/2 (DATA MODE)SQRADI O2 / 2ADF1230 . 0365 . 0HF 18 . 8550UV10 . 096012 1 . 7COM3118 . 5ADF2235 . 5360 . 0RADIO PAGE 2/2 (VOICE MODE)Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 15AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 126 of 171COM 3 PAGE 1/1 : The COM 3 page provides the same options as COM 1 (2) pages, except that is possible toselect the transmission mode for VHF 3. The transmission mode is selected pressing line selectkey 2R to cycle the operational mode (data or voice).1L2L3L4L5L6L1R2R3R5R6R 1 . 0 0 0MEM T UNE1 - K DV T T WR118 . 4 0 0MEMORYCOM 31SQUEL CHON OF FMODEVOI CEDAT O 2 / 2COM PAGE 1/1Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 16AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 127 of 171BACKUP RADIO PAGE : The BACKUP RADIO page provides means for tunning COM 1, VHF NAV 1 and XPDR 1 (ALTOFF mode) in case of loss of primary and secondary tuning means (tuning using MCDU andCCD). In such cases, radio access is done via backup connection available on MCDU 2, The BACKUP RADIO page is available pressing MENU function button on the MCDU and thenline select key 4L on Menu page. The BACKUP RADIO page displays automatically on MCDU 2for some failure PAGE 1/1365 . 0STBY2L3L4L5L6L1L1R2R3R4R5R6RBACKUP RADI OCOM112 3 . 2 OONAV1114 . 8 O11O . 6 OAL T- OFFXPDR1471IDENTBACKUP RADIO PAGE 1/1Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 17AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 128 of 1712. SELECTIVE CALLINGSelective Calling (SELCAL) monitors selected frequencies on the VHF and HF radios in case of theground station is desiring to communicate with the flight crew. Each airplane is assigned of a uniquefour-letter SELCAL 1MAU 1CCD 1PFD 1CCD 2PFD 2MCDU 2MAU 2MFD 2ANTENNASAUDIO BACKUPAUDIO BACKUPANTENNASASCBAUDIO / MICROPHONE 1LANTUNNINGBACKUPMRC 1VHF 1XPDR 1ADF 1MRC 2VHF 2XPDR 2ADF 2AUDIOPANEL 2AUDIOPANEL 1VHF 3ANTENNAAUDIOPANEL 3MAU 3CMF 1CMF 2CMCANTENNAHFNAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION SCHEMATICEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 18AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 129 of 1713. INTERPHONE SYSTEMThe interphone system provides intercommunication between the flight crew, flight attendants andramp flight attendants communicate between flight attendant stations or with the flight crew using any ofthe attendant between flight crew and flight attendants may be done through the chimes are annunciated at the beginning of the call from the cockpit to the flight attendants PASSENGER ADDRESS (PA)The PA system allows flight crew in the cockpit and flight attendants to make announcements to thepassengers. Announcements are heard through speakers located in the cabin and in the pilots can make announcements using hand, headset boom or oxygen mask microphones. Theflight attendants can make use of PA handset located at their announcements may be provided as well as recorded music for system use is prioritized. Cockpit announcements have first priority and override all attendant announcements override the pre-recorded announcements and this one overridesthe music ATTENDANT CALLThe call system is used as a mean for crewmembers to gain the attention of other crewmembersand to indicate that interphone communication is is gained through the use of lights and aural signals (chimes or horn). The cockpit may becalled from either flight attendant station or by the ground personnel. The ground personnel mayonly be called from the cockpit. Flight attendants may be called from the cockpit through interphonebuttons on the ACPs or flight attendant call button on the overhead panel, the other attendantstation, or from any passenger seat (PSU) or lavatory. Call lights in the passenger cabin identify, thesource of incoming calls to the system chime signals low, high or high/low tones are audible in the passenger cabin throughthe PA system speakers. The PA speakers also provide an alerting chime signal whenever the NOSMOKING, FASTEN SEAT BELT or RETURN TO SEAT (in the lavatory) signs and STERILECOCKPIT light illuminate or attendant call lights located on the forward and aft main ceiling panel areas provide a visualindication to attendant when there is a call from the flight crew or 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 19AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 130 of ATTENDENT CALL TABLE4. AUDIO CONTROL PANELThere are three Audio Control Panels (ACP), located at the control pedestal and observer panel controls an independent crew station audio system and allows the flight crew to select thedesired radios, navigation aids, interphones and PA systems for monitoring and audio panel receives inputs from all audio communication channels and aural warnings. Audiowarning for altitude alert, ground proximity warning system (GPWS), traffic collision avoidance system(TCAS), and windshear among others, are also heard through the speakers and headsets. Thesewarnings cannot be controlled or turned off by the flight crew. Audio from each ACP is monitored usinga headset, headphone or the related speaker, except for the observer ORIGINATORCALLED POSITIONVISUAL SIGNAL AT CALLED POSITIONAURAL SIGNAL AT CALLED POSITIONCockpitAttendant StationGreen lightSingle high/low tone chimeRed lightTriple high/low tone chimeAmber sterile cockpit lightSingle high tone chimePassenger cabin, lavatories and galleysNo smoking or fasten belt signs illuminate/ extinguishSingle low tone chimeCockpit (lateral console)Ramp station-Horn in the nose wheel wellCockpit (Overhead Panel)Attendant station-Single high/low tone chimeAttendant stationCockpitCAB or EMER annunciator button flashes on the ACPSingle or triple high/low tone chime for CABor EMER, respectivelyAttendant station-Single high/low tone chimeRamp stationCockpitRAMP annunciator button flashes on the ACPSingle high/low tone chimeLavatoryAttendant stationOrange lightSingle high tone chimePassenger PSUAttendant stationBlueSingle high tone chimeEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 20AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 131 of 1715. DIGITAL VOICE DATA RECORDER SYSTEM (DVDR)The digital voice data recorder system (DVDR) combines a flight data recorder (FDR) and a cockpitvoice recorder (CVR) in a single unit. Two DVDR units are installed. DVDR 1 is installed in the forwardelectronic bay, and the DVDR 2 in the aft electronic bay. Each unit is capable of receiving, recordingand preserving all required data parameters and voice recording from the cockpit crew and DVDR unit is capable of recording the last 120 minutes of audio information from cockpit areamicrophone and primary crew microphones, 25 hours of flight data, 120 minutes of digitalcommunication messages and GMT as is DVDR's FDR data available for maintenance purposes only through the MCDU. 6. