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BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016

1 Welcome to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. This is the 65th edition of the Statistical Review, an important milestone for a publication

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Introduction1 Group chief executive s introduction2 2015 in review Oil6 Reserves8 Production and consumption14 Prices16 Refining18 Trade movements Natural gas20 Reserves22 Production and consumption27 Prices28 Trade movements Coal30 Reserves and prices32 Production and consumption Nuclear energy35 Consumption Hydroelectricity36 Consumption Renewable energy38 Other renewables consumption39 Biofuels production Primary energy40 Consumption41 Consumption by fuel Appendices44 Approximate conversion factors44 Definitions45 More informationBP Statistical Review of World Energy June #BPstats65th editionDisclaimerThe data series for proved oil and gas reserves in BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2016 does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance, as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP s view of proved reserves by country. Rather, the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party tools and resourcesFor 65 years, the BP Statistical Review of World Energy has provided high-quality objective and globally consistent data on world energy markets. The review is one of the most widely respected and authoritative publications in the field of energy economics, used for reference by the media, academia, world governments and energy companies. A new edition is published every out more: Charting toolYou can view predetermined reports or chart specific data according to energy type, region, country and year. Energy OutlookWatch the BP Energy Outlook 2016 video, containing our projections of long-term energy trends to 2035. Download the booklet and presentation materials. Join the conversation#BPstatsDownload the BP World Energy appExplore the world of energy from your tablet or smartphone. Customize charts and perform the calculations. Review the data online and offline. Download the app for free from the Apple App Store and Google play informationAll the tables and charts found in the latest printed edition are available at plus a number of extras, including: Historical data from 1965 for many sections. Additional data for refined oil production demand, natural gas, coal, hydroelectricity, nuclear energy, electricity, renewables and CO2 emissions. PDF versions and PowerPoint slide packs of the charts, maps and graphs, plus an Excel workbook of the data. Regional and country factsheets. Videos and this review1Welcome to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. This is the 65th edition of the Statistical Review, an important milestone for a publication that has traced developments in global energy markets since 1951, a year when coal provided more than half of the world s energy and the price of oil was around $16 (in today s money). Remarkably, the share of oil in global energy then was almost identical to its share today, at a little over 30%.We believe the BP Statistical Review contributes to the world s understanding of energy markets by providing timely and objective data to help inform discussions, debates and decision-making. Its annual data helps us better interpret the swings and fluctuations that we are living through, and the historical data provide an important context for gauging where we may be heading next. This year s edition records the data for 2015, a year in which significant long-term trends in both the global demand and supply of energy came to the the demand side, we are seeing a gradual deceleration in global energy consumption as the huge boost from globalization and Chinese industrialization slowly subsides. That slowing was compounded last year by continuing weakness in the global economy. As a result, global primary energy consumption grew by just in 2015, similar to the rate of growth seen in 2014, but much slower than the average seen over the past decade. Much of this weakness was driven by China, where energy consumption grew at its slowest rate in almost 20 years. Even so, China remained the world s largest growth market for energy for a fifteenth consecutive year. The supply of energy in recent years has been driven by different factors, notably technological advances that have increased the range and availability of different fuels. The US shale revolution has unlocked huge swathes of oil and gas resources. And rapid technological gains have supported strong growth in renewable energy, led by wind and solar power. These advances meant that, despite the weakness of energy demand, oil, natural gas and renewable energy all recorded solid growth in 2015. Their gain was at the expense of coal, which saw its largest fall on record, taking its share within primary energy to its lowest level since 2005. As we know, the contrasting trends in the demand and supply of energy had major effects on energy prices, with oil, gas and coal prices all falling sharply last year. These price declines played a key role in prompting adjustments in energy markets: boosting demand in some markets, most notably oil; curtailing supply and shifting the fuel mix in others. The extent of this adjustment bodes well for the future stability of our industry. The combination of slow demand growth and a shift in the fuel mix away from coal towards natural gas and renewable energy had important implications for carbon emissions. In particular, carbon emissions from energy consumption are estimated to have been essentially flat in 2015, the lowest growth in emissions in nearly a quarter of a century, other than in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis. Last year was of course significant for the UN-led COP21 meetings in Paris and the historic agreement to tackle climate change. BP supports those aims and is committed to playing its part in helping to achieve them. The stalling in the growth of carbon emissions in 2015 is a step in the right direction. But it is only a small step: the scale of the challenge remains substantial, requiring major shifts in both energy efficiency and the fuel industry is living through a period of profound change. But that is nothing new: the past 65 years have seen huge changes to the global energy landscape. Our task as an industry is to take the steps necessary to provide the energy to meet the world s growing demand and ensure our sector remains resilient to the many factors that may buffet us in the near term. We must continue to invest in energy, in all its forms, to meet future needs. That is no easy task and requires fine judgements judgements that can be more confidently made when based on the kind of solid data and analysis provided by the Statistical Review. The need for BP s Statistical Review over the next 65 years is likely to be just as great as in the me conclude by thanking BP s economics team and all those who helped us prepare this review in particular those in the governments of many countries around the world who have