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ACULYN™ 28 Rheology Modifier/Stabilizer A Very …

Personal Care ACULYN™ 28 Rheology Modifier/Stabilizer A Very Efficient Thickener for a Wide Array of Personal Care Formulations This bulletin focuses on our ACULYN ...




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Personal Care ACULYN 28 Rheology Modifier/Stabilizer A Very Efficient Thickener for a Wide Array of Personal Care Formulations This bulletin focuses on our ACULYN 28 rheology modifier, a very efficient thickener for a wide array of personal care formulations. Our ACULYN rheology modifiers find utility in an ever-increasing breadth of personal care applications because of their unique ease of use, wide compatibility, cost effectiveness and favorable balance of rheological properties. Rohm and Haas Company is committed to providing technology enhancement to the personal care industry. To learn how our expertise in polymers and preservatives can spark your own creativity, please contact us. Description ACULYN 28 rheology modifier is an anionic associative rheology modifier developed specifically for hair and skin care applications. This thickener is a hydrophobically modified alkali soluble polymer emulsion (HASE) with unusually high aqueous thickening and stabilizing efficiency. The polymer is a liquid, cold-processable product that instantaneously thickens upon neutralization, providing ease of handling and increased manufacturing efficiency. ACULYN 28 is designed for clear formulations, stable from pH to 10 and compatible with nonionic, anionic, Zwitterionic and some cationic ingredients, as well as peroxide and electrolytes. The lower pH neutralization makes it ideal for skin care applications. CTFA/INCI Name: Acrylates/Beheneth-25 Methacrylate Copolymer Features Benefits zLiquid zBroad pH range stability zInstant neutralization/thickening zHighly associative zCold-processable zHigh surfactant synergy zHigher efficiency/concentration ratio zSynergistic rheology with inorganic clays zYields clear gels zVery pseudoplastic zFoam stabilizer zHigh yield value zParticulate stabilizer zThixotropic zSalt tolerant zShear tolerant zPeroxide compatible zFormulation compatible zPolar solvent compatible zEasy to handle zCompatible with nonionic, anionic, Zwitterionic and some cationic surfactants zNo preparation necessary zNon-hygroscopic zAbility to stabilize suspensions zIncreased manufacturing efficiency zMild, soft, non-greasy, non-sticky zAllows for use of continuous production processes with use of in-line static mixers zStable in pH to 12 formulations zThickens and stabilizes hydrogen peroxide zCan be processed with membrane pumps and, when diluted, with turbine mixers and high speed propellers zDoes not promote or support contamination, unlike natural thickeners zAble to formulate clear products zSupported by comprehensive environmental, health and safety data zCan be used with electrolytes zSynergystic interaction with surfactants, particulates and hydrophobic raw materials zStabilization of hydrophobic (low solubility) components Applications ACULYN 28 Chemistry ACULYN 28 is a Hydrophobically-modified Alkali Soluble Emulsion (HASE). HASE polymers are synthesized from an acid/acrylate copolymer backbone and a monomer that connects the hydrophobic groups as side chains. The polymer is made through emulsion polymerization. ACULYN 28 is synthesized from acrylic acid, acrylate esters and a beheneth-20 methacrylate ester. The general structure for ACULYN 28 is shown to the right. Mechanism of Action ACULYN HASE rheology modifiers are able to thicken by two mechanisms that can act simultaneously and are synergistic, by the effect of charge-induced polyelectrolytic chain extension and by association of hydrophobe groups. When the acid groups present in the ACULYN HASE molecules are neutralized with inorganic bases or organic amines, they become anionically charged and water-soluble. ACULYN 28 thickens above pH ACULYN HASE rheology modifiers dissolve and swell due to charge-charge repulsion. zAlcohol and glycol containing formulations zBody washes and shower gels zCrystal clear hair care gels zCrystal clear skin care gels zEmulsifier free formulations zHand and body lotions zLiquid hand soaps zMake-up creams and lotions zShampoos zSunscreen lotions zTwo component hair dye systems (hair dye developers, perm neutralizers) Physical and Chemical Characteristics The values presented in this chart should not be considered as product HASE polymer Association very high Ionic nature anionic Appearance