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONThe Communication Management Function (CMF) provides the following functionalities : Character-oriented communication through ACARS network, Communication between different airplane is a dual mode active/stand by system. CMF 1 resides in MAU 3 and is powered by DC bus 2 resides in MAU 1 and is powered by DC bus has the following interfaces : ACARS network, MCDUs are the primary flight crew interface with CMF providing display and control for the becomes available pressing MCDU DLK button, Printer receives ACARS exchanged messages via CMF, CMC receives fault/events reports from the CMF. CMC also provides communication between theCMF and Printer device, PFD displays a "MSG" flag when uplink messages are received from ground, EICAS alerts crew members of CMF faults, AWS alerts crewmembers of new ATS (Air Traffic Services) uplink ACARSACARS is a data link system that allows character-oriented messages to be exchanged betweenground stations and the airplane. Messages divide in two groups : Addressed to or by crewmembers: data link requests or free text reports ; Automatically sent: reports of flight data, performance data and routine to ground stations are made through VDR 3 channel. MCDU provides interface withACARS applications to 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 21AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 132 of 171ACARS applications are :AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE APPLICATIONS ATIS (Air Traffic Information Service) Reports application enables the flight crew to send adownlink message requesting an uplink report that may be a specific airport information or an enroute information, Departure Clearance Application is used to request a departure clearance through character-oriented messages instead of voice communication, Expected Taxi Clearance is used to request a taxi clearance through character-orientedmessages instead of voice communication, Flight System Message Application is used to display unsolicited uplink messages that provideadditional information then that provide in an Oceanic or Departure Clearance, Oceanic Clearance Application makes the oceanic clearance request through character-orientedmessages instead of voice communication, Pushback Clearance is used to request a pushback clearance through character-orientedmessages instead of voice communication, TWIP (Terminal Weather Information for Pilots) provides meteorological information to the flightcrew. AIRLINE OPERATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS APPLICATIONS (AOC)The airline may customize AOC applications supported by CMF using a ground-based of AOC applications are : Flight Initialization, Free Text, Weather Request, Out, Off, On and In events (OOOI events) are automatic reports sent to the airline operationscontrol. Both reports and trigger events are configurable by the airline. Examples are :- Out events - doors closed, brakes released, etc,- On events - landing,- Off events - take off,- In events - gate 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 22AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 133 of 171ACARS WINDOW PAGESPushing the DLK button brings up CMF MAIN MENU page. Further access to other pages isprovided through the LSK on MCDU. Although the AOC pages may be configured by the airline, thescheme below shows a basic AOC with most common functions required by N MENU< PRE FL T< I N FL T< POST FL T< FREE TEXT< FLT TIMES< SYS MENUNEW MSGS >MSGS SENT >MSGS RCVD >VOX CONT ACT >STATUS >ATS MENU >ACARS MAIN MENUEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 23AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 134 of MENULSK 6RPRE FLTLSK 1LSYS MENULSK 6LMAIN MENUPOST FLTLSK 3LNEW MSGSLSK 1RSTATUSLSK 5RIN FLTLSK 2LFREE TEXTLSK 4LFLT TIMESLSK 5LMSGS SENTLSK 2RMSGS RCVDLSK 3RVOXCONTACTLSK 4RNEW MSGSLSK 1RNEW MSGSLSK 1RNEW MSGSLSK 1RINITIALIZELSK 1LSEP DELAYLSK 2LFREE TEXTLSK 3LWX REQUESTLSK 4LFREE TEXTLSK 3LENTR DELAYLSK 1LWX REQUESTLSK 4LDIVERSIONLSK 3RARR DELAYLSK 2LETALSK 2RFLT TIMESLSK 1LARR DELAYLSK 2LFREE TEXTLSK 3LPOST FLTRPTLSK 4LSENSORSLSK 1LASCB DATALSK 2LNEW MSGSLSK 1RACARS NAVIGATION WINDOWSEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 24AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 135 of 1717. PRINTERThe airplane is equipped with a full-format thermal line printer device installed in the cockpit on controlpedestal. DC BUS 1 powers the printer whereas a CB located in the cockpit Circuit Breaker Panelfurnishes electrical flight crew accesses printer via MCDU by CMF during all flight phases. On ground, maintenancepersonnel accesses printer via MFD 2 to print maintenance reports. CMF and CMC communicate withthe printer via the LAN printer provides a self test which, in case of failure, illuminates the printer fault indicator inconjunction with printer test indicator. The Fault light also illuminates when printer door is open orpaper out is MESSAGESTYPEMESSAGEMEANINGCAUTIONNAVCOM 1 (2) FAILAll functions hosted in associated MRC are 1 (2) OVHTMRC NIM has suffered an over temperature CONFIGTop level system part number was 1 (2) (3) OVHTVHF COM has suffered an over temperature 3 FAILRadio 3 COM function has FAILCMC has 1 (2) FAILThe respective CMF has 1 (2) FAILMRC 1 (2) has detected a transponder FAULTPrinter functionality is 190 - Systems Summary [Communications]Page 25AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 136 of 171 EMBRAER 190 PowerplantAMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 137 of 171Two wing-mounted General Electric CF34-10E engines produce power to the EMBRAER General Electric CF34-10E is a high-bypass and dual rotor turbofan, fully integrated with a nacelleand thrust reverse. The N1 and N2 rotors are mechanically and independently engine is controlled via a dual channel FADEC system providing flexible engine operation andreduced indications and alerts are displayed on the Engine Indications and Crew Alerting System(EICAS).Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 1AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 138 of 171CF34-10E ENGINEEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 2AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 139 of 171ENGINE SCHEMATICEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 3AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 140 of 171CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS1. CONTROL PEDESTALN DESCRIPTIONcTHRUST LEVER DETENTS :-MAX:provides the maximum thrust rating available for dual - or single - :selects takeoff, maximum continuous, and go-around mode :selects flight idle, approach idle, final approach idle and ground idle REV:provides minimum reverse REV: provides maximum reverse thrust. The thrust lever must be pulled against aspring to achieve the MAX REV position. If the thrust lever is released it goesback to MIN REV :Positioning the thrust lever between the thrust control quadrant detents selectsintermediate thrust REVERSER TRIGGER :- Pulling the thrust reverser trigger, allows commanding of thrust levers from IDLE to MAXREV, thus providing reverser activation on the ground,- For TO/GA and A/T DISC buttons descriptions, refer to B12-22 - Automatic Flight 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 4AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 141 of 1712. FIRE HANDLEThe Fire Handle, located on the Fire Protection Control Panel, enables emergency engine further information on fire protection system controls, refer to B12-26 - Fire PEDESTALEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 5AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 142 of 1713. ENGINE CONTROL PANELN DESCRIPTIONcSTART/STOP SELECTOR KNOB :-STOP:commands the FADEC to shut down the engine, provided the associated thrustlever is in the IDLE :normal position for engine operation. -START: (momentary action) : initiates the engine start SELECTOR KNOB :-OFF:deactivates the ignition system. FADEC disregards OFF position in :FADEC automatically controls the ignition system, depending on : enables FADEC to continuously activate both exciters when the engine CONTROL PANELEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 6AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 143 of 17164. EICAS INDICATIONN DESCRIPTIONcTHRUST REVERSER INDICATION :- Indicates the thrust reverser Label : REV GREEN : fully deployed. AMBER : in transition. RED :discrepancy between selected and actual reverser INDICATION :- Digital Indication : Displays the percentage of N1 RPM : GREEN :normal operating range. RED :operating limit exceeded. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable Quantity Scale/Pointer : The pointer on the scale indicates a value equal to that shown on the digital readout. Scale:- GREEN : normal operating RED :operating limit The amber boxed FAIL indication is displayed on the center of the N1 dial when an enginehas been flamed out or shut down without pilot action. The cyan OFF indication isdisplayed when the engine is shut down in flight by pilot WING ANTI-ICE CYAN LINE :- Set only in icing conditions during final approach (radio altimeter below 1200 ft) withlanding gear down or flaps extended,- Indicates the minimum thrust level (N1 value) to meet bleed TARGET INDICATION :- Maximum N1 for the engine thrust rating mode indicated on EICAS,- If the requested value is invalid, the digits will be removed from the display,- A cyan V-shaped bug represents the N1 target on the dial indicator,-Digits: CYAN :normal indication. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable RATING MODE INDICATION :- Indicates the current thrust-rating mode. Indications are displayed in cyan,- Label: TO-1, TO-2, TO-3, TO-1 RSV, TO-2 RSV, TO-3 RSV, FLEX TO-1, FLEX TO-2,FLEX TO-3, CLB-1, CLB-2, CON, CRZ, GA or 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 7AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 144 of 171hATTCS INDICATION :- An ATTCS indication is displayed to indicate the Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control Label : ATTCS GREEN : armed. WHITE : enabled. BLANK : not TEMPERATURE INDICATION :- Displays the temperature set on the MCDU. This indication is also used as a reference forflexible REQUEST INDICATION :- Indicates the momentary difference (transient) between actual N1 and requested N1applied by thrust lever position (TLA). kMAXIMUM N1 INDICATION :- Green Indicates the maximum allowable N1 (maximum thrust) for the current thrust rating andoperating conditions. If the thrust lever is set to MAX position, the N1 Request value will beequal to the Maximum N1 RED LINE :- Indicates the N1 The digital and dial readout colors change if this value is exceeded. INTERTURBINE TEMPERATURE INDICATION :- Quantity Scale/Pointer : The pointer on the scale indicates a value equal to that shown on the digital readout. Scale:- GREEN : normal operating RED :operating limit AMBER dashes will display on digital readout when an invalid information or a value out ofdisplayable range is A red fire warning indication is displayed on the center of ITT dial to indicate engine RED/AMBER LINE :- Maximum allowable Limits thrust, thereby avoiding the maximum allowable ITT to be The red line will change to amber after the end of the takeoff phase. The red line will beshown in flight if the ITT goes above the CON thrust rating DESCRIPTION1112Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 8AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 145 of 171IGNITION CHANNEL INDICATION :- ndicates the enabled ignition : GREEN : IGN A, IGN B or IGN AB. CYAN: IGN A WML icon is displayed whenever the FADEC has detected an engine flameout and theautorelight system is actuating to restart the engine. It is also displayed whenever anassisted start is INDICATION :- Digital Displays the percentage of N2 RPM : GREEN :normal operating range. RED :operating limit exceeded. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable FLOW INDICATION :- Indicates fuel flow in kilograms per hour (KPH) or pounds per hour (PPH).- Digit colors : GREEN :normal indication. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable PRESSURE INDICATION :- Indicates the engine oil Digit colors : GREEN :normal operating range. AMBER :cautionary operating range. RED :operating limit exceeded. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable TEMPERATURE INDICATION :- Indicates the engine oil Digit colors : GREEN :normal operating range. AMBER :cautionary operating range. AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable VIBRATION INDICATION :- Indicates low-pressure (LP) and high-pressure (HP) vibration levels for both Digit colors : GREEN :normal operating range (0 to ) AMBER :cautionary operating range ( to ). AMBER DASHED :invalid information or value out of displayable DESCRIPTION131415161718Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 9AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 146 of INDICATIONOFF INDICATIONWINDMILLING INDICATION5OOO5OOO55OO55OO11OOOENGINE INDICATION - EICASEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 10AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 147 of 1715. STATUS PAGE - MFDN DESCRIPTIONcOIL LEVEL INDICATION :- GREEN : normal operating AMBER : cautionary operating range. AMBER dashes will display on digital readout when an invalid information or a value outof displayable range is OIL OIL LEVEL INDICATION ON MFDEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 11AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 148 of 171ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM1. GENERALThe engine fuel system provides fuel pressurization, filtering, heat exchange and operation of enginevanes and bleed FUEL PUMPFuel supplied by the airplane fuel tanks flows to the engine fuel pumps. Upon exiting the tanks, the fuelflows through the low-pressure pump and then divides into two paths. One flows through the high-pressure fuel pump and returns to the fuel tank as motive second flows through the fuel/oil heat exchanger to the high-pressure fuel pump. The flow leavesthe pump and passes through the fuel filter. Once filtered, the fuel flows to the FUEL/OIL HEAT EXCHANGERThe fuel-cooled oil cooler (FCOC) maintains the oil temperature within an acceptable range and heatsthe engine fuel to prevent freezing. 4. FUEL METERING UNIT (FMU)The FMU, controlled by the FADEC, meters and distributes the proper amount of fuel for combustion tothe injectors under all operating conditions. The FMU controls the shutoff valve used during all normalshutdowns and provides overspeed FUEL FILTERThe fuel filter removes contaminants from the engine fuel. The impending bypass switch indicates fuelfilter blockage and an imminent bypass condition. 6. VARIABLE STATOR VANES The Variable Stator Vanes sytem consists of two fuel driven actuators controlled by the FADEC purpose of the actuators is to optimize the position of the compressor stators as a function ofcorrected N2 to provide optimum compressor FUEL INJECTORSThe fuel injectors atomize the fuel from the FMU and direct it into the combustion chamber. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 12AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 149 of 1718. FUEL SCHEMATICFUEL SYSTEM SCHEMATICLUBRIFICATION SYSTEMEach engine has an independent lubrication oil system lubricates and cools the turbine engine main shaft bearings and the accessory is pressurized in the lubrication pump, passes through the filter, passes through the fuel-oil heatexchanger and is then divided into several circuits to lubricate the OIL TANKOil quantity indication is provided for each engine oil tank and is displayed on the MFD. Sensors in the tank detect low oil quantity and trigger the low oil level caution whenever this OIL PUMPSThe pump will provide oil flow any time the core engine is pump contains five pumping elements, one supply and four scavenge lube and scavenge pumps delivers oil under pressure to the engine bearings and gears, and thenrecovers the oil to the tank for OIL FILTEROil filter module incorporates a filter bypass and cold start relief oil filter bypass valve permits oil flow if the filter becomes clogged. The filter impending bypassswitch monitors the differential pressure at the filter module has a relief valve to bypass high viscosity oil during cold start 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 13AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 150 of 1714. LUBRICATION SCHEMATICLUBRIFICATION SYSTEM SCHEMATICEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 14AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 151 of 1711. STARTING SYSTEMThe engine starting system comprises : Air turbine starter (ATS), Starter air valve (SAV).The pneumatic system provides bleed air to increase rotor speed and start the engine FADEC opens the Starter Air Valve (SAV), providing bleed air from the APU, a ground source, orthe opposite engine. The Air Turbine Starter (ATS) is a turbine that accelerates the engine to a self-sustaining RPM FADEC closes the SAV when the starter cutout speed is IGNITION SYSTEMThe ignition system provides an electrical spark for fuel combustion during on ground engine starts, inflight starts, in flight auto-relights, and when the ignition selector knob is set to OVRD FADEC energizes one igniter for on ground engine starts and both igniters for in flight enginestarts. Setting the ignition selector knob to OVRD position provides means to keep both igniters 1B and 2B are connected to SPDA 2. In case of SPDA 2 failure, setting the selector knob toOVRD energizes at least the igniter STARTER OPERATIONThe engine starter is controlled via the engine start selector knob on the powerplant control panel. Foron ground starts, the SAV opens providing bleed air to increase rotor speed. 