contributed their official data again this year. Thank you for your continuing cooperation and DudleyGroup chief executiveJune 2016Group chief executive s introductionEnergy in 2015 slow demand growth amid plentiful in reviewGlobal primary energy consumption increased by just in 2015, similar to the below-average growth recorded in 2014 (+ ) and well below its 10-year average of Other than the recession of 2009, this represented the lowest global growth since 1998. Consumption growth was below the 10-year average for all regions except Europe emerging economies accounted for 97% of the increase in global consumption. OECD consumption experienced a small increase, with growth in Europe offsetting declines in the US and Japan. Chinese consumption slowed further, but still recorded the world s largest increment in primary energy consumption for the fifteenth consecutive year. Russia recorded the largest volumetric decline in primary energy consumption. By fuel, only oil and nuclear power grew at above-average rates, with oil gaining global market share for the first time since 1999. Renewables in power generation continued to grow robustly, to nearly 3% of global primary energy consumption, while coal consumption recorded the largest percentage decline on record. Global CO2 emissions from energy are estimated to have been essentially for all fossil fuels fell in 2015 for all regions. Crude oil prices recorded the largest decline on record in dollar terms, and the largest percentage decline since 1986. The annual average price for Brent, the international crude oil benchmark, declined by 47%, reflecting a growing imbalance between global production and consumption. The differential between Brent and the US benchmark West Texas Intermediate (WTI) narrowed to its smallest level since 2010. Natural gas prices fell in all regions, with the largest percentage declines in North America; the US benchmark Henry Hub fell to its lowest level since 1999. Coal prices around the world fell for the fourth consecutive developmentsOil remained the world s leading fuel, accounting for of global energy consumption. Although emerging economies continued to dominate the growth in global energy consumption, growth in these countries (+ ) was well below its 10-year average of economies now account for of global energy consumption. Chinese consumption growth slowed to just , while India (+ ) recorded another robust increase in consumption. OECD consumption increased slightly (+ ), compared with an average annual decline of over the past decade. A rare increase in EU consumption (+ ) more than offset declines in the US ( ) and Japan ( ), where consumption fell to the lowest level since in global primary energy consumption remained low in 2015; and the fuel mix shifted away from coal towards lower-carbon six-level Puxi Viaduct in Shanghai is one of city s busiest interchanges and is used by thousands of vehicles every hour. In the UK the National Grid supplies electricity using about 7,200km of power cable line and 690km of underground cable. Growth of global primary energy consumption, well below the 10-year average of + of Chinese primary energy consumption, the world s largest increment.+ storage tanks, pipes and towers at BP s Rotterdam refinery. The Valhall platform complex in the Norwegian North Sea, Norway. OilPricesDated Brent averaged $ per barrel in 2015, a decline of $ per barrel from the 2014 level and the lowest annual average since 2004. Crude oil prices rose in early 2015 as global consumption rebounded and US production began to register month-on-month declines. But strong growth in OPEC production, particularly in Iraq and Saudi Arabia, caused prices to fall sharply later in the year. The Brent WTI differential narrowed for a third consecutive year, to $ per and productionGlobal oil consumption grew by million barrels per day (b/d), or nearly double the recent historical average (+1%) and significantly stronger than the increase of million b/d seen in 2014. The relative strength of consumption was driven by the OECD countries, where consumption increased by 510,000 b/d (+ ), compared with an average decline of over the past decade. Growth was well above recent historical averages in the US (+ , or 290,000 b/d) and the EU (+ , or 200,000 b/d), while Japan ( , or -160,000 b/d) recorded the largest decline in oil consumption. Outside of the OECD, net oil importing countries recorded significant increases: China (+ , or +770,000 b/d) once again accounted for the largest increment to demand, while India (+ , or 310,000 b/d) surpassed Japan as the world s third-largest oil consumer. But this was offset by slower growth in oil producers, such that oil demand growth in the non-OECD as a whole (+ , or million b/d) was below its recent historical oil production increased even more rapidly than consumption for a second consecutive year, rising by million b/d or , the strongest growth since 2004. Production in Iraq (+750,000 b/d) and Saudi Arabia (+510,000 b/d) rose to record levels, driving an increase in OPEC production of million b/d to million b/d, exceeding the previous record reached in 2012. Production outside OPEC slowed from last year s record growth but still grew by million b/d. The US (+1 million b/d) had the world s largest annual growth increment and remained the world s largest oil producer. Elsewhere, production growth in Brazil (+180,000 b/d), Russia (+140,000 b/d), the UK and Canada (+110,000 b/d each) was offset by declines in Mexico (-200,000 b/d, the world s largest decline), Yemen (-100,000 b/d) and and tradeGlobal crude runs rose by million b/d (+ ), more than triple their 10-year average growth, despite declines in South & Central America, Africa and Russia. Strong refining margins lifted crude runs by 1 million b/d in the OECD, with growth in Europe (+740,000 b/d) the highest since 1986. In contrast, global refining capacity grew by only 450,000 b/d, the smallest increase in 23 years. Delayed expansion in China, combined with closures in Taiwan and Australia, resulted in a fall in Asian capacity for the first time since 1988. Global refinery utilization rose by 1 percentage point to , the fastest increase in five barely growing in 2014, global trade of crude oil and refined products expanded by 3 million b/d (+ ) last year, the largest increase since 1993. Crude oil trade was lifted by growing exports from the Middle East (+550,000 b/d), while Europe and China accounted for the largest increases in imports (+770,000 b/d and +530,000 b/d respectively). Growth in refined product exports was again led by the US (+470,000 b/d); the country s net oil imports fell to million b/d, the lowest since of global oil consumption.