milky liquid Solvent water Solids, % 20 pH (as supplied) Density Equivalent weight* 253 Rheology short, non stringy Shear thinning very high Pseudoplastic index (viscosity @ 6 rpm/viscosity @ 60 rpm) ( solids in water) Acid Number 45 mg KOH/g Transparency ( solids @ pH ) < 20 [NTU] Viscosity, mPa s (as supplied) 20 Viscosity of 1% solids solution 35,000 - 45,000 cps (after 24 hrs @ pH , Brookfield RVT Spindle 7, 10 rpm) INCI NameAcrylates/Beheneth-25 Methacrylate Copolymer*grams of dry polymer neutralized by 1 equivalent (40 grams) of NaOH. When ACULYN HASE polymers swell, the pendant hydrophobic groups are free to build associations with one another and with other hydrophobes available in the formulation, such as surfactants, particulates, emulsion droplets and dyes. This phenomenon creates a network structure that results in a significant viscosity build. These associative structures can also act to stabilize and disperse particulates in a formulation. And because of the ethoxylated hydrophobic group on the rheology modifier, ACULYN 28 can also act as a primary emulsifier for some emulsion systems, such as water resistant sunscreens, to minimize the level of surfactant or emulsifier. Features of HASE Rheology Modifiers ACULYN 28 Behavior Profile ACULYN 28 rheology modifier possesses many properties that make this polymer highly desirable for use in personal care, as shown by the data presented below. Rheology The highly associative nature of ACULYN 28 has a significant affect on the viscosity of formulations, one that is much stronger than that created by the addition of electrolytes. The presence of the C22 hydrophobe causes solutions of ACULYN 28 to be very pseudoplastic with a high yield value, in general showing a high degree of shear thinning. The high yield value also allows the thickener to stabilize suspensions while still being pourable. In applications such as two part hair dye products, the shear profile allows for easy application with penetration of the dye, while reducing the dripping or running of hair dye products when developed and applied to the scalp. The shear thinning behavior in the following graph is measured in water and the behavior can change in formulations. The chart to the right shows features indicative of the behavior of HASE rheology modifiers under different conditions. Please note that these behaviors may vary to some extent according to specific formulations. All ACULYN rheology modifiers are easyto formulate, have good to excellent salt tolerance, compatibility with anionics and nonionics and low odor. HASE polymers have excellent shear thinning properties and good stability in two-part peroxide systems. Blending of the ASE and HASE chemistries can offer further enhancements and synergies. Ease of formulation Excellent Associative Yes Salt tolerance NaCl Di/trivalent ions Excellent Good Shear thinning behavior Excellent Solvent compatibility Excellent Low pH compatibility Good Anionic surfactant compatibility Excellent Nonionic surfactant compatibility Excellent Zwitterionic surfactant compatibility Good Cationic surfactant compatibility Some Peroxide stability 1 part system 2 part system No Excellent Lack of odor Excellent Compatibility Salt Tolerance ACULYN 28 exhibits outstanding salt tolerance. The polymer can significantly build viscosity even in the presence of sodium chloride. This performance attribute makes ACULYN 28 the ingredient of choice in formulations that contain high levels of electrolytes, such as shampoos and shower gels, when the sodium salts of surfactants are employed, or when some raw materials have salt as a trace component. pH Tolerance The thickening effect of ACULYN 28 develops above pH , when the polymer becomes solubilized and polymer chain extension occurs. In the following graph, where ammonium hydroxide was used as the neutralizing base, the viscosity reaches a maximum and remains steady over a pH range from 6 to 12. This profile will be similar for any neutralizing base. Surfactant Synergies Given that ACULYN 28 is an associative thickener, its thickening efficiency can be significantly affected by the presence of surfactants. The type of surfactant and its concentration play a key role in the rheological properties of the polymer-surfactant system. The measurements of viscosity vs. surfactant concentration generally show an increase in viscosity for ACULYN 28-surfactant systems. A nonionic surfactant with a high HLB (Hydrophobic Lipophilic Balance), such as C9-11 pareth-12, typically produces a significant increase in viscosity at