4. GROUND STARTThe FADEC initiates ignition at approximately 7% N2 and the fuel flow (Metering valve opens) atapproximately 20% N2. After a light off occurs, the FADEC commands the starter to cutout atapproximately 50% N2, and controls the FMU fuel metering valve to accelerate the engine to IN FLIGHT STARTEngine cross-bleed air, APU bleed air, or windmilling can be used for in flight engine in flight cross-bleed start is identical to an on ground start, but the FADEC automatically controlsfuel flow to begin (Metering valve opens) if N2 has not reached 15% after 15 windmill starting, the SAV configures the pneumatic system. The engine start is controlled by theSTART/STOP selector knob and the FADEC controls ignition at 7% N2 and fuel flow at a minimum N2, or after 15 seconds, whichever occurs FADEC has no protection for hot starts or hung starts for in flight engine AUTO RELIGHT The FADEC monitors N2 and automatically turns on both igniters and schedules the relight fuel flow inthe event of an engine flameout. In addition a WML icon is displayed next to the respective engine N2and represents an auto relight actuation during the engine auto relight the engine relight does not occur within 30 seconds or N2 falls below %, the automatic relight canbe considered unsuccessful and should be manually terminated by moving the START/STOP selectorknob to the STOP ground operations, auto relight attempts are terminated and fuel is shutoff if the engine RPMfalls below 52 percent 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 15AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 152 of 171PThe Thrust Reverser System is hydraulically actuated and controlled from the cockpit via the reverses 1 & 2 operate independently, and are actuated by the respective hydraulic FADEC provides an interlock function to protect against inadvertent thrust reverser deploymentand also to protect against inadvertent thrust reverser locking system consists of two actuator locks and the independent cowl lock. The cowl lock preventsinadvertent deployment of the thrust REVERSER OPERATIONMoving the thrust lever to Idle enables the lifting of the Thrust Reverser Trigger. Moving the thrust leverto the reverse position commands thrust reverser deployment. Thrust reverser deployment occurs only if the airplane is on the ground. The thrust reverser trigger canbe lift up to 30 seconds after an engine inoperative condition is detected. After 30 seconds the engineinoperative condition does not release the thrust reverse trigger, so the respective thrust lever cannotbe moved to reverse position. The IDLE REV thrust is commanded until the thrust reverser cowls are not totally deployed, after totaldeployment the MAX REV is commanded if thrust levers are held in MAX REV thrust reverser is not designed to operate in flight. Uncommanded thrust reverser deploymentlimits engine thrust to THRUSTREVERSE THRUSTFORWARD THRUSTREVERSE REVERSER ACTUATIONTHRUST REVERSER SYSTEMEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 16AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 153 of 171ENGINE CONTROL SYSTEMThe engine control system performs engine control and thrust management, providing information tothe cockpit, maintenance reporting and engine condition FADEC manages the engine control system, monitoring the inputs from the airplane and inputs control the thrust management from the Thrust Lever Angle and Air T2 sensor provides engine inlet air temperature for use in FADEC control N1 Fan Speed Sensor provides N1 data for the FADEC and airplane vibration monitoring FULL AUTHORITY DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CONTROL (FADEC)The FADEC controls the operation, performance and efficiency characteristics of the engine throughfull authority control over the engine fuel metering unit, variable stator vanes, operability bleed valve,T2 sensor heater, thrust reverser actuation, engine starting, ignition and also providing engine limitprotection during ground speed is the parameter used to set engine thrust. The FADEC controls fan speed for thenecessary thrust based on pressure altitude, temperature and Mach FADEC has two identical isolated channels. During operation with two capable FADEC channels,the software logic will alternate the channel in control of each engine FADEC channel operates as the in-control channel and provides electronic control outputs. Theother channel operates as standby and processes all inputs and software, taking control upon a failureof the active channel. Built in test features shutdown of a channel whenever a critical internalcomponents malfunction is FADEC is primarily powered by the Permanent Magnet Alternator (PMA) above approximately 50% N2. Below this value or in case the PMA becomes inoperative, the airplane's electrical systemprovides the required backup power. 