+ s share of global energy consumption, the first increase since coverage Country coverage of refinery throughput and capacity has been expanded. The oil trade tables now break out China and Russia and provide the split of crude oil and oil products for inter-area CoalGasConsumption and production World natural gas consumption grew by in 2015, a significant increase from the very weak growth (+ ) seen in 2014 but still below the 10-year average of As with oil, consumption growth was below average outside the OECD (+ , accounting for of global consumption) but above average in the OECD countries (+ ). Among emerging economies, Iran (+ ) and China (+ ) recorded the largest increments to consumption, even though growth in China was sluggish compared with a 10-year average growth of Meanwhile, Russia (-5%) recorded the largest volumetric decline, followed by the Ukraine ( ). Among OECD countries, the US (+3%) accounted for the largest growth increment, while EU consumption (+ ) rebounded after a large decline in 2014. Globally, natural gas accounted for of primary energy consumption. Global natural gas production grew by , more rapidly than consumption but below its 10-year average of As with consumption, the US (+ ) recorded the largest growth increment, with Iran (+ ) and Norway (+ ) also recording significant increases in production. Growth was above average in North America, Africa, and Asia Pacific. EU production once again fell sharply (-8%), with the Netherlands ( ) recording the world s largest decline. Large volumetric declines were also seen in Russia ( ) and Yemen ( ).TradeGlobal natural gas trade rebounded in 2015, rising by Pipeline shipments increased by 4%, driven by growth in net pipeline exports from Russia (+ ) and Norway (+7%). The largest volumetric increases in net pipeline imports were in Mexico (+ ) and France (+ ). Global LNG trade increased by Export growth was led by Australia (+ ) and Papua New Guinea (+ ), offsetting declines in shipments from Yemen ( ). Higher net LNG imports for Europe (+ ) and rising Middle Eastern imports (+ ) were partly offset by declines in net imports in South Korea ( ) and Japan (-4%). International natural gas trade accounted for of global consumption; the pipeline share of global gas trade rose to coal consumption fell by in 2015, well below the 10-year average annual growth of and the largest percentage (and volumetric) decline in our data set. All of the net decline was accounted for by the US ( , the world s largest volumetric decline) and China ( ), partially offset by modest increases in India (+ ) and Indonesia (+15%). Global coal production fell by 4%, with large declines in the US ( ), Indonesia ( ), and China (-2%). Coal s share of global primary energy consumption fell to , the lowest share since 2005. Natural gasA coal digger extracting coal at a gas rig at BP s Alice well site near Durango, of US gas production, the world s largest increment.+ in global coal consumption, the largest on would like to express our sincere gratitude to the many contacts worldwide who provide the publicly available data for this publication, and to the researchers at the Centre for Energy Economics Research and Policy, Heriot-Watt University who assist in the data compilation. Other fuelsSugar cane reception, preparation and juice extraction facilities at BP Biofuels Ituiutaba plant in Brazil. Wind turbines at the Goshen wind farm in Idaho Falls, and hydroelectricGlobal nuclear output grew by , with China (+ ) accounting for virtually all of the increase. China has passed South Korea to become the fourth-largest supplier of nuclear power. Elsewhere, increases in Russia (+8%) and South Korea (+ ) offset declines in Sweden ( ) and Belgium ( ). EU output ( ) fell to the lowest level since 1992. Nuclear power accounted for of global primary energy hydroelectric output grew by a below average 1%, compared with a 10-year average of 3%. China (+5%) remains by far the world s largest producer of hydroelectricity; as with nuclear power, China accounted for all of the net global increase, even though growth in percentage terms was less than half the recent historical average. Elsewhere, growth in Turkey (+ , following a very weak 2014) and Scandinavia was offset by drought conditions in Italy, Spain and Portugal ( combined) and Brazil ( ). Hydroelectric output accounted for of global primary energy energy sources in power generation continued to increase in 2015, reaching of global energy consumption, up from a decade ago. Renewable energy used in power generation grew by , slightly below the 10-year average growth of but a record increment (+213 terawatt-hours), which was roughly equal to all of the increase in global power generation. Renewables accounted for of global power generation. China (+ ) and Germany (+ ) recorded the largest increments in renewables in power generation. Globally, wind energy (+ ) remains the largest source of renewable electricity ( of renewable generation), with Germany (+ ) recording the largest growth increment. Solar power generation grew by , with China (+ ), the US (+ ) and Japan (+ ) accounting for the largest increases. China overtook Germany and the US to become the world s top generator of solar energy. Global biofuels production grew by just , well below the 10-year average of : Brazil (+ ) and the US (+ ) accounted for essentially all of the net increase, partly offset by large declines in Indonesia ( ) and Argentina ( ).Carbon dioxide emissionsEmissions of CO2 from energy consumption increased by only in 2015. Other than the recession of 2009, this represented the lowest growth rate since 1992. This encouraging outcome was driven by a combination of slightly slower energy consumption growth and a shift in the global fuel mix (with lower global coal consumption partly offset by growth in natural gas and non-fossil fuels). Emissions growth was below average in every region except Europe & Eurasia. The US ( ) and Russia ( ) accounted for the largest absolute declines in emissions, while India (+ ) saw the largest increase. Chinese emissions declined for the first time since 1998. This year s estimates on CO2 emissions reflect a more detailed breakdown of fuel consumption by product type, as well as allowances for non-combusted hydrocarbons. See for a detailed explanation of the revised in renewable power generation, the largest increment on record.+213 terawatt-hoursIncrease in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use.+ detail Additional information including historical time series for the fuels reported in this review; further detail on renewable forms of energy; oil consumption by product; electricity generation; and CO2 emissions from energy use is available at proved reservesAt end 1995At end 2005At end 2014At end 2015Thousand millionbarrelsThousand millionbarrelsThousand millionbarrelsThousand millionbarrelsThousand milliontonnesShareof North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle of Sudann/ Asia Asia which: Union# oil sands: of which: Under active Venezuela: Orinoco Belt Less than Less than not available. #Excludes Estonia and Latvia in : Total proved reserves of oil Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved oil does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP s view of proved reserves by (R/P) ratio If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that of data The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources, third-party data from the OPEC Secretariat, World Oil, Oil & Gas Journal and independent estimates of Russian reserves based on official data and