low concentrations of surfactant that decreases at higher surfactant concentrations. A nonionic surfactant with a low HLB, such as C14-15 pareth-74, leads to a gradual increase in viscosity, which will remain at a higher level even at higher surfactant concentrations. In the case of an anionic surfactant such as Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES), there is usually a small increase in viscosity at very low surfactant concentrations followed by a gradual decrease at higher surfactant concentrations. The longer alkyl chain in ACULYN 28 reduces the decrease as compared to many other rheology modifiers. Clarity in the Presence of Surfactants Solutions of ACULYN 28 and various surfactants maintain their clarity. The table on the next page shows the clarity of solutions as can be seen from the NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) readings above for each of the polymer / surfactant solutions. A solution with a reading below 10 NTUs would be clear. The pH of these solutions was adjusted to with ammonium hydroxide, and each system was equilibrated to 20 to 25 C. Clarity of ACULYN 28 (1% active) with Different Surfactants Performance Extremely Efficient Thickener The viscosity of neutralized aqueous solutions of ACULYN 28 as a function of the concentration of solids is shown in the graph opposite. The viscosity of solutions increases with increasing concentration, but even at low concentrations, the viscosity is increased significantly with ACULYN 28. Clarity of Solutions The formulation of crystal clear gel products for hair and skin is an important global trend. Based on the low NTU values of the instrumental transparency measurements of aqueous ACULYN 28 gels, we recommend the use of this product for the preparation of crystal clear formulations. Surfactant% activeBrookfield Viscosity (cP, 6 rpm)NTU*None 0128,667 < lauryl sulfate 5 102,040 630 laureth-3 sulfate 5 10 17,456 4,044 Sodium olefin sulfonate 5 1010,438 2,424 betaine 5 10 4,979 885 C14-15 pareth-710 202,067 1,833 *NTU = Nephelometric Turbidity Units, a measure of clarity. Lower numbers correspond to a higher degree of clarity. A reading of 0 to 10 is clear, 10-20 is almost clear, 20-50 has a slight haze. Thickening of Alcohols and Polar Solvents ACULYN 28 can be used to thicken polar solvents such as ethanol, isopropanol or propylene glycol. Formulation and Use Guidelines ACULYN 28 rheology modifier is compatible with surfactants, solvents, oils and salts commonly found in cosmetic and toiletry products. These products undergo instantaneous thickening when neutralized with base. This product is supplied as a low viscosity emulsion and can be incorporated directly into formulations with none of the concerns about dissolution, particulate clumping or dusting problems that can be encountered with dry products. ACULYN 28 is also cold processable. Because thickening occurs instantaneously upon neutralization with base, in-line mixing with static mixers is possible. Upon neutralization, the ACULYN 28 emulsion becomes a clear, highly viscous solution. The preferred order of addition when using ACULYN 28 rheology modifier in aqueous formulations is as follows: 1. Add ACULYN 28 to the water 2. Add other ingredients from the most acidic to the most alkaline 3. Add the neutralizing agent If this sequence is not desirable, ACULYN HASE and ASE polymers can be added directly to an alkaline formulation after first diluting the ACULYN 28 product with two parts of water. Addition of the water prevents gel particles (small particles with neutralized swollen surfaces and unneutralized cores that will take considerable time to dissolve completely). Preparation of Emulsions and Dispersions Neutralized ACULYN 28 thickener can also be used to make oil-in-water emulsions of organic liquids such as mineral oil, lanolin or kerosene. ACULYN 28 can also be used to suspend fillers and pigments, such as calcium carbonate, silicate clays and titanium dioxide, in water. If ACULYN 28 is being used in an emulsion formulation, the general order of addition is as follows: 1. Add ACULYN 28 to the water phase at temperature 2. Add the other water phase ingredients 3. Mix separately the oil phase ingredients at temperature 4. Mix the oil phase into the water phase maintaining temperature 5. Neutralize the ACULYN 28 polymer 6. Cool the mixture with constant stirring 7. Add the preservative (if any) at a safe temperature Environmental, Health and Safety Record Toxicology Acute Toxicity Profile Test/Species Results Oral LD50 rat >5 g/kg non-toxic Dermal