2. AUTOMATIC TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM (ATTCS)The ATTCS, controlled by the FADEC, automatically provides maximum engine thrust reserve (RSV)according to the current rate (TO-1, TO-2, TO-3, FLEX TO-1, FLEX TO-2, FLEX TO-3 and GA)previously selected on the Takeoff Data Set page on the MCDU .The ATTCS status (ON/OFF) may be selected via MCDU on the Takeoff Data Set page. However, if noselection is made before takeoff the system assumes status ON by default . Even if ATTCS is selected OFF for takeoff, it will be armed automatically during go-around ATTCS automatically commands RSV whenever it is armed, thrust levers are at TOGA position,and one of following conditions occurs : Difference between both engine N1 values is greater than 15% ; One engine failure during takeoff ; One engine failure during go-around ; Windshear the ATTCS is activated, the green ATTCS indication on the EICAS disappears and the cyanthrust mode will be displayed with an additional "RSV" 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 17AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 154 of 171ENGINE CONTROL ATTCS LOGIC TABLE3. FLEXIBLE TAKEOFFFlexible takeoff is a reduced takeoff thrust based on assumed temperature. The assumed temperatureis set on the MCDU takeoff page. The FADEC determines flexible takeoff rates for any of three possibletakeoff modes, reducing the takeoff thrust based on assumed temperature set on the indication FLEX TO-1, FLEX TO-2 or FLEX TO-3 will be displayed on the EICAS for the respectiveflexible takeoff flex takeoff reduction is limited to 25% maximum rated takeoff thrust. Deselecting the ATTCS onthe MCDU does not change the flex reduction ENGINE N1The N1 indicates the engine thrust based on Fan N1 "target" is the maximum thrust available in any given mode of operation and is obtainedconsidering fan inlet temperature, pressure, altitude, and engine bleed N1 "Rating" is the maximum N1 value for the current engine thrust N1 "Request" is the N1 value requested based on the current TLA position. FADEC may limit theN1 Request value for some conditions, such as during thrust reverser OFFLIGHTATTCSSTATUSTHRUST LEVERSETENGINE THRUSTOne Engine FailureTakeoffATTCS ONTOGATO-x RSVMAXTO-x RSVATTCS OFFTOGANo Thrust IncreaseMAXTO-xGo-AroundATTCS ONTOGAGA RSVMAXGA RSVWindshearTakeoffATTCS ONTOGATO-x RSVMAXGA RSVATTCS OFFTOGANo Thrust IncreaseMAXGA RSVGo-AroundATTCS ONTOGAGA RSVMAXGA RSVEmbraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 18AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 155 of 1715. ENGINE THRUST RATINGSEngine thrust ratings are controlled by the FADEC, which automatically provides the required thrustrating for engine thrust rate modes are the following : Takeoff (TO-1, TO-2, TO-3), Takeoff Reserve (TO-1 RSV, TO-2 RSV, TO-3 RSV), Go-Around (GA), Go Around Reserve (GA-RSV), Maximum Continuous Thrust (CON), Maximum Climb (CLB-1, CLB-2), Maximum Cruise (CRZ), TAKEOFF (TO-1, TO-2, TO-3)TO-1 is the highest thrust rating available with all engines operating normally considering the thrustlevers at TOGA takeoff modes are designated as TO-1, TO-2 or , TO-2 and TO-3 are limited to 5 minutes during the takeoff MAXIMUM TAKEOFF RESERVE (TO-1 RSV, TO-2 RSV, TO-3 RSV)The maximum takeoff reserve (TO-1 RSV, TO-2 RSV, TO-3 RSV) is the highest thrust ratingavailable according to the TO rate selected. TO-1 RSV, TO-2 RSV and TO-3 RSV are limited to 5minutes during the takeoff GO-AROUND (GA)The GA mode is the highest thrust rating available with all engines operating normally consideringthe thrust levers at TOGA position during a go-around. The GA mode is limited to 5 minutes duringthe go-around GO-AROUND RESERVE (GA-RSV)The GA-RSV is the highest thrust rating available considering the thrust lever at TOGA, one engineinoperative or windshear with dual engine operation, advancing the thrust levers to the MAX position during go-aroundmode can also provide GA-RSV. The GA-RSV is limited to 5 minutes during the go-around MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS RATING (CON)The maximum continuous rating is the maximum thrust rating available for continuous dual or singleengine operation. Embraer 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 19AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 156 of MAXIMUM CLIMB RATING (CLB-1, CLB-2)Maximum Climb rating is the maximum thrust rating for climb operation. Climb modes aredesignated as CLB-1 and Maximum Climb rating does not have a fixed thrust levers position. It is selectable throughthrust lever adjustments between the IDLE and TOGA positions, or even manually selecting (CLB-1or CLB-2) on the MAXIMUM CRUISE RATING (CRZ)Maximum Cruise is the maximum thrust for cruise operations with all engines operating and is notsubject to time-limited operation. The Maximum Cruise (CRZ) thrust ratings does not have a fixedTLA position. It is selectable through thrust lever adjustments between the IDLE and CLB IDLEThe idle mode selections are the following : Flight Idle, Approach Idle, Final Approach Idle, Ground selection between IDLE modes is accomplished by the FADEC based on inputs from theairplane. FLIGHT IDLEThe engine offers the minimum necessary thrust to provide minimum engine bleed pressure tothe airplane. Flight Idle fan speed varies with altitude and can change as a function of ECSbleed, and anti-ice bleed requirements. The flight idle mode is activated as follows : Weight off wheels, Approach idle not selected. APPROACH IDLEApproach Idle is used in flight to enable rapid acceleration to go-around thrust. Approach idle isactivated as follows : Weight off wheels, The approach mode set (flaps 1 or greater or landing gear down and locked), Altitude less than 15000 ft. FINAL APPROACH IDLEThe FADEC sets the Final Approach Idle for altitudes lower than 1200 ft and approach modeconfiguration. When in Final Approach Idle the FADEC considers anti-ice off, regardless of theactual anti-ice system 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 20AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 157 of GROUND IDLEGround Idle is the minimum thrust setting. Ground Idle provides a stable and minimum enginethrust level for ground MINIMUM REVERSEMin reverse is the minimum reverse thrust available with the thrust lever set in the MIN MAX REVERSEMax reverse is the maximum reverse thrust available with the thrust lever set in the MAX THRUST RATINGS TABLENOTE :- Thrusts values for sea level and ISA Engines with flat rated temperature up to ISA+15 (lbf)Thrust (lbf)Thrust (lbf)ThrustModeATTCSAll Engine Engine Inop. All Engine Engine Engine Engine 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 21AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 158 of 171NOTE :- Thrusts values for sea level and ISA Engines with flat rated temperature up to ISA+20 (lbf)Thrust (lbf)Thrust ModeATTCSAll Engine Engine Inop. All Engine Engine 