Chinese reserves based on information in the public oil sands under active development are an official estimate. Venezuelan Orinoco Belt reserves are based on the OPEC Secretariat and government include gas condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs) as well as crude of total and R/P ratios are calculated using thousand million barrels figures. Oil7Global proved oil reserves in 2015 fell by billion barrels ( ) to billion barrels, just the second annual decline in our data set (along with 1998). Reserves have nonetheless increased by 24%, or 320 billion barrels, over the past decade; and are sufficient to meet years of global production. Brazil recorded the largest decline, with proved reserves falling by billion barrels, while Norwegian proved reserves grew by billion barrels. OPEC countries continue to hold the largest share ( ) of global proved reserves. On a regional basis, South & Central American reserves have the highest R/P ratio, 117 years. Lags in reporting official data mean that 2015 figures for many countries are not yet & &EurasiaMiddleEastAfricaAsiaPacific2015 by region0160140120100806040208590950005101 5 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific WorldHistoryReserves-to-production (R/P) tal millionbarrels2005Total of proved reserves in 1995, 2005 and 2015PercentageMiddle EastS. & Cent. America North AmericaEurope & EurasiaAfricaAsia Pacific8Oil: Production in thousands of barrels per day*Thousand barrels daily20052006200720082009201020112012201 320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & United Arab Other Middle Middle of Sudann/an/an/an/an/an/ Asia Asia which: Union *Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (natural gas liquids the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and derivatives of coal and natural gas. Less than not : Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes per annum : Consumption in thousands of barrels per day*Thousand barrels daily20052006200720082009201020112012201 320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: Union *Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are also included. Less than : Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes per annum : Production in million tonnes*Million tonnes2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & United Arab Other Middle Middle of Sudann/an/an/an/an/an/ Asia Asia which: Union *Includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands and NGLs (natural gas liquids the liquid content of natural gas where this is recovered separately). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and derivatives of coal and natural not available. Less than : Consumption in million tonnes*Million tonnes2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: Union *Inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are also included. Less than : Differences between these world consumption figures and world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, consumption of non-petroleum additives and substitute fuels, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of oil supply and demand : Consumption by regionMillion barrels dailyWorld oil production growth in 2015 significantly exceeded the growth in oil consumption for a second consecutive year. Production grew by million b/d, led by increases in the Middle East (+ million b/d) and North America (+ million b/d). Global oil consumption increased by million b/d, nearly double the 10-year average, with above-average growth driven by OECD countries. The Asia Pacific region accounted for 74% of global growth, with China once again contributing the largest national increment to global oil consumption growth (+770,000 b/d). 0100907080205040306010 Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America900095100515Oil: Production by regionMillion barrels dailyOil: Consumption per capita > : Regional consumption by product groupThousand barrels daily20052006200720082009201020112012201 320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of totalNorth AmericaLight North which: USLight & Cent. AmericaLight S. & Cent. & EurasiaLight Europe & which: CISLight which: European UnionLight European Union EastLight Middle PacificLight Asia which: ChinaLight which: JapanLight : Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily figures. Light distillates consists of aviation and motor gasolines and light distillate feedstock (LDF). Middle distillates consists of jet and heating kerosenes, and gas and diesel oils (including marine bunkers). Fuel oil includes marine bunkers and crude oil used directly as fuel. Others consists of refinery gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), solvents, petroleum coke, lubricants, bitumen, wax, other refined products and refinery fuel and extended breakdown of oil consumption by product group is available at US average. 1945-1983 Arabian Light posted at Ras Ta Brent dated. $ 2015 (deflated using the Consumer Price Index for the US) $ money of the day East Te xas fielddiscovered1861-691870-791880-891890 -991900-091910-191920-291930-391940-4919 50-591960-691970-791980-891990-992000-09 01020304050607080901001101201302010-19Di scovery of Spindletop, Te xasPost-war reconstructionSuez crisis Iranian revolutionIraq invaded Kuwait Growth of VenezuelanproductionLoss of Iranian suppliesNetback pricingintroducedAsian financial crisisYom Kippur warRussian oil exports beganSumatra production began Fears of shortage in USPennsylvanianoil boomInvasion of Iraq A rab Spring Crude oil prices 1861-2015US dollars per barrel World eventsSpot crude pricesUS dollars per barrelDubai$/bbl*Brent$/bbl NigerianForcados$/bblWest TexasIntermediate$/bbl *1980-1985 Arabian Light, 1986-2015 Dubai dated. Source: Platts. 1980-1983 Forties, 1984-2015 Brent dated. 1980-1983 Posted WTI prices, 1984-2015 Spot WTI (Cushing) differentials to crude(Rotterdam products minus Dated Brent)US dollars per barrelOil product prices (Rotterdam) US dollars per barrelSource: Gasoline Gas oil Heavy fuel oilSource: Gasoline Gas oil Heavy fuel oil0506070809101112131514-52520151050 USGC Medium Sour Coking NWE Light Sweet Cracking Singapore Medium Sour HydrocrackingRegional refining marginsUS dollars per barrelNote: The refining margins presented are benchmark margins for three major global refining centres: US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE Rotterdam) and Singapore. In each case they are based on a single crude oil appropriate for that region and have optimized product yields based on a generic refinery configuration (cracking, hydrocracking or coking), again appropriate for that region. The margins are on a semi-variable basis, the margin after all variable costs and fixed energy crude runs rose by million b/d in 2015, led by Europe and China. Europe recorded its largest increase in crude runs since 1986. Global refining capacity growth slowed to 450,000 b/d, the lowest in 23 years. Capacity in Asia Pacific fell for the first time since 1988. Global average refinery utilization rose by 1% to , the fastest increase in 5 North America S. & Cent. America Europe CISMiddle EastAfricaAsia PacificWorldRefinery