LD50 rabbit >5 g/kg non-toxic Eye irritation rabbit Moderately irritating (US); Non irritating (EEC) Skin irritation rabbit Slightly irritating (US); Non irritating (EEC) US United States classification EEC European Economic Community classification Overall Evaluation ACULYN 28 is considered non-toxic by single oral and dermal exposure, produces minimal to no irritation to the eyes and skin, a non-sensitizer, non-mutagenic in the Ames assay and non-toxic to aquatic organisms, as well as non-irritating or sensitizing in Human Patch testing. This material is safe and appropriate for use in a broad range of rinse-off and leave-on personal care applications. ACULYN 28 is cleared under the major chemical inventories such as CTFA, MITI, EINECS, TSCA, AICS and Canada. Storage and Handling Storage Keep from freezing; material may coagulate. The minimum recommended storage temperature for these materials is 1 C/34 F. The maximum recommended storage temperature is 49 C/120 F. These materials may coagulate if exposed to temperature outside this range. The coagulation process is irreversible. Material Safety Data Sheets Rohm and Haas Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain pertinent information that you may need to protect your employees and customers against any known health or safety hazards associated with our products. Under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, workers must have access to and understand MSDS on all hazardous substances to which they are exposed. Thus, it is important that you provide appropriate training and information Sensitization Toxicity Profile Toxicity data for a compositionally similar product are shown below:Test/Species Results Sensitization, Guinea pig Non sensitizer Genetic Toxicity ProfileTest/Species Results Ames Test Non mutagenic with and without metabolic activation In vitro Chromosomal Aberration Test Non mutagenic with and without metabolic activation Human Toxicity ProfileTest/Species Results HRIPT Non sensitizing and Non irritating Phototoxicity Negative Photoallergy Negative Ecotoxicity Profile Toxicity data for a compositionally similar product are shown below:Test/Species Results Daphnia magna EC50 48 hr >1000 mg/L non toxic Rainbow Trout LC50 96 hr >1000 mg/L non toxic Bluegill Sunfish LC50 96 hr >1000 mg/L non toxic to your employees and make sure they have available to them MSDS on any hazardous products in the workplace. Upon initial shipment of non-OSHA-hazardous and OSHA-hazardous products (including samples), Rohm and Haas Company sends the appropriate MSDS to the recipient. If you do not have access to one of these MSDS, please contact your local Rohm and Haas representative for a copy. Updated MSDS are sent upon revision to all customers of record. MSDS are also sent annually to all customers receiving products deemed hazardous under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). MSDS should be obtained from suppliers of other materials recommended in this bulletin. Rohm and Haas Company is a member of the American Chemistry Council (ACC) and is committed to the ACC s Responsible Care Program. ACULYN is a trademark of Rohm and Haas Company, or of its subsidiaries or affiliates. The Company s policy is to register its trademarks, where products designated thereby are marketed by the company, its subsidiaries or affiliates. These suggestions and data are based on information we believe to be reliable. They are offered in good faith, but without guarantee, as conditions and methods of use of our products are beyond our control, Rohm and Haas Company makes no warranties either expressed or implied as to the accuracy or appropriateness of this data. Rohm and Haas Company expressly disclaims any implied warranty of fitness for a particular use. We recommend that the prospective users determine for themselves the suitability of Rohm and Haas materials and suggestions for any use prior to their adoption. Suggestions for uses of our products or the inclusion of descriptive material from patents and the citation of specific patents in this publication should not be understood as recommending the use of our products in violation of any patent or as permission or license to use any patent of the Rohm and Haas Company. Material Safety Data Sheets outlining known health and safety hazards and handling methods for our products are available on request. For further details, please contact your local Account Manager or local Business Representative. Rohm and Haas, 2006. All rights 2004

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