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 22AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 159 of 1716. TAKEOFF DATASETIn the T/O DATASET MENU, on the MCDU, the flight crew may set the TO thrust rate mode, the TOtemperature, the ATTCS ON or OFF, and assumed temperature for flexible the FADEC does not receive a FLEX TEMP from the MCDU or receives a value lower than the TOTEMP, the FADEC will not perform a flex T/O dataset is performed according to the sequence : Press MENU (mode button), Press MISC (line select key - 1L) on MENU page, Press THRUST MGT (line select key - 1R) on MISC MENU page, Press TO DATA SET (line select key - 6R) on THRUST RATING SELECT DATASET MENU ON THE MCDUTHRUST RATING SELREF A/IREF ECSATTCS1/1T/O DATASET MENU23 C13K813KO11K8TO TEMPTO-1TO-2TO-3ENTEROFFOFFOFF ENGONONALLFLEX TEMP39 CFLEX ENGINE FADEC ENGINE PROTECTIONThe FADEC provides engine start protection on the ground as follows : Hung start, Hot start, No and hot start protections are inhibited in the 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 23AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 160 of OVERSPEED PROTECTIONThe FADEC monitors N2 and provides overspeed protection. Whenever N2 reaches 101% theFADEC automatically commands an engine shutdown In the event of three consecutive overspeed detection events within 30 seconds the FADEC will notrelight the OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTIONThe FADEC will not allow fuel flow if ITT is above 120 C during ground start. In this case a drymotoring will be performed automatically and the fuel flow is commanded with ITT below 120 limit is variable according to the engine operation 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 24AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 161 of 171EICAS MESSAGESPartie B - dition 1 du 21/08/2006Manuel d Exploitation R GIONAL - COMPAGNIE A RIENNE EUROP ENNETYPEMESSAGEMEANINGWARNINGENG 1 (2) OIL LO PRESSEngine 1 (2) oil pressure is 1 (2) REV DEPLOYEDThrust reverser deployed unexpectedly, or not stowedwhen ordered to stow or thrust reverser position 1 (2) CONTROL FAULTThrust modulate is unenabled. OBV has failed openor engine will respond 1 (2) FADEC OVERTEMP FADEC overtemperature has been 1 (2) FAILEngine 1 (2) shutdown has 1 (2) FUEL IMP BYPASSFuel filter impending 1 (2) FUEL LO PRESSEngine 1 (2) Fuel pressure low. Airplane backup fuelpump will be 1 (2) NO DISPATCHNo dispatch condition detected by 1 (2) OIL LO LEVELEngine 1 (2) oil level is below 1 (2) REV FAILThrust Reverser is not 1 (2) REV PROT FAULT Reverser fault detected, operation not 1 (2) REV TLA FAILRespective reverser solenoid protection has 1 (2) START VLV OPEN Start valve not closed while engine 1 (2) T2 HEAT FAILT2 heater 1 (2) TLA FAILDual thrust lever angle sensor EXCEEDANCEIn flight engine limit exceedance NO TAKEOFF DATATakeoff data not entered successfully. Discrepancybetween information entered in FMS for engine 1 and2 REF A-I DISAGIce protection mode selector knob set to the ONposition with OFF or ENG in the take-off data set(TDS) REF ECS DISAGDiscrepancy between REF ECS input and actual ECSbleed THR RATING DISAGDiscrepancy between maximum thrust rating ofengines 1 and 2. Possible asymmetric engine TLA NOT TOGATLA not at TO/GA position during takeoff and/or go-around 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 25AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 162 of 171TYPEMESSAGEMEANINGADVISORYENG 1 (2) FADEC FAULTOne FADEC channel no longer sending 1 (2) FUEL SW FAILFuel pressure switch indicates pressure is not lowwhile all fuel pumps are 1 (2) OIL IMP BYPASSOil filter impending 1 (2) OIL SW FAILOil impending bypass switch or oil pressure switchfailure 1 (2) SHORT DISPATCHShort-time dispatch fault condition detected 1 (2) REV INHIBITReverser inhibited by maintenance 1 (2) TLA NOT IDLEThrust Lever Angle not set to idle position duringeither engine start or engine shutdown. A thrusthigher than the expected will be reached if the TLA isabove idle during engine TDS REF A-I ALLREF A-I ALL is selected on take-off data set page TDS REF A-I ENGIce protection mode selector knob set to the AUTOposition and REF A-I ENG is selected on take-off dataset page on 190 - Systems Summary [Powerplant]Page 26AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 163 of 171EMBRAER 190 Auxiliary Power Unit AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 164 of 171INTRODUCTION The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is a gas turbine engine located in the airplane tailcone, which provides pneumatic and electrical AC power. The pneumatic power is used for engine starting and to supply bleed air to the air conditioning packs of the Environmental Control System (ECS). An electrical AC generator supplies 115 Volts 40 KVA to the electrical system. The APU is automatically monitored and controlled through a dedicated Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) unit. BLEED DUCTAIR COOLER INLETAFT FIREWALLEXHAUSTAPU ENGINEAPS2300APU AIRINLET SILENCERAPU LOCATION AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 165 of 171CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS APU CONTROL PANEL 12APU CONTROLSTARTOFFONMASTEROVERHEAD PANELEMER STOP 1 APU SELECTOR KNOB (ROTARY ACTION) OFF: normal position when the APU is not running. ON: normal position when the APU is running. START: (momentary action) initiates the APU start cycle. NOTE: Moving this knob from ON to OFF effects the APU shutdown. AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 166 of 1712 APU EMERGENCY STOP BUTTON (GUARDED) PUSH IN: closes the APU fuel shutoff valve, shutting down the APU with no cooldown period. PUSH OUT: normal position, with the fuel shut off valve open. NOTE: - In case of fire, the upper half of the button illuminates red. - When pushed in, a white striped bar illuminates on the lower half of the button. EICAS INDICATION 12EEICASAPU1OO%45OC 1 APU RPM INDICATION Displays the APU RPM (%). GREEN: normal operating range. AMBER: cautionary operating range. RED: operating limit exceeded. 