utilizationPercentage (based on average annual capacity)16Oil: Refinery throughputThousand barrels daily*2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. United Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Africa426399382396351390410415408407407 Asia Asia which: Union *Atmospheric distillation capacity on a calendar-day basis. Source: Includes data from ICIS. Less than : Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily : Refinery capacitiesThousand barrels daily*2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & Tobago165165165165165165165165165165165 S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Republic19319319319319319319317817817817 8 Kingdom181918361819182717571757178715261 49813371337 Europe & Europe & Eurasia246492481524554245652439624188242 4423551236352363223635 Arabia2107210721072107210921092107210725 0728992899 Arab Emirates62062062568070070070571071011431 143 Middle East841957972978978978978978864864864 Middle East733175427559765679948060809682298402 93429344 Africa520520520520520520520520520520520 Africa1385126212641339119913011247145315 6315781578 Africa3158303530373113308331973259346535 6935893589 Zealand102102103103136136136136136136136 Korea25982633267927122746277428642878287 831103110 Asia Pacific212212212214219219220220226233233 Asia which: Union *Atmospheric distillation capacity at year end on a calendar-day basis. Source: Includes data from ICIS. Less than : Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily : Trade movementsThousand barrels daily20052006200720082009201020112012201 320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of of & Cent. CIS Pacific of World Excludes Japan. Excludes trade between other Asia Pacific countries and India prior to and West African exports excludes intra-Africa : Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using thousand barrels daily : Inter-area movements 2015ToCrude (million tonnes)FromUSCanadaMexicoS. & Cent. AmericaEuropeRussiaOther CISMiddle EastAfricaAustralasiaChinaIndiaJapanSing aporeOther Asia Pacific TotalUS Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Russia Other CIS Middle East North Africa West Africa East & S. Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Total imports (million tonnes)FromUS Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Russia Other CIS Middle East North Africa West Africa East & S. Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Total imports Less than trade in 2014 and 2015 20142015Million tonnesCrude importsProduct importsCrude exports Product exportsCrude importsProduct importsCrude exportsProduct exportsUS Canada Mexico S. & Cent. America Europe Russia Other CIS Middle East North Africa West Africa East & S. Africa Australasia China India Japan Singapore Other Asia Pacific Total World Thousand barrels dailyUS7343 1897 357 3677 7351 2050 491 4145 Canada 582 556 2983 550 657 613 3200 627 Mexico 664 1135 157 774 1201 171 S. & Cent. America 470 1804 3264 658 404 1908 3462 605 Europe 9031 3588 204 2327 9801 3847 204 2701 Russia30 62 4843 2999 57 41 5115 3139 Other CIS 465 287 1620 320 465 269 1626 249 Middle East 218 914 17109 2836 158 776 17665 2954 North Africa 194 610 1241 454 162 683 1235 397 West Africa 10 555 4356 159 9 588 4327 130 East & S. Africa 224 490 187 36 134 467 170 32 Australasia 538 453 230 70 491 540 184 63 China 6209 1189 12 657 6743 1453 57 767 India 3783 354 1 1207 3919 488 3 1150 Japan 3384 999 283 3370 976 6 363 Singapore 914 2282 1706 918 2628 1 1855 Other Asia Pacific 4852 3232 702 1841 5067 3415 759 2166 Total World38245 19937 38245 19937 39707 21516 39707 21516 Less than Less than : Bunkers are not included as exports. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe) are imports and exports include & Cent. AmericaEurope & EurasiaMiddle EastAfrica Asia PacificMajor trade movements 2015Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes)20Total proved reservesAt end 1995At end 2005At end 2014At end 2015Trillion cubic metresTrillion cubic metresTrillion cubic metresTrillion cubic metresTrillion cubic feetShare North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & *Israel Arab Middle East Middle New Guinea Asia Asia which: *More than 500 years. Less than Less than not : Proved reserves of natural gas Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved natural gas reserves does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at a company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP s view of proved reserves by (R/P) ratio If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that of data The estimates in this table have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data from Cedigaz and the OPEC Secretariat. Natural gas2116008012040NorthAmericaS. & &EurasiaMiddleEastAfricaAsiaPacific2015 by region75060045015030085 909500051015 0 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Africa Middle East Asia Pacific World HistoryReserves-to-production (R/P) ratiosYearsAs was the case for oil, global proved natural gas reserves in 2015 fell slightly, (by trillion cubic metres (tcm), or ) to tcm, sufficient to meet years of current production. Small declines in Russian and Norwegian reserves drove the decline. Reserves have increased by tcm over the past decade. The Middle East region holds the largest proved reserves (80 tcm, of the global total), and has the highest regional R/P ratio ( years). Lags in reporting official data mean that 2015 figures for many countries are not yet of proved reserves in 1995, 2005 and tal cubicmetres2005To tal cubicmetres1995To tal EastEurope & EurasiaAsia PacificAfricaNorth AmericaS. & Cent. America22Natural gas: Production in billion cubic metres*Billion cubic metres2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Asia Asia which: Union * Excludes gas flared or recycled. Includes natural gas produced for Gas-to-Liquids transformation. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Less than : As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15 C and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor, they do not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms. Annual changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent figures. Natural gas production data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at gas: Consumption in billion cubic metres*Billion cubic metres2005200620072008200920102011201220 1320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: Union *Excludes natural gas converted to liquid fuels but includes derivatives of coal as well as natural gas consumed in Gas-to-Liquids transformation. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Less than : As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15 C and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor, they do not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms. The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand changes and shares of total are calculated using million tonnes of oil equivalent gas consumption data expressed in billion cubic feet per day is available at gas: Production in million tonnes oil equivalent*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Asia Asia which: Union *Excludes gas flared or recycled. Includes natural gas produced for Gas-to-Liquids transformation. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Less than gas: Consumption in million tonnes oil equivalent*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: Union * Excludes natural gas converted to liquid fuels but includes derivatives of coal as well as natural gas consumed in Gas-to-Liquids transformation. Source: Includes data from Cedigaz. Less than : The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand Rest of World Asia Pacific Europe & Eurasia North America9000951005150Natural gas: Production by regionBillion cubic metres4000350025003000500150010002000900 0951005150Natural gas: Consumption by regionBillion cubic metresWorld natural gas production growth accelerated to in 2015, slightly below the 10-year average growth of North America (+ ) recorded the largest growth increment, driven by continued strong increases in US output, while production in Europe & Eurasia declined by , with large declines in the Netherlands and Russia. Consumption growth (+ ) also accelerated from a very weak 2014, but remained below the 10-year average of The Middle East recorded the strongest regional growth rate (+ ), while consumption in Europe & Eurasia declined by , with a decline in Russia offsetting growth in the EU. Natural gas: Consumption per capita 2015Tonnes oil > US Henry Hub Average German Import Price cif UK NBP Japan LNG cif151314121110980100 99030402050708060915Prices$/mmBtuPricesL NGNatural gasCrude oilUS dollars per million BtuJapancifAverage GermanImport Price*UK (Heren NBP Index) USHenry Hub Canada(Alberta) OECDcountries *Source: 1985-1990 German Federal Statistical Office, 1991-2015 German Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA). Source: ICIS Heren Energy Ltd. Source: Energy Intelligence Group, Natural Gas Week. Note: cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices).28Natural gas: Trade movements 2015 by pipelineBillion cubic metresFromToUS S. & Cent. America & Cent. America Republic Kingdom Europe Federation CIS Arab Emirates East Africa Africa Pacific Less than Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, S. & Cent. AmericaNetherlandsNorwayUnited KingdomOther EuropeKazakhstanAzerbaijanRussian FederationTurkmenistanUzbekistanIranQata rAlgeriaLibyaOther AfricaIndonesiaOther Asia PacificTotal importsMyanmarNatural gas: Trade movements 2015 as liquefied natural gasBillion cubic metres FromToUS America S. & Cent. America & Cent. America Kingdom Europe & Eurasia & Eurasia East Korea Pacific exports Less than Source: Includes data from GIIGNL, IHS Waterborne, PIRA Energy Group, Wood Mackenzie. *Includes & TobagoUS*PeruNorwayOther Europe*Russian FederationOmanQatarUnited Arab EmiratesYemenAlgeriaEgyptAngolaEquatoria l GuineaNigeriaAustraliaBruneiIndonesiaMal aysiaPapua New GuineaTotal importsOther Asia Pacific*29Gas trade in 2014 and 2015 in billion cubic metres 20142015Billion cubic metresPipeline importsLNG importsPipeline exportsLNG exportsPipeline importsLNG importsPipeline exportsLNG exportsUS Trinidad and Tobago S. & Cent. United Europe Other Qatar Middle Japan Indonesia Korea Asia Less than Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, GIIGNL, IHS Waterborne, PIRA Energy Group, Wood & Cent. AmericaEurope & EurasiaMiddle EastAfrica Asia PacificMajor trade movements 2015Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres)Source: Includes data from FGE MENAgas service, GIIGNL, IHS Waterborne, PIRA Energy Group, Wood proved reserves at end 2015Million tonnesAnthracite and bituminousSub-bituminousand ligniteTotalShare of totalR/P North *Colombia6746 *Other S. & Cent. S. & Cent. 11Russian *United Kingdom228 228 Europe & Europe & Africa30156 East1122 *Total Middle East & *South Korea 126126 71Thailand 150 4Other Asia Asia which: * More than 500 years. Source of reserves data: World Energy Resources 2013 Survey, World Energy Council. Less than : Total proved reserves of coal Generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The data series for total proved coal reserves does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent BP s view of proved reserves by (R/P) ratio If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that (R/P) ratios are calculated excluding other solid fuels in reserves and production. CoalPricesUS dollars per tonneNorthwest Europe marker price US Central Appalachian coal spot price index Japan coking coal import cif priceJapan steam coal import cif priceAsian marker price Source: IHS McCloskey Northwest Europe prices for 1995-2000 are the average of the monthly marker, 2001-2015 the average of weekly prices. The Asian prices are the average of the monthly marker. Source: Platts. Prices are for Central Appalachian 12,500 BTU, SO2 coal, fob. Prices for 1995-2000 are by coal price publication date, 2001-2015 by coal price assessment date. Note: cif = cost+insurance+freight (average prices); fob = free on 1031610million tonnes2005Total 909064million tonnes2015To tal 891531million of proved reserves in 1995, 2005 and 2015PercentageEurope & Eurasia Asia PacificNorth AmericaMiddle East & AfricaS. & Cent. AmericaSource: World Energy Resources 2013 Survey, World Energy (R/P) ratiosYears030025010015020050NorthAmeric aS. & &EurasiaMiddle East & AfricaAsiaPacific2015 by region06005003004001002009500051015 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East & Africa Asia Pacific WorldHistoryWorld proved coal reserves in 2015 were sufficient to meet 114 years of global production, by far the largest R/P ratio for any fossil fuel. By region, Europe & Eurasia holds the largest proved reserves while North America has the highest R/P ratio 276 years. The Asia Pacific region holds the second-largest reserves, but higher rates of production accounting for of global output leave it with the lowest regional R/P ratio (53 years).32Coal: Production*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North Other S. & Cent. Total S. & Cent. Other Europe & Europe & Middle South South Asia Asia which: Union * Commercial solid fuels only, bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. Includes coal produced for Coal-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Gas transformations. Less than not : Coal production data expressed in million tonnes is available at : Consumption*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Other Europe & Europe & Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Other Middle Total Middle South Hong Kong South Asia Asia which: Union * Commercial solid fuels only, bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. Excludes coal converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, but includes coal consumed in transformation processes. Less than Less than : Differences between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of coal supply and demand Coal: Consumption by regionMillion tonnes oil equivalent045004000350025003000150010005 0020009095000510 15 Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North AmericaCoal: Production by regionMillion tonnes oil equivalentWorld production