2 APU EGT (EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE) INDICATION Displays the APU temperature in degrees Celsius ( C). GREEN: normal operating range. AMBER: cautionary operating range. RED: operating limit exceeded. AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 167 of 171APU FUEL SUPPLY When DC power is the only electrical power available, the DC fuel pump, located in the right wing tank, feeds the APU. If AC power is available and the engine is not running, fuel feeding will be provided by the AC fuel pump. When the engine is running, the ejector fuel pump feeds the APU from the right wing tank. However, it is also possible to feed the APU from the left wing tank via a crossfeed valve. APU BLEED The Air Management System (AMS) controls the operation of the APU and the engine bleed valves. The engine bleed valve has priority over the APU bleed valve. When the engine starting cycle is in progress, the APU bleed valve opens and the engine pack valves close. After engine starting, the APU bleed valve closes and the engine pack valves open. APU OPERATION A Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) monitors and controls the start/shutdown sequence, fault detection and APU status. The flight crew controls the APU start/shutdown sequence, using the APU selector knob. In an abnormal condition, the flight crew can shut down the APU through a dedicated emergency stop button. The APU is able to supply: Electrical AC power up to 33000 ft. Bleed air for engine starting up to 21000 ft. Bleed air for air conditioning up to 15000 ft. Maximum altitude for APU start is 30000 ft. AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 168 of 171APU START Rotating the APU master switch to ON powers the FADEC and APU fuel shutoff valve opens. Rotating the APU selector knob from ON to START (momentary position), initiates the APU automatic starting cycle. In automatic starting cycle the FADEC commands the electronic starter controller to energize the brushless starter generator, initiating APU rotation. Three seconds after APU speed has reached 95%, electrical and pneumatic loading are available. If the APU does not reach proper speed or acceleration rate within the starting cycle time, the APU will automatically shut down. GROUND START The FADEC initiates ignition at approximately 6% RPM and the fuel flow after seconds. The battery #2 energizes the electronic starter controller. After a light off occurs, the FADEC commands the starter to cutout at approximately 50% RPM. IN FLIGHT START The FADEC initiates ignition at approximately 7% to 17% RPM and the fuel flow after seconds. After a light off occurs, the FADEC commands the starter to cutout at approximately 50% RPM. APU SHUTDOWN NORMAL APU SHUTDOWN Rotating the APU selector knob from ON to OFF initiates a normal APU shutdown, which is monitored and controlled by the FADEC. During a normal shutdown sequence, the APU pneumatic power is removed at once and the electrical power is removed at the end of a 2 minutes cooldown period. Only at the end of that period the EICAS message APU SHUTTING DOWN disappears. For airplanes Post-Mod SB 170-49-0003 or SB 190-49-0001 (APU FADEC ) or with an equivalent modification factory incorporated, the cooldown period is 1 minute, followed by a spooldown period. The EICAS message APU SHUTTING DOWN disappears at the end of spooldown period. NOTE: Turning the APU selector knob back to ON position during the shutdown sequence cancels the shutdown. AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 169 of 171EMERGENCY APU SHUTDOWN In the event that the APU emergency stop button has been selected, the APU fuel shutoff valve closes and the APU shuts down without a two-minute cooldown period. APU PROTECTION The FADEC provides automatic APU shutdown protection on ground and in flight as follows. The appropriate EICAS message is displayed for each situation. On the ground In flight Overspeed Overspeed Underspeed Underspeed FADEC critical fault FADEC critical fault APU fire APU EGT overtemperature APU high oil temperature APU low oil pressure Sensor fail AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 170 of 171APU START Rotating the APU master switch to ON powers the FADEC and APU fuel shutoff valve opens. Rotating the APU selector knob from ON to START (momentary position), initiates the APU automatic starting cycle. In automatic starting cycle the FADEC commands the electronic starter controller to energize the brushless starter generator, initiating APU rotation. Three seconds after APU speed has reached 95%, electrical and pneumatic loading are available. If the APU does not reach proper speed or acceleration rate within the starting cycle time, the APU will automatically shut down. GROUND START The FADEC initiates ignition at approximately 6% RPM and the fuel flow after seconds. The battery #2 energizes the electronic starter controller. After a light off occurs, the FADEC commands the starter to cutout at approximately 50% RPM. IN FLIGHT START The FADEC initiates ignition at approximately 7% to 17% RPM and the fuel flow after seconds. After a light off occurs, the FADEC commands the starter to cutout at approximately 50% RPM. APU SHUTDOWN NORMAL APU SHUTDOWN Rotating the APU selector knob from ON to OFF initiates a normal APU shutdown, which is monitored and controlled by the FADEC. During a normal shutdown sequence, the APU pneumatic power is removed at once and the electrical power is removed at the end of a 2 minutes cooldown period. Only at the end of that period the EICAS message APU SHUTTING DOWN disappears. For airplanes Post-Mod SB 170-49-0003 or SB 190-49-0001 (APU FADEC ) or with an equivalent modification factory incorporated, the cooldown period is 1 minute, followed by a spooldown period. The EICAS message APU SHUTTING DOWN disappears at the end of spooldown period. NOTE: Turning the APU selector knob back to ON position during the shutdown sequence cancels the shutdown. AMET LTD,FOR TRAINING ONLYPage 171 of 171

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