and consumption of coal declined in 2015, by 4% and , respectively. Production fell for the first time since 1998, with large declines in Asia Pacific ( ) and North America ( ). China remained by far the world s largest producer even though output fell by 2%. Coal consumption declined in all regions except South & Central America and Asia Pacific. The US and China accounted for all of the net decline in global consumption. Coal pricesUS dollars per tonne Northwest Europe marker price US Central Appalachian coal spot price index Japan coking coal import cif price Japan steam coal import cif price Asian Marker price151314121110980100 99030402050708060925005010015020035Consu mption*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North Colombia Ecuador Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. America Total S. & Cent. Azerbaijan Belarus Italy Kazakhstan Poland Portugal Turkmenistan Other Europe & Europe & Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Egypt South Africa Total Bangladesh Hong Kong SAR New Zealand Singapore South Vietnam Other Asia Pacific Total Asia which: Union *Based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station. Less than Less than : Nuclear energy data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at Nuclear energy36Consumption*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & Tobago S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Belarus Denmark Netherlands Europe & Europe & Kuwait Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle Middle Other Hong Kong SAR South Asia Asia which: Union * Based on gross primary hydroelectric generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station. Less than Less than : Hydroelectricity data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at Hydroelectricity37Other renewables share of power generation by regionPercentage111098765432199030797950 10511130915 World Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America120Renewable energy in power generation grew by , slightly below the 10-year average growth rate, but the largest increment on record (+48 mtoe). Globally, wind provided the largest growth increment (+28 mtoe), but solar had the highest growth rate (+ ). Regionally, Europe & Eurasia and Asia Pacific provided the largest growth increments (+ mtoe and mtoe, respectively). Non-hydro renewable energy accounted for of global power generation in 2015, up from 2% a decade ago. The Europe & Eurasia region has the highest share of power from renewables, at (reaching in the EU).World nuclear power generation increased by in 2015, well above the 10-year average of The Asia Pacific region accounted for all of the net increase, driven by growth in China (+ ), which passed South Korea to become the world s fourth-largest producer of nuclear power. World hydroelectric output grew by a below-average 1%, with the Asia Pacific region again accounting for all of the net growth, even though the region s growth was just over half the 10-year average. Nuclear energy consumption by regionMillion tonnes oil equivalent070060040050020010030090950005 1015 Rest of World Asia Pacific Europe & Eurasia North AmericaHydroelectricity consumption by regionMillion tonnes oil equivalent090080060070040030020010050090 9500051015 Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North AmericaOther renewables consumption by regionMillion tonnes oil equivalent400280360320240160120408020095 99050711139701030915 Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North America038Other renewables consumption*Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & Tobago Venezuela Other S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Belarus Lithuania Slovakia Ukraine Other Europe & Europe & Israel Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Other Middle East Total Middle East Hong Kong SAR South Other Asia Asia which: Union * Based on gross generation from renewable sources including wind, geothermal, solar, biomass and waste, and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. Converted on the basis of thermal equivalence assuming 38% conversion efficiency in a modern thermal power station. Less than Less than : Other renewables data expressed in terawatt-hours is available at Renewable energy39Biofuels productionThousand tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change2015 over20142015 share of 444131214535353 North S. & Cent. America185469546736585316470453567599599 S. & Cent. Kingdom39219359276220304251287482359359 Europe & Europe & Middle East 444444 Total Asia Asia which: 1734372829232323 Less than Source: Includes data from Lichts; US Energy Information : Consumption of fuel ethanol and biodiesel is included in oil consumption AmericaS. & Cent. AmericaEurope & EurasiaRest of World Ethanol 2005 Ethanol 2015 Biodiesel 2005 Biodiesel 2015 080406020050709111315 Rest of World Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North AmericaWorld biofuels productionMillion tonnes oil equivalentWorld biofuels production increased by in 2015, the slowest rate of growth since output declined in 2000. Global ethanol production increased by , the third consecutive year of growth, led by increases from Asia Pacific, South & Central America, and North America. Biodiesel production declined by in 2015, with output declining in all of the major producing *Million tonnes oil equivalent200520062007200820092010201120 12201320142015Change 2015 over 20142015share of North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: Union * In this review, primary energy comprises commercially-traded fuels, including modern renewables used to generate electricity. Less than : Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Primary energy41Primary energy: Consumption by fuel*20142015Million tonnes oil equivalentOilNatural gasCoalNuclear energyHydro electricityRenew ablesTotalOilNatural gasCoalNuclear energyHydro electricityRenew North & S. & Cent. S. & Cent. Europe & Europe & Arab Middle Middle Hong Kong Asia Asia which: * In this review, primary energy comprises commercially-traded fuels, including modern renewables used to generate electricity. Less than Note: Oil consumption is measured in million tonnes; other fuels in million tonnes of oil equivalent. 42World consumptionMillion tonnes oil equivalent014151312111009080706050403020 1009998979695949392919014000130001200011 0001000090008000700060005000400030002000 1000CoalHydroelectricityNuclear energyNatural gasOilRenewablesWorld primary energy consumption grew by a below-average in 2015, the slowest rate of growth since 1998 (other than the decline in the aftermath of the financial crisis). Growth was below average in all regions except Europe & Eurasia. All fuels except oil and nuclear power grew at below-average rates. Oil remains the world s dominant fuel and gained global market share for the first time since 1999, while coal s market share fell to the lowest level since 2005. Renewables in power generation accounted for a record of global primary energy consumption by fuel 2015PercentageAsia PacificAfricaMiddle EastEurope & EurasiaS. & Cent. AmericaNorth America0100806040107050309020Oil remains the dominant fuel in Africa and the Americas, while natural gas dominates in Europe & Eurasia and the Middle East. Coal is the dominant fuel in the Asia Pacific region, accounting for 51% of regional energy consumption the highest share of any fuel for any region. Europe & Eurasia is the only region with no fuel reaching one-third of the total energy mix. The Middle East has the least diverse fuel mix, with oil and gas combined accounting for 98% of energy fuel reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios at end 2015YearsWorldCISEuropean UnionOECDNon-OECD0500400300200100OilNatu ral gasCoalCoal remains by far the most abundant fossil fuel by R/P ratio; oil and natural gas reserves have increased over time, although both registered small declines in 2015. Non-OECD countries account for the majority of proved reserves for all fossil fuels. The Middle East holds the largest reserves for oil and natural gas, and the highest R/P ratio for natural gas; South & Central America holds the highest R/P ratio for oil. Europe & Eurasia holds the largest coal reserves and North America has the highest R/P consumption by region 2015Percentage Asia Pacific Africa Middle East Europe & Eurasia S. & Cent. America North AmericaRenewablesHydroelectricityNuclear energyCoalNatural gasOil0100806040107050309020Asia Pacific is the leading consumer of oil, coal, and hydroelectricity, while Europe & Eurasia is the leading consumer of natural gas, nuclear power, and renewables in power generation. Asia Pacific dominates global coal consumption, accounting for of global consumption. Natural gas is the only fuel for which no region accounts for more than 30% of global consumption (with Europe & Eurasia accounting for of global consumption). AppendicesUnits1 metric tonne = = short tons1 kilolitre = barrels = 1 cubic metre1 kilocalorie (kcal) = = kilojoule (kJ) = = British thermal = unit (Btu) = kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 860kcal = 3600kJ = 3412BtuCalorific equivalentsOne tonne of oil equivalent equals approximately:Heat units 10 million kilocalories 42 gigajoules 40 million British thermal unitsSolid fuels tonnes of hard coal 3 tonnes of ligniteGaseous fuels See Natural gas and liquefied natural gas tableElectricity 12 megawatt-hoursOne million tonnes of oil or oil equivalent produces about 4400 gigawatt-hours (= terawatt-hours) of electricity in a modern power barrel of ethanol = barrel of oil 1 barrel of biodiesel = barrel of oilDefinitionsStatistics published in this review are taken from government sources and published data. No use is made of confidential information obtained by BP in the course of its and geographic groupings are made purely for statistical purposes and are not intended to imply any judgement about political or economic AmericaUS (excluding US territories), Canada, & Central AmericaCaribbean (including Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands), Central and South members of the OECD plus Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Georgia, Gibraltar, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Montenegro, Romania and of Independent States (CIS) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, & EurasiaAll countries listed above under the headings Europe and EastArabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, AfricaTerritories on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to western AfricaTerritories on the west coast of Africa from Mauritania to Angola, including Cape Verde, and Southern AfricaTerritories on the east coast of Africa from Sudan to Republic of South Africa. Also Botswana, Madagascar, Malawi, Namibia, Uganda, Zambia, PacificBrunei, Cambodia, China, China Hong Kong SAR*, China Macau SAR*, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Oceania.*Special Administrative , New membersEurope: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK. Other member countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, membersMiddle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Africa: Algeria, Libya. West Africa: Angola, Nigeria. South America: Ecuador, Venezuela. European Union membersAustria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK. Non-OECDAll countries that are not members of the primary energy values of nuclear and hydroelectric power generation, as well as electricity from renewable sources, have been derived by calculating the equivalent amount of fossil fuel required to generate the same volume of electricity in a thermal power station, assuming a conversion efficiency of 38% (the average for OECD thermal power generation). Fuels used as inputs for conversion technologies (gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas) are counted as production for the source fuel and the outputs are counted as consumption for the converted Calculated before rounding of actuals. All annual changes and shares of totals are on a weight basis except on pages 6, 13, 16, 17, 18 and 20. Rounding differences Because of rounding, some totals may not agree exactly with the sum of their component equivalent of conversion factorsCrude oil*FromTotonnes (metric)kilolitresbarrelsUS gallonstonnes per yearMultiply byTonnes (metric) US Barrels per day *Based on worldwide average convertbarrels to tonnestonnes to barrelskilolitres to tonnestonnes to kilolitresMultiply byLiquefied petroleum gas (LPG) fuel gas (NG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG)FromTobillion cubic metres NGbillion cubic feet NGmillion tonnes oil equivalentmillion tonnes LNGtrillion British thermal unitsmillion barrels oil equivalentMultiply by1 billion cubic metres billion cubic feet million tonnes oil million tonnes trillion British thermal million barrels oil from the reviewPublishers are welcome to quote from this review provided that they attribute the source to BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016. However, where extensive reproduction of tables and/or charts is planned, permission must first be obtained from:The Editor BP Statistical Review of World Energy BP 1 St James s Square London SW1Y 4PD UK redistribution or reproduction of data whose source is Platts is strictly prohibited without prior authorization from copiesYou can order BP s printed publications, free of charge from , or by using the following and Canada Issuer Direct Toll-free +1 888 301 2505 and Rest of World BP Distribution Services Tel +44 (0)870 241 3269 Fax +44 (0)870 240 5753 informationAcknowledgements Data compilation Centre for Energy Economics Research and Policy, Heriot-Watt University, and Typesetting Whitehouse Associates, London Printing Pureprint Group Limited, UK ISO 14001, FSC certified and CarbonNeutral BP 2016Paper This document is printed on Oxygen paper and board. Oxygen is made using 100% recycled pulp, a large percentage of which is de-inked. It is manufactured at a mill with ISO 9001 and 14001 accreditation and is FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certified. This document has been printed using vegetable inks. Printed in the UK by Pureprint Group using their and printing technology.

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